public relations

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public relations,

activities and policies used to create public interest in a person, idea, product, institution, or business establishment. By its nature, public relations is devoted to serving particular interests by presenting them to the public in the most favorable light. Thus, the goal of the public relations consultant is to create, through the organization of news and advertising, an advantageous image for his client, be it a business corporation, cultural institution, or private or public individual; toward this end—the making of favorable public opinion—many research techniques and communications media are used. Although many of the same methods are employed, public relations differs from propagandapropaganda,
systematic manipulation of public opinion, generally by the use of symbols such as flags, monuments, oratory, and publications. Modern propaganda is distinguished from other forms of communication in that it is consciously and deliberately used to influence group
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, which is generally government supported, international in scope, and political in nature. The earliest form of public relations and still the most widely practiced is publicity. The principal instrument of publicity is the press release, which provides the mass media with the raw material and background for a news story. The growth of modern public relations is generally attributed to the development of the mass media, which accelerated the spread of ideas and increased the importance of public opinion by giving more people access to current events. Public relations as a field can be traced to the early 20th cent., when American businessmen found it necessary to respond to attacks by social reformers. A milestone in the industry was the opening (1904) of Ivy Lee's publicity office in New York City. Soon there were other firms in the field, and by World War I the concept of public relations had gained general acceptance. Public relations techniques have been widely used in politics and political campaigns. By the 1960s the public relations agency had become a fact in American life, numbering among its clients branches of national, state, and local government, industry, labor, professional and religious groups, and some foreign countries.


See B. R. Canfield, Public Relations (5th ed. 1968); E. L. Bernays, The Engineering of Consent (3d ed. 1969) and Public Relations (1970); S. M. Cutlip and A. H. Center, Effective Public Relations (4th ed. 1971); J. F. Awad, The Power of Public Relations (1985); E. W. Brody and G. C. Stone, Public Relations Research (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
The secret of success in a publicity program is to first build a list of media vehicles (individual newspapers, magazines, newsletters, radio stations and television broadcasters) that reach the particular people you want as clients.
The key to a good publicity program is directing your efforts to the publications and media that serve your clients and then studying the media enough to understand what they may need from you and what you can provide.
The publicity program developed by Media II for Xycom Automation resulted in over 120 article appearances with a value of $274,000 in equivalent ad space.
Fast Start - This publicity campaign includes custom bookselling promotional materials, a multiple-book e-mail campaign reaching one million recipients, a social media setup, an Express Book Review, and the Standard Publicity Program service.
The agency is creating exposure for The Fairchild through a layered publicity program that includes media interviews with Atlantic Walk Vestry Principal Gerard Longo and Raphael De Niro, founder of The De Niro Group at Prudential Douglas Elliman, the exclusive sales agent for The Fairchild project, as well as local and national business and real estate media outreach.
This week, Bowker is launching its new BookWire Membership, a personalized publicity program that allows publishers and authors to better promote their books by leveraging Bowker's reputation and global presence.
Stanelco's North American rollout for FrogPack includes a direct sales effort, supplemented by direct mail, an aggressive publicity program, demonstrations of FrogPack's durability and a presence at leading U.
The company plans to have a full retail launch of its products in 2004 and will exhibit at golf merchandise shows and promote the product line via a national advertising campaign supported by a full-scale public relations and publicity program.
A key component of the tool kit is a publicity program that promotes the Web sites of insurance agencies that use QuoteNETWorks(TM), TowerStreet's online rating tool.
Scott was named Director of Communications to oversee all publicity programs for the domestic and import brands; Joe Aschbacher was named Director of Luxury Wine Sales.