Public, Social, and Arts Organizations

Public, Social, and Arts Organizations

 

In a socialist society, public and social organizations are an integral part of the political system and one of the main channels through which citizens help govern the affairs of society.

The citizens of the USSR have the right to form public and social organizations that further the development of their political activity and their diverse interests. Public and social organizations have as their objectives the building of communism and the development of Soviet culture, science, technology, and sports. Their tasks include the ideological training of members of society, the improvement of citizens’ skills, the broadening and deepening of specialized knowledge, and the dissemination of information about achievements in various branches of the national economy, science, technology, literature, and art.

Public and social organizations are extremely diverse, comprising trade unions, cooperative associations, youth organizations, sports and defense organizations, and cultural, technical, and scientific societies (including arts organizations). The most politically active and aware citizens voluntarily join the CPSU, which forms the nucleus of all state, public, and social organizations, as well as the nucleus of Soviet society itself.

All Soviet public and social organizations govern themselves, but they do so in a way that is consistent with the principle of democratic centralism. Membership in the organizations is voluntary. Public and social organizations take part in the management of state and social affairs, and they help resolve political, economic, social, and cultural problems.

Union of Soviet Friendship Societies and Cultural Relations With Foreign Countries. The Union of Soviet Friendship Societies and Cultural Relations With Foreign Countries comprises Soviet organizations whose goal is the development and strengthening of friendship, mutual understanding, trust, and cultural cooperation between peoples of the USSR and foreign countries. Established in 1958, the union replaced the All-Union Society for Foreign Cultural Exchange, which was founded in 1925; the society had been formed to replace the Commission for Foreign Aid of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR and the United Bureau of Information of the Commission for Foreign Aid (founded 1923).

The supreme body of the union is the all-Union conference, first convened in 1958. Between conferences, the work of the union is directed by the council. The executive body is the presidium.

As of 1975, 63 societies for friendship with specific foreign countries belonged to the union, including 12 societies for friendship with socialist countries, 29 associations for friendship and cultural relations with developing countries, and 12 societies for friendship with capitalist countries (the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Western and Central European capitalist countries). In addition, the union includes three associations for friendship and cultural relations with Arab, African, and Latin American countries, 14 republic friendship societies, and six divisions in cities of the RSFSR—Leningrad, Volgograd, Irkutsk, Sochi, Tol’iatti, and Khabarovsk. It also includes the Association for Exchange Between Soviet and Foreign Cities, the Soviet Center of the European Society of Culture, and 11 associations and sections for scientists and cultural workers.

More than 50 million Soviet citizens take part in the union’s activities, and approximately 125,000 have been elected to the governing bodies of the participating organizations. The friendship societies have more than 1,000 local divisions, whose collective members—enterprises, kolkhozes, sovkhozes, educational institutions, and scientific and cultural establishments—number almost 26,000.

The union and its constituent friendship societies sponsor traditional friendship months and weeks in the USSR, and they dedicate days of culture and science to various aspects of the lives of other peoples, to the commemoration of anniversaries and significant dates, and to the expression of solidarity with peoples fighting for their rights. In 1975 the Ukrainian Society for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries maintained exchanges with foreign organizations in 102 countries; the Kazakh society sponsored exchanges with organizations in 93 countries, and the Georgian and Latvian societies, with organizations in 75 countries.

As of 1980, there were 120 foreign societies of friendship with the USSR. The Union of Soviet Friendship Societies and Cultural Relations With Foreign Countries maintains contacts with 7,500 foreign organizations and with public figures, scientists, and cultural workers in 134 countries. Between 1967 and 1974, foreign societies for friendship with the USSR located in 76 countries sponsored approximately 1,800 holidays of Soviet culture and months dedicated to friendship with the USSR; in addition, they held more than 200 festivals and 40,000 exhibitions. The union assisted with and took part in these events.

Approximately 150 million people in foreign countries took part in activities commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution, the 50th anniversary of the formation of the USSR, and the 100th anniversary of the birth of V. I. Lenin. Celebrations of the 30th anniversary of the victory over fascism were held in 75 countries.

In 1975, Soviet friendship societies were awarded orders in several socialist countries; the Society for Soviet-Bulgarian Friendship received the Order of Georgi Dimitrov, the Society for Friendship With the German Democratic Republic received the Order of the Great Star of Friendship of Peoples, the Society for Soviet-Rumanian Friendship received the Order of Tudor Vladimirescu First Class, and the Society for Soviet-Czechoslovak Friendship received the Order of Victorious February. The Order of Friendship of Peoples has been awarded in different years to the societies for Soviet friendship with Bulgaria, Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Vietnam, the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea, the Mongolian People’s Republic, Poland, Rumania, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Finland, and France. The union itself was awarded the order in 1974.

The union publishes the newspaper Moskovskie novosti (Moscow News; circulation 600,000) in English, French, Arabic, and Spanish and the monthly magazine Kul’tura i zhizn’ (Culture and Life; circulation 90,000) in Russian, English, French, German, and Spanish.

Soviet Peace Committee. The Soviet Peace Committee heads the peace movement in the USSR. It was established in August 1949 at the First All-Union Conference of the Partisans of Peace in Moscow. Its governing body is the presidium, and its chairman is the writer N. S. Tikhonov. It has 360 members.

The committee coordinates the work of peace committees in the Union republics, oblast administrative centers, and major cities of the USSR. It takes part in the activities of the World Peace Council and cooperates with foreign organizations of peace-loving forces in 118 countries. The committee includes several commissions. It helps organize peace days and friendship months as well as weeks of special observances in support of disarmament, European security, and solidarity with peoples fighting colonialism, racism, and imperialist aggression. It conducted campaigns to collect signatures for the Stockholm Appeal (1950), which called for a ban on atomic weapons, and for the New Stockholm Appeal (1975), which called for disarmament and an end to the arms race. Members of the committee helped conduct the World Congress of Peace-loving Forces (1973) and the World Forum of Peace-loving Forces (1977), both of which were held in Moscow.

The committee publishes the monthly bulletin Vek XX i mir (The 20th Century and Peace) in Russian, English, German, Spanish, and French.

In 1974, in commemoration of the 25th anniversary of the founding of the Soviet peace movement, the committee was awarded the Order of Friendship of Peoples.

Soviet Committee for European Security and Cooperation. The Soviet Committee for European Security and Cooperation coordinates efforts in the struggle for European security and peace, the relaxation of tensions, and the development of cooperation in all fields. Established on June 8, 1971, it numbers among its members more than 170 prominent state and public figures, scientific and cultural workers, industrial workers, kolkhoz workers, and members of trade union, young people’s, women’s, and other public and social organizations. Its governing body is the bureau.

The committee includes five commissions—on economic and scientific-technical cooperation, culture, information, security in Europe, and special problems of security in Europe. It maintains contacts with national organizations for European security and cooperation and takes part in the work of the International Committee for European Security and Cooperation and in international symposia and European conferences on strengthening peace and security.

The committee publishes Informatsionnyi biulleten’ (Informational Bulletin) in Russian, French, English, and German.

Soviet Committee of Solidarity With the Countries of Asia and Africa. The Soviet Committee of Solidarity With the Countries of Asia and Africa coordinates the movement in the USSR for solidarity with the peoples of Asia and Africa in their struggle for national independence and the abolition of colonial and racist regimes. Established in 1956, it was called the Soviet Committee for Solidarity With the Countries of Asia until 1958. The committee has 340 members, including prominent state and public figures, industrial and kolkhoz workers, scientists, cultural figures, and members of trade union, young people’s, women’s, and other public and social organizations. Its governing body is the presidium.

