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roentgenography of the kidneys based on the introduction of X-ray-contrast substances into the renal pelvis. Pyelography makes it possible to detect such pathological changes in the kidneys and urinary tract as abnormalities of position, calculi, and inflammatory or neoplastic deformities.
In retrograde, or ascending, pyelography, the contrast medium is injected with a cystoscope and a ureteral catheter. In antegrade pyelography the contrast medium is injected through the skin into the renal pelvis. In pneumopyelography, oxygen is injected into the pelvis. In excretory urography, the contrast medium is injected intravenously.