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(ĭrĭth`rəsīt'): see bloodblood,
fluid pumped by the heart that circulates throughout the body via the arteries, veins, and capillaries (see circulatory system; heart). An adult male of average size normally has about 6 quarts (5.6 liters) of blood.
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a red blood corpuscle, or cell, in man, the vertebrates, and some invertebrates (echinoderms). Erythrocytes transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. They regulate the acid-base balance and maintain osmotic balance in the blood and tissues. In addition, amino acids and lipids are absorbed from the blood plasma, and transported to the tissues, by erythrocytes.

Mature mammalian and human erythrocytes lack the nucleus that is present in the early stages of their development—that is, in the erythroblasts. They have the shape of a biconcave disk. Erythrocytes consist mainly of the respiratory pigment hemoglobin, which is responsible for the red color of blood. The erythrocytes of birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes are nucleated. The erythroblasts’ actively functioning nuclei gradually become inactive in the course of the erythrocytes’ development; they can, however, be reactivated. At the same time, ribosomes and other constituents that participate in protein synthesis disappear from the cytoplasm. The cell (or plasma) membrane plays an important role by permitting the passage of gases, ions, and water in the erythrocytes. On the surface of the lipoprotein membrane are specific glycoprotein antigens, or agglutinogens—the blood group factors responsible for the agglutination of erythrocytes.

The efficient functioning of hemoglobin depends on the erythrocytes’ area of surface contact with the environment. The smaller the erythrocytes, the greater their total surface area. The lower invertebrates have large erythrocytes (measuring, for example, 70 micrometers in diameter in the caudate amphibian Amphiuma), and the higher vertebrates have smaller ones (4 micrometers in diameter in goats). Human erythrocytes vary in diameter from 7.2 to 7.5 micrometers.

The number of erythrocytes in the blood normally remains constant, ranging from 4.5 to 5 million in 1 mm3 of human blood. The life-span of a human erythrocyte averages 125 days; approximately 2.5 million erythrocytes are formed and an equal number are destroyed every second. The total number decreases in anemia and increases in polycythemia. In the anemias, erythrocytes are found to change shape and size; they may be large (such as the megalocytes in Addison-Biermer anemia) or small, and they may, for example, be oval in shape (as in hemolytic anemia).



A type of blood cell that contains a nucleus in all vertebrates but humans and that has hemoglobin in the cytoplasm. Also known as red blood cell.


a blood cell of vertebrates that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide, combined with the red pigment haemoglobin, to and from the tissues
References in periodicals archive ?
RBC GAM is part of RBC Wealth Management, which is one of the world's top five largest wealth managers*.
In total, RBC GAM has introduced 14 new funds in the past four years across a variety of different share classes and asset classes.
The sponsorship kicks off at the WGC Cadillac Championship in Miami, Florida, where Day will begin to wear the iconic RBC shield on his golf apparel and golf bag, just like the other 13 members of Team RBC.
I am humbled and privileged to have had the opportunity to serve the employees and clients of RBC GAM as CEO over the past six years," said Montalbano.
I congratulate RBC and its workforce on this good news, and I thank them for their commitment to Connecticut.
CES draws on the services of both RBC Capital Markets and RBC Wealth Management.
The new fund is sub-advised by RBC Investment Management (Asia) Limited, and managed by Mayur Nallamala, senior portfolio manager and head of Asian Equities, RBC GAM in Hong Kong.
We are deeply committed to the success of our financial consultants and our relationship with Success Metrics is another example of how we strive to help our advisors grow and enhance their businesses," said Catie Tobin, Director of Private Client Group Business Development at RBC Dain Rauscher.
affiliate, BlueBay Asset Management," said Mike Lee, Chief Executive Officer and Chief Investment Officer of RBC GAM-U.
RBC Global Asset Management (RBC GAM), the asset management arm of Royal Bank of Canada (RY on TSX and NYSE), today announced the appointment of Clive Brown as CEO and managing director, RBC GAM International.
has affirmed the financial strength rating (FSR) of A (Excellent) and assigned an issuer credit rating (ICR) of "a" to RBC Life Insurance Company (RBC Life) (Mississauga, Ontario).