The committee directs the work of republic-level solidarity committees in Transcaucasia, Kazakhstan, and Middle Asia. It takes part in the work of international conferences, meetings, and seminars on problems of the national liberation movement, and it joins in the struggle for peace and security and against racism, colonialism, and racial discrimination.

In 1976 the committee was awarded the Order of Friendship of Peoples.

Association for Cooperation With the United Nations in the USSR. The Association for Cooperation With the United Nations in the USSR was established in 1956 in order to disseminate information on the principles and aims of the United Nations—the preservation and strengthening of peace and security and the development of international cooperation, mutual understanding, and solidarity and friendship among peoples. The member organizations of the association include the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Novosti Press Agency, the All-Union Znanie (Knowledge) Society, the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, and Moscow State University. Its governing body is the central administrative board. The association is a member of the World Federation of United Nations Associations.

Committee of Soviet Women. The Committee of Soviet Women was founded in 1956 to replace the Antifascist Committee of Soviet Women, which had been established in 1941. The goals of the committee are to develop and strengthen friendly relations and mutual understanding between the women of the USSR and foreign countries, to aid the international democratic women’s movement for peace and the security of peoples, and to help protect the rights of women and children.

The governing body of the committee is the plenum, which is convened annually; between plenums the presidium acts as the governing body. The chairman of the committee is Pilot-cosmonaut of the USSR V. V. Nikolaeva-Tereshkova. Since 1945 the committee has been a member of the Women’s International Democratic Federation.

The committee maintains friendly relations with more than 250 national and international organizations in 120 countries. Together with the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, it publishes the monthly magazine Sovetskaia zhenshchina (Soviet Woman), which is issued in 12 languages.

The committee was awarded the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1973 and the Eugénie Cotton Medal in 1970.

Committee of Youth Organizations of the USSR. The Committee of Youth Organizations of the USSR was established in 1956 to replace the Antifascist Committee of Soviet Youth, which had been founded in 1941. It unites youth organizations and organizations that work with young people, including public, social, professional, cultural, and sports organizations.

The committee coordinates the activities of committees of youth organizations in the Union republics, and it promotes the internationalist education of Soviet youth. It sponsors special events in the USSR (including weeks of friendship with the young people of different countries and weeks of solidarity with peoples of the world that are fighting for their liberation); in addition, it offers international summer student courses in the USSR and arranges for members of Soviet youth organizations to take part in similar events and programs in other countries.

Youth organizations in the USSR have permanent representatives in the Bureau of the World Federation of Democratic Youth and the Secretariat of the International Union of Students. The Committee of Youth Organizations maintains permanent relations with many international organizations and with national councils and associations in 130 countries.

Soviet Committee for War Veterans. The Soviet Committee for War Veterans unites citizens of the USSR who have helped defend the Soviet state through their service in the armed forces, partisan units, and various organizations, such as underground organizations. It contributes to the patriotic education of the masses and the strengthening of peace and of friendly relations with international and foreign national organizations that oppose a new war and fight for security, cooperation, and friendship among peoples.

Established in September 1956, the committee has its own charter and emblem. Its supreme body is the all-Union conference. A presidium and presidium bureau are elected to direct the work of the committee between plenary sessions (plenums); the chairman, deputy chairmen, and executive secretary are chosen by the plenum. The presidium establishes voluntary commissions dealing with such areas as propaganda, organizational questions, relations with schools, and international issues. Where necessary, sections of the committee are organized from the active membership in outlying areas; such sections exist in all the Union republics and hero-cities, as well as certain oblasts and krais.

The first three chairmen of the committee were marshals of the Soviet Union—A. M. Vasilevskii (elected September 1956), K. A. Meretskov (elected July 1958), and S. K. Timoshenko (elected April 1961). In August 1970, General of the Army P. I. Batov became the chairman, and in September 1956, A. P. Mares’ev was named the executive secretary.

In 1975 the committee was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War First Class. The committee is a member of the Fédération Internationale des Résistants and the international committees for former prisoners of Auschwitz and Mauthausen; it also maintains contacts with the World Federation of Former Front-line Soldiers.

All-Union scientific societies. All-Union scientific societies unite scientists, scholars and specialists in various fields, as well as persons interested in a specific branch of knowledge and persons who disseminate information about science and scholarship. The network of all-Union scientific societies includes societies or divisions in the Union republics and branches and divisions in autonomous republics, krais, oblasts, and cities. The administrative boards of most of the societies are located in Moscow. Many of the societies issue periodical publications. As of 1976, there were 17 all-Union scientific societies associated with the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. A brief description of them follows, with pertinent data for the year 1976.

The Astronomical and Geodetic Society was founded under a different name in 1890; it received its present name in 1932. The membership numbers more than 7,000 (about 3,500 in 1966). The society has 66 branches and divisions. From 1939 to 1941 and from 1947 to 1965 it published Biulleten’ vsesoiuznogo astro-nomo-geodezicheskogo obshchestva (Bulletin of the All-Union Astronomical and Geodetic Society), and since 1967 it has published Astronomicheskii vestnik (Astronomical Journal).

The Biochemical Society, established in 1958, has a membership of approximately 7,000 (more than 4,800 in 1966). It includes 15 republic-level societies and more than 50 city divisions. The society is a member organization of the International Union of Biochemistry and the Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

The Botanical Society was founded in 1915 under a different name; it received its present name in 1945. The society includes 49 divisions and has more than 5,000 members (more than 4,200 in 1966). Its central administrative board is located in Leningrad. The society publishes Botanicheskii zhurnal (Botanical Journal; since 1916; circulation, approximately 3,000).

The Society of Helminthologists, established in 1940, includes 15 divisions and has approximately 2,700 members (2,000 in 1966).

The N. I. Vavilov Society of Geneticists and Selectionists, established in 1965, includes 34 divisions and has approximately 6,000 members. It is a member organization of the International Genetics Federation.

The Geographical Society, which received its present name in 1938, was founded in 1845 as the Russian Geographic Society. Its membership numbers approximately 20,000 (12,000 in 1966). The society includes 14 republic-level geographic societies, as well as approximately 120 branches and divisions. The presidium of the academic council is located in Leningrad. The society publishes Izvestiia (Proceedings; since 1865; circulation, approximately 2,000).

The Hydrobiological Society, established in 1947, includes 47 branches and divisions and has approximately 3,000 members (1,300 in 1966). It is a member organization of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology.

The Microbiological Society, established in 1957, has 4,300 individual members (2,300 in 1966) and more than 40 collective members. The society includes more than 30 divisions.

The Mineralogical Society was founded in 1817 under a different name and received its present name in 1947. It includes 24 divisions and has more than 2,700 members (1,000 in 1966). Its central administrative board is located in Leningrad. The society publishes Zapiski (Notes; since 1866; circulation, 1,500).

The Paleontological Society, established in 1916, received its present name in 1973. It includes 21 divisions and has approximately 1,300 members. Its central administrative board is located in Leningrad. The society is a member organization of the International Paleontological Union.

The Society of Soil Scientists, established in 1939, has approximately 7,000 individual members (3,500 in 1966) and 126 collective members. It includes 76 branches and divisions. The society is a member organization of the International Society of Soil Science.

The Society of Protozoologists, established in 1968, has more than 800 members in its 18 divisions. Its central administrative board is located in Leningrad.

The Russian Palestine Society, founded in 1882, has been attached to the Academy of Sciences since 1918. It has more than 130 members.

The Theriologic Society, established in 1972, has 650 members in its four divisions.

The I. P. Pavlov Physiological Society was founded in 1917 and was given its present name in 1934. Its membership is approximately 5,000 (3,800 in 1966). The society includes 15 republic-level and two city-level societies, as well as 98 divisions. It is a member of such organizations as the International Union of Physiological Sciences. The society publishes Fiziologicheskii zhurnal SSSR im. I. M. Sechenova (I. M. Sechenov Physiological Journal of the USSR; since 1917; circulation, more than 2,600).

