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(invertebrate zoology)
A subclass of the gastropod mollusks which contains the “lung”-bearing snails; the gills have been lost and in their place the mantle cavity has become a pulmonary sac.



a subclass of Gastropoda, or gastropod mollusks.

Most pulmonates have well-developed shells and lack opercula. The number of known species is 15,000 (according to other data, 35,000); there are more than a thousand species in the USSR. Most are land or freshwater snails (some are marine). They breathe by means of a unique lung—a cavity between the mantle and the body, whose superior wall is threaded with a rich network of blood vessels. In species that live at great depths or in fast-running water, the lung fills with water and the snails breathe the oxygen dissolved in it. Pulmonates are hermaphrodites and develop without a larval stage.

There are two orders. Basommatophora are predominantly freshwater species, with eyes located at the base of the single pair of cephalic antennae (Ancylus, Planorbis, and pond snails). Sty-lommatophora are land species with two pairs of antennae and eyes at the tips of the superior pair (the edible snail—Helix pomatia—and slugs). Many pulmonates are intermediate hosts of parasitic worms that harm domestic and commercial animals. Some are agricultural pests (Achatina and slugs). Some large pulmonates, such as the edible snail, are used as food by humans.


Zhadin, V. I. Molliuski presnykh i solonovatykh vod SSSR. Moscow-Leningrad, 1952.
Likharev, I. M., and E. S. Rammel’meier. Nazemnye molliuski fauny SSSR. Moscow-Leningrad, 1952.


References in periodicals archive ?
Although the systematics of the Opisthobranchia is still a matter of debate (see Salvini-Plawen 1991a,b; Salvini-Plawen and Steiner 1995 for recent reviews), it is unquestionable that, together with the Pulmonata, they all belong to the Euthyneura.
This is not surprising, as it is assumed that Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata belong to a monophyletic taxon, the Euthyneura or Pentaganglionata (Haszprunar 1985, 1988).
d) Okinawa AB501313 * AB501327 * (CMNH-HP 0101544) Hermaeidae Aplysiopsis minor Kanagawa AB501314 * AB501328 * (CMNH-HP 0101545) "Cylindrobullida" Cylindrobulla beauii - EF489321 EF489347 PULMONATA Basommatophora Hygrophila Lymnaea stagnalis - Z73984 AF485661 Siphonarioidea Siphonaria alternata - AY427523 EF489299 Amphiboloidea Biomphalaria glabrata - NC_005439 U65223 Phallomedusa solida - DQ093440 DQ093484 Eupulmonata Onchidella celtica - AY345048 X70211 Cepaea nemoralis - U23045 A.
ML and Bayesian trees supported the sister relationship of Sacoglossa and Pulmonata (BS of ML = 78%, BPP = 1.
Land Pulmonata, exclusive of North America North of Mexico.
1), are particularly intriguing ornaments because they evolved repeatedly in a number of clades, such as the Caenogatropoda, Opisthobranchia, and Pulmonata (Price, 2001).
Xanthonychidae: Bradybaena similaris (Ferussac, 1821) (Mollusca, Gstropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora).
Sobre Bradybaena similaris (Ferussac, 1821) (Gastropodo, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora, Fruticicolidae) Copula y funcionamiento del oviducto durante el periodo de fecundacion y formacion del huevo.
Influence of egg cannibalism on growth, survival, and feeding in hatchlings of the land snail Helix aspersa Muller (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora).
Palabras clave: Caracoles terrestres, Charopidae, Punctidae, Pulmonata, Micromoluscos, Stylommatophora.
Phally, a genital polymorphism found in several families within the Pulmonata (Mollusca: Gastropoda), presents an opportunity to examine factors maintaining outcrossing within an animal species in the presence of recombination.