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roentgenography of the kidneys based on the introduction of X-ray-contrast substances into the renal pelvis. Pyelography makes it possible to detect such pathological changes in the kidneys and urinary tract as abnormalities of position, calculi, and inflammatory or neoplastic deformities.

In retrograde, or ascending, pyelography, the contrast medium is injected with a cystoscope and a ureteral catheter. In antegrade pyelography the contrast medium is injected through the skin into the renal pelvis. In pneumopyelography, oxygen is injected into the pelvis. In excretory urography, the contrast medium is injected intravenously.


Osnovy nefrologii, vol. 1. Edited by E. M. Tareev. Moscow, 1972.
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The retrograde pyelography demonstrated duplicated renal collecting systems on the left and a fine developing degree of right lower pole moiety; it did not show the upper pole moiety on the right, which suggested that the ectopic ureter was on the right side and the ectopic orifice might be inserted extravesically.
If only functional abnormalities were the issue, intravenous pyelography alone might be the preferred technique to delineate the problem (e.
1) Intravenous pyelography can demonstrate medial deviation of one or both ureters at the L3 to L4 level.
Antegrade pyelography revealed complete obstruction of the left ureter (Fig.
Subsequently, emergency cystoscopic evaluation with retrograde pyelography showed an anteriorly deviated and inflamed urinary bladder trigone together with multiple obstructing segments in both ureters.
Based on bladder random biopsy and bilateral retrograde pyelography, he was diagnosed with invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
The preferred radiologic evaluation before percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) was intravenous pyelography, and abdominopelvic computed tomography in 72% and 69%, respectively.
An IV pyelography was performed to inspect the urinary tract.
2 Retrograde pyelography showing slight filling (stone) in the renal pelvis of the allograft.
Patients were evaluated by plain X-ray of the kidney, ureters and bladder (KUB), intravenous pyelography (IVP), urine analysis, urine culture, serum biochemistry, and coagulation test before the procedure.