The Philosophical Society, established in 1972, has approximately 10,000 members in its 25 branches and divisions.

The Entomological Society, which received its present name in 1947, was founded in 1859. It includes 38 divisions and has approximately 3,000 members (more than 1,800 in 1966). Its central council is in Leningrad. The society publishes Entomologicheskoe obozrenie (Entomological Review; since 1901; circulation, more than 1,500).

As of 1976, four scientific associations had their central bodies in Moscow. A brief description of these organizations follows.

The Association of Soviet Economic Scientific Institutions, established in 1957, has 18 collective members. It is a member organization of the International Association of Economic Sciences.

The Soviet Association of International Law, established in 1957, has 360 members. It is a national member of the International Law Association.

The Soviet Association of Political Science, established in 1955, has approximately 400 members. It is a national member of the International Political Science Association.

The Soviet Sociological Association, established in 1958, has more than 1,500 individual members and approximately 400 collective members. It includes seven divisions. The society is a member organization of the International Sociological Association.

Attached to Moscow State University is the Moscow Society of Naturalists. Established in 1805, it has a membership of more than 2,200, with divisions in many cities. It publishes Biulleten’ Moskovskogo obshchestva ispytatelei prirody (Bulletin of the Moscow Society of Naturalists; new series since 1829) in two parts: biology (circulation, more than 1,600) and geology (circulation, more than 1,400).

All-Union scientific medical societies. The all-Union scientific medical societies unite approximately 350,000 scientists and medical workers. The societies conduct scientific work, disseminate scientific information, and help members improve their professional qualifications. In some of the societies, up to 80 percent of the members are specialists in a specific branch of medicine.

Many of the all-Union societies have their administrative boards in Moscow. Lower-level societies exist in Union and autonomous republics, krais, oblasts, and cities. Many of the all-Union societies collaborate with the Ministry of Public Health of the USSR and the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in publishing specialized medical journals. To coordinate the societies’ activities the Council of Scientific Medical Societies was organized in 1961 under the Ministry of Public Health. The majority of all-Union scientific medical societies are members of international scientific organizations.

As of 1976, the USSR had 37 all-Union scientific medical societies. A brief description of them follows, with pertinent data for 1976.

The Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, established in 1924, has approximately 20,000 members (11,400 in 1966). It helps publish the journal Akusherstvo i ginekologiia (Obstetrics and Gynecology, since 1922; circulation, approximately 65,000). The society includes 259 republic, krai, oblast, and city societies.

The Society of Anatomists, Histologists, and Embryologists, established in 1922, includes 91 societies. It helps publish the journal Arkhiv anatomii, gistologii i embriologii (Anatomy, Histology, and Embryology Archives; since 1916; circulation, approximately 3,000).

The Society of Anesthesiologists and Reanimatologists, established in 1966, includes 76 societies. It helps publish the journal Eksperimental’naia khirurgiia i anesteziologiia (Experimental Surgery and Anesthesiology; since 1956; circulation, approximately 6,000).

The Society of Medical Supervision and Kinesitherapy, established in 1961, includes 67 societies. It collaborates with the Society of Physical Therapists and Health-resort Scientists to publish the journal Voprosy kurortologii, fizioterapii i lechebnoi fizicheskoi kul’tury (Problems of Health-resort Science, Physical Therapy, and Kinesitherapy; since 1923; circulation, approximately 12,000).

The Society of Medical Laboratory Research Personnel, established in 1947, includes 133 societies. It helps publish the journal Laboratornoe delo (Laboratory Work; since 1955; circulation, more than 25,000).

The Society of Gastroenterologists, established in 1966, includes 21 societies.

The Society of Hematologists and Transfusionists, established in 1975, includes 67 societies. It helps publish the journal Problemy gematologii i perelivaniia krovi (Problems of Hematology and Blood Transfusion; since 1956; circulation, more than 7,000).

The Society of Gerontologists and Geriatrists, established in 1963, includes 19 societies. Its administrative board is located in Kiev.

The Society of Hygienists, established in 1938, includes 167 societies and has approximately 16,000 members (6,600 in 1966). It helps publish the journals Gigiena i sanitariia (Hygiene and Sanitation; since 1922; circulation, approximately 15,000) and Voprosy pitaniia (Problems of Nutrition; since 1932; circulation, more than 11,000).

The Society of Dermatologists and Venereologists, established in 1923, includes 117 societies. It helps publish Vestnik dermatologii i venerologii (Journal of Dermatology and Venereology; since 1924; circulation, more than 12,000).

The Society of Pediatricians was established in 1912 under a different name; it received its present name in 1932. It includes 215 societies and has approximately 30,000 members (more than 19,000 in 1966). It helps publish the journal Pediatriia (Pediatrics; since 1922; circulation, more than 55,000).

The Society of Specialists in Infectious Diseases, established in 1972, includes 81 societies.

The Society of Medical Historians, established in 1946, includes 25 societies.

The Society of Cardiologists, established in 1963, includes 143 societies. It helps publish the journal Kardiologiia (Cardiology; since 1961; circulation, approximately 12,000).

The Society of Medical Technologists, established in 1968, includes 29 societies and has more than 12,000 individual members and more than 150 collective members. It helps publish the journal Meditsinskaia tekhnika (Medical Technology; since 1967; circulation, more than 5,000).

The I. I. Mechnikov Society of Microbiologists and Epidemiologists received its present name in 1947, but it was founded in 1867. It includes 168 societies and has approximately 20,000 members (11,000 in 1966). It helps publish the journals Antibiotiki (Antibiotics; since 1956; circulation, more than 4,000) and Meditsinskaia parazitologiia i parazitarnye bolezni (Medical Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases; since 1923; circulation, more than 4,000).

The Society of Neuropathologists and Psychiatrists, established in 1927, includes 161 societies and has approximately 29,000 members (14,800 in 1966). It helps publish the journal Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova (S. S. Korsakov Journal of Neuropathology and Psychiatry; since 1901; circulation, approximately 20,000).

The Society of Neurosurgeons, established in 1948, includes 14 societies. It helps publish the journal Voprosy neirokhirurgii (Problems of Neurosurgery; since 1937; circulation, more than 3,000).

The Society of Nephrologists, established in 1969, includes three societies.

The Society of Oncologists, established in 1955, includes 62 societies. It helps publish the journal Voprosy onkologii (Problems of Oncology; since 1955; circulation, approximately 6,000).

The Society of Otorhinolaryngologists, established in 1940, includes 147 societies. It helps publish Vestnik otorinolaringologii (Journal of Otorhinolaryngology; since 1936; circulation, more than 14,000).

The Society of Ophthalmologists, established in 1937, includes 185 societies. It helps publish Vestnik oftal’mologii (Journal of Ophthalmology; since 1884; circulation, approximately 14,000).

The Society of Pathologicoanatomists, established in 1951, includes 95 societies. It helps publish the journal Arkhiv patologii (Archives of Pathology; since 1935; circulation, more than 4,000).

The Society of Pathophysiologists, established in 1950, includes 84 societies. It helps publish the journal Patologicheskaia fiziologiia i eksperimental’naia terapiia (Pathological Physiology and Experimental Therapy; since 1957; circulation, approximately 2,500).

The Society of Rheumatologists, established in 1966, includes 12 societies. It helps publish the journal Voprosy revmatizma (Problems of Rheumatism; since 1961; circulation, approximately 12,000).

The Society of Roentgenologists and Radiologists, established in 1919, includes 85 societies. It helps publish the journals Vestnik rentgenologii i radiologii (Journal of Roentgenology and Radiology; since 1920; circulation, 17,000) and Meditsinskaia radiologiia (Medical Radiology; since 1956; circulation, approximately 4,000).

