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AMPK-independent autophagy promotes radioresistance of human tumor cells under clinical relevant hypoxia in vitro.
In an effort to overcome the radioresistance of cancer cells to improve the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy, a variety of phytochemicals have been examined for their potential radiosensitizing effects.
106) BCL2 and BCL2-like 1 (BCL2L1) inhibit apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, (107) and both have been implicated in radioresistance of head and neck tumors.
Glioma stem cells promote radioresistance by preferential activation of the DNA damage response.
Furthermore, the XRCC4 mutants lacking these phosphorylation sites could fully restore radioresistance and V(D)J recombination in XRCC4-deficient XR-1 cells, which is derived from CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cell, and also exhibited normal activity in DNA joining reaction in cell-free system, leading to the conclusion that XRCC4 phosphorylation by DNA-PK was unnecessary for these functions.
If lesion cannot be removed completely then radiotherapy is an option although radioresistance has been seen.
STAT3 is constitutively active in most tumour cells and interestingly, its activation has been associated with chemoresistance and radioresistance.
Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor overexpression mediates cellular radioresistance and local breast cancer recurrence after lumpectomy and radiation.
Similarly, Joshi and Ledoux (1970) observed maximum radioresistance at intermediate moisture levels in a study testing the effect of X-rays on barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds with varying moisture content ranging from 3 to 14%.
The oncogenic kinase Pim-1 is modulated by K-Ras signaling and mediates transformed growth and radioresistance in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells.
The putative radioresistance and low PSA at the time of radiologic progression prompted pathology review.
70,71,72,73,74,75) It may also predict radioresistance of the tumours.