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The equivalent name for Polypodiophyta.
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This is a debatable plant. Must eat cooked or steamed, not raw, although some people do eat fiddleheads raw and end up getting throat and gastric cancers. Fiddleheads are the young furled (coiled up) heads of a young fern. Asians dip them into boiling water, then dry them and then grind them into powder, and whenever they cook food, they add that powder to their food. Apparently it helps emulsify and break down bad fats in the body. You can chop up the stem and steam it, tastes similar to green beans, can be eaten with a little bit of butter and salt. To cook fiddleheads, remove the yellow/brown skin, then boil the sprouts twice with a change of water between boilings to remove toxins. The roots of the common Male Fern (Dryopteris filix-mas), was used to kill tapeworms, but many consider it too toxic. When using ferns, consult with local expert to double check. Some are carcinogenic.



a large group of higher plants to which are sometimes assigned all higher seedless plants except mosses (Bryophyta). Unlike the bryophytes, the sporophyte—the asexual generation—is well developed and divided, except in Psilotophyta, into stems, leaves, and roots. Spores develop, from which emerges the gametophyte—the sexual generation. The gametophyte is poorly developed, almost undifferentiated, and bears sexual organs (in males, antheridia, and in females, archegonia). After fertilization, another asexual generation develops.

The Pteridophyta include ferns, horsetails, clubmosses, selaginellas, isoetes, psilotaceous plants, and many extinct groups of plants. They were formerly regarded as a single taxonomic group —a division (or subdivision)—and were divided into a number of classes. On the basis of an extensive study of the vegetative and reproductive organs of extinct and extant plants, the group Pteridophyta has been divided into several natural divisions, each of which has its own history. These include the Psilotophyta, Lycopodiophyta, Equisetineae, and Polypodiophyta.

References in periodicals archive ?
Identified taxa were classified into ecological groups that correspond to the prevailing vegetation types: Lower Mountain Rainforest (LMF), Upper Mountain Rainforest (UMF), Subparamo, Paramo and Pteridophyta.
A total of 185 species were found, belonging to the divisions: Pteridophyta, Pinophyta and Magnoliophyta and can be grouped into 58 families and 137 genera; Asteraceae and Poaceae families had most of the species among Magnoliophyta; within Petridophyta, Pteridaceae and Dryopteridaceae presented the highest percentages.
Se describen las esporas de 68 especies actuales de Pteridophyta, existentes en Colombia, pertenecientes a 12 generos que corresponden a las familias Lycopodiaceae, Schizaeaceae, Cyatheaceae, Pteridaceae y Parkeriaceae.
Pteridophyta of Peru, Part V, Aspleniaceae-Polypodiaceae.
It is exclusively composed of obligate parasites with a broad spectrum of hosts, such as Pteridophyta, Pinophyta and Magnoliophyta (Pardo-Cardona 2000).
El tratamiento taxonomico de Pteridophyta (Lycophyta y Monilophyta) sigue a MORAN & RIBA (1995) y parcialmente a SMITH et al.
Division Pteridophyta Alpleniaceae Asplenium costaneum Schltdl.