The Society of Stomatologists, established in 1958, includes 191 societies and has 26,000 members (14,000 in 1966). The society helps publish the journal Stomatologiia (Stomatology; since 1922; circulation, more than 50,000).

The Society of Forensic Physicians, established in 1946, includes 96 societies. It helps publish the journal Sudebno-meditsinskaia ekspertiza (Forensic Medical Examination; since 1958; circulation, approximately 12,000).

The Society of Internists, which received its present name in 1931, was founded in 1909. It includes 244 societies and has more than 30,000 members (26,000 in 1966). It helps publish the journal Terapevticheskii arkhiv (Archives of Internal Medicine; since 1923; circulation, more than 20,000).

The Society of Traumatologists and Orthopedists, established in 1947, includes 84 societies. It helps publish the journal Ortopediia, travmatologiia i protezirovanie (Orthopedics, Traumatology, and Prosthetics; since 1927; circulation, approximately 10,000).

The Society of Urologists, established in 1937, includes 60 societies. It collaborates with the Society of Nephrologists to publish the journal Urologiia i nefrologiia (Urology and Nephrology; since 1923; circulation, more than 8,000).

The Society of Pharmacologists, established in 1960, includes 31 societies. It helps publish the journals Farmakologiia i toksikologiia (Pharmacology and Toxicology; since 1938; circulation, approximately 4,000) and Farmatsiia (Pharmacy; since 1952; circulation, more than 25,000).

The Society of Pharmacists, established in 1948, includes 180 societies and has approximately 35,000 members (approximately 19,000 in 1966).

The Society of Physical Therapists and Health-resort Scientists, established in 1951, includes 43 societies. It collaborates with the Society of Medical Supervision and Kinesitherapy to publish the journal Voprosy kurortologii, fizioterapii i lechebnoi fizicheskoi kul’tury (Problems of Health-resort Science, Physical Therapy, and Kinesitherapy; since 1923; circulation, approximately 12,000).

The Society of Phthisiologists, established in 1947, includes 143 societies and has more than 16,000 members (10,000 in 1966). It helps publish the journal Problemy tuberkuleza (Problems of Tuberculosis; since 1923; circulation, more than 20,000).

The Society of Surgeons, established in 1938, includes 165 societies and has approximately 16,000 members (12,500 in 1966). It helps publish the journals Khirurgiia: Zhurnal im. N. I. Pirogova (Surgery: The N. I. Pirogov Journal; since 1925; circulation, 23,000) and Vestnik khirurgii im. I. I. Grekova (I. I. Grekov Journal of Surgery; since 1885; circulation, more than 17,000).

The Society of Endocrinologists, established in 1962, includes 28 societies. It helps publish the journal Problemy endokrinologii (Problems of Endocrinology; since 1955; circulation, approximately 6,000).

Scientific and technical societies of the USSR. Scientific and technical societies have been organized in the USSR for workers in various branches of production. Operating under the direction of trade unions, they help develop new technology and other means of increasing production, mechanizing and automating production processes, and raising the quality of output; they strive to solve environmental problems, and they conduct considerable educational work. Their origins can be traced back to such societies as the Russian Technical Society, which was established in 1866. During the years of Soviet power scientific and technical societies have become mass organizations.

As of 1976, the total membership of scientific and technical societies exceeded 7.8 million people, including engineers, technicians, scientific workers, inventors, and agricultural specialists. Most of the societies have their central administrative boards in Moscow. The societies embrace republic, krai, and oblast organizations, councils whose purview unites different branches of the economy, and specialized sections. The societies’ collective members total 113,900 enterprises and institutions. The nucleus of the network of societies is formed by the more than 112,000 primary organizations, approximately 52,000 of which fulfill the functions of plant production and technical councils. .

The scientific and technical societies direct the activities of more than 450,000 organizations, including public scientific research institutes and laboratories, public economic analysis bureaus and groups, and technical information bureaus; approximately 2.8 million workers and specialists take part in the work of these organizations. The societies collaborate with ministries and other organizations in publishing specialized scientific, engineering, and trade journals.

The scientific and technical societies of the USSR were awarded the Order of Lenin in 1973. They are united by the All-Union Council of Scientific and Technical Societies, which was established in 1959; the council, whose members are elected at all-Union congresses of scientific and technical societies, is a member of the World Federation of Engineering Organizations. It publishes the journal Tekhnika i nauka (Technology and Science; circulation in 1976, more than 190,000), which was founded in 1959 and received its present name in 1972.

As of 1976, there were 23 scientific and technical societies in the USSR. A brief description of them follows, with pertinent data for 1976.

The Society of Motor Vehicle Transport and Roads, which received its present name in 1969, was established in 1931. It has 411,400 members and includes 7,940 primary organizations.

The Society of the Paper and Wood-products Industries was established in 1932 and received its current name in 1938. It includes 952 primary organizations and has 92,900 members (47,900 in 1966). It helps publish the journals Bumazhnaia promyshlennost’ (Paper Industry; since 1922; circulation, more than 7,000) and Derevoobrabatyvaiushchaia promyshlennost’ (Wood-products Industry; since 1952; circulation, approximately 16,000).

The Society of Water Transport was founded as a department of the Russian Technical Society in 1905; it received its present name in 1932. The society includes 1,617 primary organizations and has 103,500 members (49,500 in 1966).

The Mining Society was established in 1887, and it received its present name in 1936. It includes 2,630 primary organizations and has 344,000 members (187,000 in 1966). The society helps publish the journals Ugol’ (Coal; since 1925; circulation, approximately 18,000) and Shakhtnoe stroitel’stvo (Underground Mine Construction; since 1957; circulation, more than 5,000).

The Society of Railroad Transport was founded in 1881 as a department of the Russian Technical Society; it received its present name in 1933. The society includes 5,890 primary organizations and has 379,600 members (160,000 in 1966).

The Society of Municipal and Consumer Services was established in 1893; it was reorganized in 1955 and received its present name in 1969. The society includes 11,061 primary organizations and has 484,100 members. It is a corresponding member of the International Union of Public Transport.

The Society of Light Industry was founded under a different name in 1889; in 1938 it was renamed the All-Union Scientific and Technical Society of the Textile Industry, and in 1955 it received its present name. The society includes 2,834 primary organizations and has 322,000 members (163,000 in 1966). It helps publish the journals Tekstil’naia promyshlennost’ (Textile Industry; since 1941; circulation, more than 11,000) and Shveinaia promyshlennost’ (Clothing Industry; since 1959; circulation, approximately 25,000).

The Society of Forestry and the Lumber Industry was founded in 1871 and received its present name in 1937. It includes 4,182 primary organizations and has 258,500 members (129,800 in 1966). The society helps publish the journals Lesnaia promyshlennost’ (Timber Industry; since 1921; circulation approximately 19,000) and Lesnoe khoziaistvo (Forestry; since 1928; circulation more than 30,000).

The Society of the Machine-building Industry, established in 1932, includes 2,977 primary organizations and has 838,700 members (366,500 in 1966). The society is a member organization of the International Institute of Welding and the International Society of Heat Treatment of Materials. It helps publish the journals Vestnik mashinostroeniia (Journal of Machine Building; since 1921; circulation, more than 11,000) and Stanki i instrument (Machine Tools and Tooling; since 1930; circulation, more than 26,000).

The Society of the Milling and Hulling, Mixed-feed, and Grain Elevator Industries was established in 1928 and received its present name in 1973. It includes 2,400 primary organizations and has 71,000 members (55,600 in 1966).

