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(pen name of Hakob Meliq-Hakobian). Born 1835 in Phayajuk, Iran; died Apr. 24 (May 6), 1888, in Tbilisi. Armenian writer.

Raffi worked as a schoolteacher. His world view was influenced by Armenian enlightenment leaders of the 1850’s and 1860’s. In the 1870’s he was an enthusiastic follower of the Utopian social theories of Saint-Simon and E. Cabet, but he gradually overcame their influence.

Raffi began publishing in 1860. His early works, the novel Salbi (1867; published 1911) and the novella Harem (1869; published 1874), denounced national and social oppression from the viewpoint of enlightenment. In the first half of the 1870’s, his works sharply criticized the trading and moneylend-ing strata of Armenian society; examples are the novels Zahrowmar (1871; published 1895) and The Golden Cockerel (1879; Russian translation, 1959).

Raffi’s publicist writings and such novels of the late 1870’s and the 1880’s as Dzhalaleddin (1878; Russian translation, 1915), Khent (1880), and Sparks (vols. 1–2, 1883–87; Russian translation, 1949) revealed the horrors of national oppression and summoned the Armenian people to revolution and liberation. The ideas of the national liberation movement are also affirmed in the historical novels David-Bek (1881–82) and Samvel (1886). Raffi’s works have been translated into many languages.


Erkeri tsoghovatsu, vols. 1–10. Yerevan, 1962–64.
In Russian translation:
Garem i drugie rasskazy. Yerevan, 1966.


Shaumian, S. “O romane Raffi Iskry.” In his book Literaturnokriticheskie stat’i, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1955.
Yetrosian, E. Raffi: Kyank’ě ev steghtsagortsut’yuni. Yerevan, 1959.


References in classic literature ?
Captain Raffy says it looks like a hurricane right now.
Captain Raffy says you've got to get to hell outa here," was the mate's greeting.
Larry Patnongon and Inigo Raymundo accounted for 33 apiece and Forest Hills counted either 26 of Raffy Garcia or Francisco Santana for a 72-hole 460 tally, even as Negros Occidental Golf and Country Club (NOGCC) scored a 41-point romp in the Aviator class over Sta.
Popular cockers/breeders Arman Santos, Vice Mayor Raffy Campos and Edwin Aranez of Jade Red entry have joined forces with Team LDI (Lakpue Drug Inc.
v=Fu0iY26vrXo) sneak peek from hour, Ronnie finds the mosque empty, and just as he's about to leave the place of worship, Raffy (Common) arrives and greets him.
Aside from Bagtas, the other returning Luisita players are Rodel Mangulabnan, Raffy Garcia, Edmund Yee, Allan Alegre, Jinky Tuason, Benjie Sumulong and Chito Laureta.
Among the speakers will be visionary owner of Bovet Pascal Raffy, legendary watchmaker Kurt Klaus; Dior's president of Timepieces Laurence Nicolas; Ben Clymer, founder and CEO of pre-eminent watch platform Hodinkee; Francois-Paul Journe, founder of F.
Raffy scares Maggie And Maggie gets a nasty scare courtesy of Raffy, and Irene and Olivia have a falling-out over money.
Raffy Antes, CARD MRI corporate communications assistant, said the firm is planning to open another branch for Rizal Bank, Inc (RBI) in Argao this September.
The movie centres on the unexpected romance of Raffy Sandoval, played by Cruz, a spin doctor who has mastered the art of lying for a living, and Aprilyn Esguerra, portrayed by Geronimo, an honest girl who has difficulty masking her true emotions.
Raffy Tentindo, from the Living Environment Trust, was helping on board the clean-up boat which arrived at a rainy Canal Basin today after setting out fiveand-a-half miles away at Sutton Stop, on Monday.
VJ proposes Nevertheless, he, Tori and Mason are stunned by the revelation that Raffy could be their half-sister, but Tori thinks it would be best to keep the news from her until they are sure it's true.