Rafi ibn Leis Uprising

Rafi ibn Leis Uprising

 

an uprising in 806–810 in Middle Asia against Abbasid rule. The ideology of some of the rebels was similar to that of the Mukanna Uprising. An immediate cause of the revolt was the oppressive taxation of Ali ibn Isa, the caliph’s regent in Khorasan and Mavera-un-nahr. The rebels included peasants, some dehqans (feudal landholders), and Turkic nomadic tribes of the Middle Asian steppe zone. The uprising was led by Rafi ibn Leis, an important landowner who evidently rebelled against the caliph, Harun al-Rashid, for personal reasons.

Rafi ibn Leis seized and fortified Samarkand, which he made his residence. The rebellion spread to Shash, Samarkand, Bukhara, Khodzhent, Ustrushana, Fergana, Khwarazm, and other areas. In 809 and early 810, Samarkand was unsuccessfully besieged by Abbasid troops, first those of Harun al-Rashid and then of his son al-Mamun, who became governor of Khorasan after the retirement of Ali ibn Isa in 809. As peasant participation in the uprising increased, the dehqans and then the Turkic tribes began withdrawing. Rafi ibn Leis also withdrew from the uprising. Left without leaders, the uncoordinated peasant forces were routed by al-Mamun’s troops in 810.

References in classic literature ?
she maintained her bitter scepticism, and the curtain fell on her dancing recklessly with the others, after Armand had been sent away with his flower.
His frontispiece, boats attacking Sperm Whales, though no doubt calculated to excite the civil scepticism of some parlor men, is admirably correct and life-like in its general effect.
There is no steady unretracing progress in this life; we do not advance through fixed gradations, and at the last one pause: --through infancy's unconscious spell, boyhood's thoughtless faith, adolescence' doubt (the common doom), then scepticism, then disbelief, resting at last in manhood's pondering repose of If.
He saw no more the deep eyes, but the voice came over him as a spirit voice, and, as in a sort of judgment vision, his whole past life rose in a moment before his eyes: his mother's prayers and hymns; his own early yearnings and aspirings for good; and, between them and this hour, years of worldliness and scepticism, and what man calls respectable living.
But Emma still shook her head in steady scepticism.
I was so hurt by her coldness and scepticism, that the tears rose to my eyes.
Whatever may be the limits or modifications of the powers of the Union, it is easy to imagine an endless train of possible dangers; and by indulging an excess of jealousy and timidity, we may bring ourselves to a state of absolute scepticism and irresolution.
Had Filby shown the model and explained the matter in the Time Traveller's words, we should have shown HIM far less scepticism.
But all at once, a propos of nothing, there would come a phase of scepticism and indifference (everything happened in phases to me), and I would laugh myself at my intolerance and fastidiousness, I would reproach myself with being romantic.
Nevertheless, there was a certain odd expression of sagacity that made Owen Warland feel as if here were old Pete Hovenden, partially, and but partially, redeemed from his hard scepticism into childish faith.
I know not whether it was scepticism or modesty, but Count Vogelstein had omitted every pictured plea for his rank; there were others of which he might have made use.
Scepticism was not only in his conscious thought but in the very tissues of his mind.