The I. M. Gubkin Society of the Oil and Gas Industry was established in 1933, and it received its present name in 1958. The society includes 2,070 primary organizations and has 207,500 members (91,500 in 1966). It is a member organization of the International Gas Union. The society helps publish the journals Gazovaia promyshlennost’ (Gas Industry; since 1956; circulation, approximately 9,000) and Neftianoe khoziaistvo (Petroleum Industry; since 1920; circulation, more than 7,000).

The Society of the Food Industry, which was established in 1871, received its present name in 1931. It includes 8,370 primary organizations and has 397,600 members (216,300 in 1966). The society helps publish the journals Maslo-zhirovaia promyshlennost’ (Vegetable-oil and Fat Industry; since 1925; circulation, more than 3,000), Molochnaia promyshlennost’ (Dairy Industry; since 1934; circulation, more than 14,000), and Miasnaia industriia SSSR (Meat Industry of the USSR; since 1923; circulation, more than 13,000).

The Society of Printing and Publishing Houses was established in 1934 and received its present name in 1955. It includes 2,206 primary organizations and has 62,300 members (42,300 in 1966).

The S. I. Vavilov Society of the Instrument-making Industry, established in 1947, includes 718 primary organizations and has 135,000 members (51,900 in 1966). It is a member organization of the International Measurement Confederation. The society helps publish the journal Pribory i sistemy upravleniia (Control Instruments and Systems; since 1956; circulation, more than 10,000).

The A. S. Popov Society for Radio Engineering, Electronics, and Communications was established in 1918; from 1935 to 1945 it was part of another society, but in 1946 it was reestablished as an independent society. It includes 4,155 primary organizations and has 420,000 members (111,300 in 1966). The society helps publish the journals Radiotekhnika (Radio Engineering; since 1946; circulation, approximately 20,000) and Elektrosviaz’ (Electrical Communication; since 1933; circulation, more than 8,000).

The Society of Agriculture, established in 1938, includes 27,245 primary organizations and has 802,100 members (254,800 in 1966).

The Society of the Construction Industry, established in 1932, includes 9,919 primary organizations and has 765,700 members (260,600 in 1966). It helps publish the journals Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo (Housing Construction; since 1958; circulation, more than 20,000), Montazhnye i spetsial’nye raboty v stroitel’stve (Installation and Special Operations in Construction; since 1938; circulation, approximately 18,000), and Promyshlennoe stroitel’stvo (Industrial Construction; since 1923; circulation, approximately 20,000).

The A. N. Krylov Society of the Shipbuilding Industry was established in 1930 and received its present name in 1932. It includes 319 primary organizations and has 97,000 members (38,700 in 1966). Its central governing body is in Leningrad. The society helps publish the journal Sudostroenie (Shipbuilding; since 1898; circulation, more than 11,000).

The Society of Trade, established in 1970, includes 7,708 primary organizations and has 606,800 members.

The D. I. Mendeleev Chemical Society was founded under a different name in 1868; it received its present name in 1932. It includes 2,430 primary organizations and has 323,400 members (141,100 in 1966). The society publishes the journal Zhurnal Vsesoiuznogo khimicheskogo obshchestva im. D. I. Mendeleeva (Journal of the D. I. Mendeleev All-Union Chemical Society; since 1956; circulation, more than 5,000), and it helps publish the journal Kauchuk i rezina (Raw and Cured Rubber; since 1927; circulation, more than 6,000).

The Society of Nonferrous Metallurgy was established under a different name in 1910; it received its present name in 1955. The society includes 530 primary organizations and has 115,800 members.

The Society of Ferrous Metallurgy was established in 1910, and it received its present name in 1931. It includes 609 primary organizations and has 232,200 members (122,800 in 1966). The society helps publish the journals Koks i khimiia (Coking Coal and Chemistry; since 1931; circulation, approximately 7,000), Ogneupory (Refractories; since 1933; circulation, more than 6,000), and Zavodskaia laboratoriia (Industrial Laboratory; since 1932; circulation, more than 11,000). Together with the All-Union Scientific and Technical Society of Nonferrous Metallurgy, it helps publish Gornyi zhurnal (Mining Journal; since 1825; circulation, more than 17,000).

The Society of the Power Engineering and Electrical Engineering Industry, established in 1932, includes 3,273 primary organizations and has 294,300 members (150,900 in 1966). Its central governing body is in Leningrad. The society helps publish the journals Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo (Hydrotechnical-Engineering Construction; since 1930; circulation, more than 8,000), Promyshlennaia energetika (Industrial Power Engineering; since 1944; circulation, more than 27,000), and Elektrichestvo (Electricity; since 1880; circulation, more than 9,000).

All-Union Society of Inventors and Innovators. The All-Union Society of Inventors and Innovators was established in 1958. It operates under the direction of the trade unions. The society seeks to inspire working people to make inventions and to devise more efficient methods of production. It provides supervision of the review, development, and industrial application of inventions and proposals for improving methods of production. Moreover, it renders legal and technical assistance to inventors and innovators, and it helps them expand their technical knowledge.

As of 1976, the society had more than 8 million members (4.2 million in 1966), and it included more than 78,000 primary organizations; it had more than 47,000 consultation centers, more than 20,000 public design offices, and more than 7,900 public patent offices. The society’s central council is located in Moscow; there are also councils in republics, krais, and oblasts. Associated with the councils are more than 600 sections dealing with different branches of the national economy. The society publishes the journal Izobretatel’ i ratsionalizator (Inventor and Innovator; since 1929; circulation, more than 460,000).

The society was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1973.

All-Union Znanie Society. The All-Union Znanie (Knowledge) Society was formed in order to disseminate political and scientific knowledge and to promote the communist education of the working people. It was founded in 1947 on the initiative of Soviet scientists, scholars, public figures, writers, and artists. The society’s supreme body is the all-Union congress; between congresses the administrative board directs the society’s activities. The first chairman of the administrative board was the academician S. I. Vavilov; between 1966 and 1977, Academician I. I. Artobolevskii headed the board, and in 1978, Academician N. G. Basov assumed the position.

The society has organizations in all the Union and autonomous republics, krais, oblats, okrugs, cities, and raions; 142,000 primary Znanie organizations have been established within public and state organizations, scientific and educational institutions, factories, plants, kolkhozes, and sovkhozes. As of 1977, there were more than 3 million members, including 1,800 academicians and corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the academies of sciences of the Union republics, and the academies devoted to particular fields, 131,000 professors, docents, and doctors and candidates of sciences, 230,000 scientific workers and instructors at higher educational institutions, and more than 700,000 economic specialists. Collective members of the society include scientific and technical societies, medical societies, and arts organizations.

The Znanie Society organizes public lectures, ustnye zhurnaly, or “talking magazines” (series of stage, radio, or television appearances by specialists), and reports of the creative activity of scholars in production groups; it also disseminates knowledge through television and radio programs and helps produce and distribute scientific and popular science films. In 1975, members of the society delivered more than 22 million lectures, which were attended by more than 1 billion people. More than 370,000 scientists, scholars, cultural workers, and economic specialists teach at people’s universities, which number more than 35,000 and have a total enrollment of more than 9 million.

In Moscow the society is in charge of the Polytechnical Museum (which had more than 40,000 exhibits as of 1974), the Central Polytechnical Library (with more than 3 million scientific and technical volumes), the Central Lecture Agency (which has large and small halls), the Moscow Planetarium, the Experimental Factory of Visual Aids and Demonstration Devices, and a printing office. Its organizations in other cities run lecture halls, planetariums, centers for the dissemination of scientific and technical information, and houses of scientific atheism.

Associated with the society is the Znanie Publishing House, which issues popular science books, methodological literature, visual aids for lecturers, and subscription series of booklets dealing with various fields of knowledge. In Moscow the society publishes the journals Mezhdunarodnaia zhizn’ (International Affairs; in Russian, English, and French), Nauka i zhizn’ (Science and Life), Znanie-sila (Knowledge Is Power), and Nauka i religiia (Science and Religion), as well as the monthly Slovo lektora (Address of the Lecturer) and the annuals Nauka i chelovechestvo (Science and Mankind; published jointly with the Academy of Sciences of the USSR), Budushchee nauki (Future of Science), and Nauka segodnia (Science Today). The Znanie societies in the Union republics also publish journals, including the monthly Znanie-narodu (Knowledge to the People) in the RSFSR; Nauka i obshchestvo (Science and Society), Chelovek i mir (Man and the World), the monthly Tribuna lektora (Lecturer’s Rostrum), and the yearly Nauka i kul’tura (Science and Culture) in the Ukraine; Nauka i zhizn’ (Science and Life) in Lithuania; Gorizont (Horizon) in Estonia; and Nauka i zhizn’ (Science and Life) in Azerbaijan.

The Znanie Society maintains contacts with similar societies in other socialist countries and with workers’ educational unions and associations for promoting the development of science in a number of capitalist countries.

In 1969 the Academician S. I. Vavilov Medal was instituted; it is awarded annually to the 20 to 25 best lecturers (including progressive foreign scholars) by a decision of the society’s administrative board. The lapel pin For Active Work is also awarded by the society.

The Znanie Society was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1972.

Union of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies of the USSR. In close collaboration with the Soviet public health agencies, the Union of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies of the USSR carries out measures designed to promote health and sanitation and to prevent disease. The union was sanctioned on Nov. 1, 1925, by a decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR providing for a merger of the societies that then existed in the Union republics. The union includes 11 republic-level Red Cross societies in the USSR and four Red Crescent societies, which are located in the Azerbaijan, Uzbek, Turkmen, and Tadzhik SSR’s. The union’s supreme body is the all-Union congress; the first congress was held on Oct. 10–13, 1932. Between congresses the executive committee and its presidium function as the union’s supreme body.

The primary organizations of the union include among their members millions of volunteer nurses, health-station personnel, and volunteer public health inspectors; these workers help improve rural and urban public health facilities, implement measures for the prevention of infectious diseases, provide home services for disabled veterans and workers, and promote the donation of blood. The union publishes informational literature and produces films.

The union is involved in many international projects, such as helping the peoples of various countries combat epidemics and deal with the damage caused by natural disasters. There are Soviet Red Cross hospitals in several Asian and African countries, and Soviet specialists help provide medical training to citizens of various countries. The union belongs to the Executive Committee of the League of Red Cross Societies, and it takes part in the work of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).

In 1967 the union was awarded the Order of Lenin. The union publishes the journal Sovetskii Krasnyi Krest (The Soviet Red Cross; since 1923).

All-Union Voluntary Society for Cooperation With the Army, Air Force, and Navy. The All-Union Voluntary Society for Cooperation With the Army, Air Force, and Navy (DOSAAF USSR) was formed in 1951 through the merger of the Voluntary Society for Cooperation With the Army (DOSARM), the Voluntary Society for Cooperation With the Air Force (DOSAV), and the Voluntary Society for Cooperation With the Navy (DOSFLOT). These organizations were established in 1948 to replace the Society for Assistance to Defense, Aviation, and Chemical Construction (Osoaviakhim), which had been founded in 1927.

DOSAAF has its own charter, flag, and emblem. It operates under the guidance of party bodies in close contact with soviet, trade union, Komsomol, sports, and other public and social organizations. Its supreme body is the congress; between congresses, the central committee governs. There are also central committees in the Union republics, as well as committees in krais, oblasts, raions, and cities. As of 1977, DOSAAF united 80 million people in 330,000 primary organizations—at, for example, factories, plants, sovkhozes, kolkhozes, educational and other types of institutions, and housing administrations. Any citizen of the USSR who has reached the age of 14 can become a member.

The primary aims of DOSAAF are to ensure the participation of members of society in mass defense work, to educate the people in the spirit of Soviet patriotism and constant readiness to defend the homeland, to spread knowledge of the military achievements and heroic traditions of the Soviet people and their armed forces, to train youths for military service in accordance with the Law of the USSR on Universal Military Obligation, to help implement civil defense measures, to help train technical specialists whose skills have military applications, and to guide the development of technical military sports, including aviation sports (with airplanes, helicopters, and gliders), parachuting, shooting, aircraft modeling, automotive sports, motorcycle sports, underwater sports, motorboating, and radiosport.

DOSAAF has a publishing house, which produces educational and military-patriotic literature, posters, and visual aids. Together with a number of ministries and agencies, it publishes the newspaper Sovetskii patriot (Soviet Patriot) and the journals Voennye znaniia (Military Sciences), Kryl’ia Rodiny (Wings of the Motherland), Za rulem (At the Wheel), and Radio (Radio). It also helps produce films on military and patriotic themes and conducts the DOSAAF lottery, proceeds from which are used to construct sports facilities and develop mass defense work.

The former chairmen of the Central Committee of DOSAAF USSR are Colonel General V. I. Kuznetsov (elected 1951), Lieutenant General N. F. Gritchin (elected July 1953), Colonel General P. A. Belov (elected June 1955), General of the Army D. D. Leliushenko (elected May 1960), and General of the Army A. L. Getman (elected June 1964). Marshal of Aviation A. I. Pokryshkin became the chairman in January 1972.

DOSAAF was awarded the Order of the Red Banner in 1947 and the Order of Lenin in 1977.

Societies for the conservation of nature. Societies for the conservation of nature cooperate with state, public, and social organizations in the implementation of measures to protect the environment from pollution and to promote the rational use and renewal of natural resources; the societies also conduct educational work. Societies for the conservation of nature have been established in all of the Union republics, and as of 1976, they united more than 50 million people. The network of conservation societies includes organizations and divisions in autonomous republics, oblasts, krais, and raions. Primary organizations have been established at, for example, enterprises, state and cooperative establishments, and educational institutions.

As of 1976, there were 15 republic societies for the conservation of nature. A brief description of them follows.

The All-Russian Society, established in 1924, has 27 million individual members and 67,000 collective members. The society was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor in 1974. It is a member organization of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

The Ukrainian Society, established in 1946, has 10.1 million members; it includes more than 500 organizations.

The Byelorussian Society, established in 1962, has 2,816,000 individual members and 8,818 collective members; it includes more than 150 organizations.

The Uzbek Society, established in 1961, has 3,820,000 members and includes 184 divisions.

The Kazakh Society, established in 1963, has 2.1 million individual members and more than 10,000 collective members. It includes more than 300 divisions.

The Georgian Society, established in 1948, has 1,352,000 members and includes 90 divisions.

The Azerbaijan Society, established in 1963, has more than 860,000 members and includes 67 divisions.

The Lithuanian Society, formally known as the Lithuanian Society for the Study of Local Lore and the Preservation of Historical Monuments, was established in 1965. It has 35,000 members and includes 49 divisions.

The Moldavian Society, established in 1965, has 932,000 members and includes 38 divisions.

The Latvian Society, formally known as the Latvian Society for the Conservation of Nature and the Preservation of Historical Monuments of the Latvian SSR, was founded under a different name in 1959; it received its present name in 1965. The society has 78,000 members and includes 39 divisions.

The Kirghiz Society, established in 1965, has 581,000 members and includes 50 divisions.

The Tadzhik Society, which is formally known as the Tadzhik Society for the Conservation of Nature and the Planting of Parks and Gardens, was established in 1959. It has 971,000 members and includes 53 divisions.

The Armenian Society, established in 1959, has 750,000 members and includes 47 divisions.

The Turkmen Society, established in 1968, has 170,000 members and includes 56 divisions.

The Estonian Society, established in 1966, has 12,000 members and includes 37 divisions.

Societies for the preservation of historical and cultural monuments. Soviet societies for the preservation of historical and cultural monuments work in cooperation with state agencies for the preservation of monuments. Such societies have been established in the Georgian SSR (1959), the Azerbaijan SSR (1962), the Armenian SSR (1964), the Turkmen SSR (1965), the Moldavian SSR (1965), the RSFSR (1966), the Ukrainian SSR (1966), and the Byelorussian SSR (1966). In the Lithuanian SSR, the society for the preservation of monuments is combined with the society for the study of local lore, and in the Latvian SSR the society is combined with the society for the conservation of nature. The joint societies in both Latvia and Lithuania were founded in 1965, but until 1970 the Latvian society was known as the Voluntary Society for the Preservation of Historical Monuments and the Conservation of Nature. In the Estonian SSR, numerous associations for the study of local lore fulfill the functions of a society for the study of local lore and the preservation of historical monuments.

As of 1971, the societies for the preservation of historical and cultural monuments had more than 16 million individual members, and they maintained divisions in autonomous republics, krais, oblasts, raions, and cities. The societies survey all the monuments in a given area and provide for the monuments’ repair; they also direct public inspections, organize walking tours to sites of revolutionary, military, and labor heroism, arrange for enterprises and institutions to become “patrons” (shefy) of individual monuments, and sponsor lectures, as well as concerts by amateur folk arts groups. The societies help finance repair work that must be performed on monuments.

The preservation societies publish the periodical collections Druz’ia pamiatnikov kul’tury (Friends of Cultural Monuments; since 1964) in Tbilisi, Kraevedenie (Local Lore; since 1963) in Vilnius, Pamiatniki Kirgizstana (Monuments of Kirghizia; since 1970) in Frunze, and Pamiatniki Otechestva (Monuments of the Fatherland; since 1972) in the RSFSR, in Moscow. They also publish the journal Pamiatniki Turkmenistan (Monuments of Turkmenistan; since 1966) in Ashkhabad and such bulletins as Pamiatniki Ukrainy (Monuments of the Ukraine; since 1969) in Kiev and Pamiatniki istorii i kul’tury Belorussii (Historical and Cultural Monuments of Byelorussia; since 1970) in Minsk.

All-Union Voluntary Society of Bibliophiles. The All-Union Voluntary Society of Bibliophiles was formed in order to popularize reading among workers as a means of communist education, to spread political, scientific, and technical knowledge through books, to raise the level of reading among the population, to exercise a direct influence on the formation of readers’ tastes, to promote the improvement of publishing, and to encourage more effective use of the riches available in books.

The society was established in 1974. It unites 15 republic societies and includes divisions in all autonomous republics, krais, oblasts, and national okrugs and in more than 4,000 cities and raions. Primary organizations have been established at 60,000 enterprises, construction sites, kolkhozes, and educational and other institutions. As of Mar. 1, 1976, the society had 2.7 million individual members and 27,000 collective members. Its supreme body is the congress; between congresses, the central administrative board governs the society.

Together with state, public, social, and arts organizations, the Society of Bibliophiles organizes bibliophiles’ clubs and sponsors festivals, contests, book exhibitions, literary readings, conferences, lectures on bibliophilic themes, and months and ten-day periods dedicated to the dissemination of literature. In its work, the society relies on the public councils and sections that operate under its boards; the councils are organized according to various genres of literature, and the sections deal with such topics of interest to bibliophiles as rare books, bookplates, and miniature books.

The Society of Bibliophiles issues reference materials, methodological literature, and other publications for bibliophiles’ organizations. Together with the State Committee on Publishing, Printing, and the Book Trade, the society publishes the weekly newspaper Knizhnoe obozrenie (Book Review).

Architects’ Union of the USSR. The Architects’ Union of the USSR, which was known as the Soviet Architects’ Union between 1932 and 1955, unites Soviet architects. The society seeks to raise the standards of architecture, to develop the professional skills and creativity of architects, to provide direct assistance to state, public, and social organizations in design and construction, to help solve theoretical problems of Soviet architecture, and to support initiative and innovation in the struggle for communist ideological content in multinational Soviet architectural art.

The Architects’ Union was established by the decree of the Central Committee of the ACP(B) On the Restructuring of Literary and Artistic Organizations, which was issued on Apr. 23, 1932. The union’s charter was adopted in 1937 and was amended and supplemented in 1970 and 1975. The union’s first congress was held in 1937. The all-Union congress is the governing body, and between congresses the administrative board and secretariat function as the executive bodies. As of 1976, the union had 13,418 members.

The union includes the architects’ unions of the Union republics, as well as local organizations in autonomous republics, krais, oblasts, and cities. It publishes the journal Arkhitektura SSSR (Architecture of the USSR; since 1933; circulation, more than 22,000), in conjunction with the State Committee for Civil Construction and Architecture under Gosstroi (State Committee for Construction) of the USSR. The union’s administrative board runs the Architectural Fund.

A charter member of the International Union of Architects, the union was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1970.

Journalists’ Union of the USSR. The Journalists’ Union of the USSR unites professional employees of the periodical press, television, radio, news agencies, and publishing houses. The goals of the union are to promote the active participation of Soviet journalists in the building of communism, to improve their professional skills, to help raise the ideological and theoretical level of their work, and to assist in strengthening friendship among the peoples of the USSR, fraternal relations between the USSR and other socialist countries, and friendship with peoples of all countries.

The Journalists’ Union was established in 1959. In the same year it held its first all-Union congress, which was attended by 23,000 members of the union. The all-Union congress is the supreme governing body, and between congresses the administrative board and secretariat direct the union’s activities. As of 1976, the union had more than 63,000 members.

The Journalists’ Union is organized in accordance with the territorial-production principle—that is, there are republic-level unions in the Union and autonomous republics, oblast and krai organizations in oblasts and krais, and primary organizations at newspaper and magazine editorial offices, information agencies, publishing houses, and so on. Ideological education and professional work are performed with the aid of special commissions and sections under the central administrative board and the administrative boards of the local unions and organizations. The Journalists’ Union and its local bodies hold annual competitions. Great emphasis is placed on training journalists and improving their professional skills.

The union publishes the weekly newspaper Za rubezhom (Abroad), which surveys the foreign press, and the magazines Zhurnalist (Journalist), Sovetskoe foto (Soviet Photo), Demokraticheskii zhurnalist (The Democratic Journalist), which is a Russian-language publication of the International Organization of Journalists, and Informatsionnyi vestnik (Informational Bulletin).

The union is a member of the International Organization of Journalists.

Cinematographers’ Union of the USSR. The Cinematographers’ Union of the USSR unites professional employees of the film-making industry who actively help develop Soviet cinematography. The union’s goals are to assist in the creation of films that affirm the principles of communist ideology and in the elaboration of the Marxist-Leninist theory of cinematographic art, to further the development of multinational cinematography, to aid the ideological and aesthetic education of young people, and to improve the organization of film production and distribution.

In 1957 the organizational committee of the Union of Cinematographic Workers was established. At the founding congress of cinematographers, held in November 1965, a charter was adopted. The union’s supreme governing body is the all-Union congress; between congresses the administrative board and secretariat direct the union’s activities. As of 1976, the Cinematographers’ Union had 5,199 members. Every Union republic except the RSFSR has a republic cinematographers’ union. Divisions are located in autonomous republics and large cities.

The union regularly holds conferences of the film-making industry, discussions, screenings of Soviet and foreign films, symposia, film festivals, competitions, and seminars. In 1959 the Bureau of Propaganda of Soviet Film-making was founded as part of the union; the bureau organizes lectures and exhibitions and publishes various books, brochures, and booklets on the cinema. In cooperation with the State Committee on Cinematography of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the union publishes the journals Isskustvo kino (Art of the Cinema; since 1931; circulation in 1977, 50,000) and Sovetskii ekran (The Soviet Screen; since 1925; circulation in 1977,1.95 million). Representatives of the Cinematographers’ Union take part in the work of numerous international film organizations.

The union was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1971.

Composers’ Union of the USSR. The Composers’ Union of the USSR was known as the Union of Soviet Composers before 1957. Its members are composers and musicologists who take an active part in the development of Soviet musical art. The organization strives to help its members create works of high ideological and artistic merit that affirm the principles of socialist realism and that develop the best traditions of the national cultures of the USSR. It also seeks to educate composers and musicians in the spirit of communist ideology and to assist their creative growth and the development of their professional skills.

The Composers’ Union was established in accordance with the decree of the Central Committee of the ACP(B) On the Restructuring of Literary and Artistic Organizations, which was issued on Apr. 23, 1932. Between 1932 and 1940, organizations of the Composers’ Union were established in Moscow and Leningrad, the capitals of the Union and autonomous republics, and the administrative centers of certain oblasts. In 1939 the organizational committee of the Composers’ Union of the USSR was established. The union’s charter was adopted at the First All-Union Congress of Composers, held Apr. 19–25, 1948. The union’s supreme governing body is the all-Union congress; its executive bodies are the administrative board and secretariat. As of Sept. 12, 1978, the Composers’ Union had 2,098 members. Since 1948 the first secretary of the administrative board has been the composer T. N. Khrennikov.

Associated with the Composers’ Union are the Sovetskii Kompositor Publishing House and the journals Sovetskaia muzyka (Soviet Music; since 1933; circulation in 1978, 19,900) and Muzykal’naia zhizri (Musical Life; since 1957; circulation in 1978, 125,000). The Composers’ Union also administers the Music Fund of the USSR and the All-Union Bureau of Propaganda of Soviet Music, which was known from 1950 to 1969 as the Department of Propaganda of the Music Fund of the USSR. The Music Fund is an economic organization that deals with financial and day-to-day matters. The bureau organizes concerts, composers’ performances, and festivals. Representatives of the Composers’ Union belong to international organizations, including the International Society for Music Education and the International Music Council of UNESCO.

The union was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1968.

Writers’ Union of the USSR. The Writers’ Union of the USSR unites professional writers in the USSR who take part in the development of Soviet literature. The union promotes the creation of works of high ideological and artistic merit that affirm the principles of socialist realism and develop the best traditions of the national literatures of the peoples of the USSR: the union also strives to educate writers in the spirit of communist ideology and to help them improve their professional skills.

The Writers’ Union was established by the decree of the Central Committee of the ACP(B) On the Restructuring of Literary and Artistic Organizations, which was issued on Apr. 23, 1932. The First All-Union Congress of Soviet Writers, held in August 1934, adopted the union’s charter, which defines socialist realism as the fundamental method of Soviet literature and literary criticism. The supreme body of the union is the all-Union writers’ congress. As of Jan. 1, 1978, 8,152 writers, representing a total of 76 languages, belonged to the union. The executive body is the administrative board, which was headed by M. Gorky from 1934 to 1936; others who have headed the board include V. P. Stavskii, N. S. Tikhonov, A. A. Fadeev, A. A. Surkov, K. A. Fedin, and G. M. Markov. Fedin served as first secretary of the administrative board from 1959 to 1971, when he became chairman; Markov was named first secretary of the board in 1971.

Under the jurisdiction of the Writers’ Union are the M. Gorky Institute of Literature, the Higher Literary Courses, the Sovetskii Pisatel’ Publishing House, and such publications as the newspaper Literaturnaia gazeta (Literary Gazette). The union represents Soviet literature in international writers’ organizations and promotes ties with foreign writers.

The Writers’ Union was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1967.

Artists’ Union of the USSR. The Artists’ Union of the USSR unites Soviet artists and art critics. It helps its members maintain high ideological and aesthetic standards in artistic works of all types and genres and in scholarly works. It strives to promote the building of communism in the USSR, especially among its members, to develop the art of the peoples of the USSR in a way that is socialist in content and national in form, and to affirm the ideals of Soviet patriotism and proletarian internationalism in the activities of Soviet artists.

Artists’ unions and organizations in cities, oblasts, krais, and Union and autonomous republics were formed at different times, but they were all established on the basis of the decree of the Central Committee of the ACP(B) On the Restructuring of Literary and Artistic Organizations, which was issued on Apr. 23, 1932. The Artists’ Union of the USSR, which unites these groups, was founded in 1957, and its first congress was held the same year. The union’s supreme governing body is the all-Union congress, and the executive organs are the administrative board and secretariat. As of 1976, the union had 14,538 members. It includes republic-level unions in the Union and autonomous republics, as well as local organizations in certain krais, oblasts, and cities. It helps its members improve their professional skills, popularizes their work through meetings, conferences, and exhibitions, and organizes and finances artistic projects.

The union publishes the journals Iskusstvo (Art; since 1933; circulation, 16,000), Tvorchestvo (Creative Work; since 1957; circulation, 22,000), and Dekorativnoe iskusstvo SSSR (Decorative Art of the USSR; since 1977; circulation, 20,700). Iskusstvo is published in conjunction with the Ministry of Culture of the USSR and the Academy of Arts of the USSR.

The Artists’ Union administers the Board of Exhibitions, the Central Educational and Experimental Workshop, the Propaganda Poster Agency, the Art Fund of the USSR, and the Sovetskii Khudozhnik Publishing House. It promotes cultural cooperation with foreign progressive arts organizations.

The union was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1968.

Theatrical societies. Theatrical societies unite theater workers. They were formed to promote the development of Soviet theatrical arts and to give comprehensive aid to theatrical groups.

The oldest of these societies is the All-Russian Theatrical Society, which was founded in St. Petersburg in 1877 as the Society for Mutual Aid for Russian Artists. It was renamed the Society for Aid to Needy Stage Artists in 1883 and the Russian Theatrical Society in 1894. The purpose of the Russian Theatrical Society was to aid the development of the theater in Russia. After the October Revolution of 1917, the society’s activities took on a creative character. The society assumed its present name in 1932.

Beginning in the early 1940’s, independent theatrical societies were formed in the Union republics with the assistance of the All-Russian Theatrical Society, which served as the model for the new organizations’ structure and methods. By the mid-1970’s, societies had been established in Armenia (1940), Azerbaijan (1944), the Ukraine (1944), Georgia (1945), Latvia (1945), Uzbekistan (1945), Estonia (1945), Byelorussia (1946), Lithuania (1947), Moldavia (1958), Kirghizia (1961), Kazakhstan (1962), Tadzhikistan (1971), and Turkmenistan (1973).

The supreme governing body of each theatrical society is the congress of delegates, which is convened once every five years. The executive body is the administrative board, along with its presidium. The theatrical societies are based in the capitals of the Union republics; most of them maintain houses of actors. Local divisions have been established in the administrative centers of autonomous republics, krais, and oblasts. In 1976 the theatrical societies had a total membership of more than 50,000, of which approximately 28,000 belonged to the All-Russian Society. The societies actively cooperate with one another, implement joint measures, and maintain relations with international theatrical organizations and with similar organizations in other socialist countries.

In conjunction with the Writers’ Union of the RSFSR and the Ministry of Culture of the RSFSR, the All-Russian Theatrical Society publishes the journal Teatral’naia zhizn’ (Theater Life; since 1958; circulation in 1978, 50,000).

Full browser ?