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An abnormal sound accompanying the normal sounds of respiration within the air passages and heard on auscultation of the chest.



a pathological respiratory sound arising in the bronchi, trachea, or cavities formed in the lungs (abscesses, caverns).

Dry and moist rales are distinguished. Dry rales are caused by the whirling movement of air in places where a bronchial cavity narrows owing to spasm, swelling of the mucous membrane, or accumulation of viscid secretion. They have a whistling or buzzing quality and can be heard in auscultation, sometimes from a distance, for example, during an attack of bronchial asthma. Moist rales are caused by the passage of a stream of air through mucus and sound like bursting bubbles. They occur in bronchi, in the trachea, and in pathological cavities in a lung. Depending on the order of the bronchus or size of the cavity, rales may be smallbubbling, medium-bubbling, or large-bubbling. Consonanting (clear) and nonconsonanting (unclear) moist rales are also distinguished.

The presence, type, and sound of rales are important in the diagnosis of bronchitis, pneumonia, and other disorders.

References in periodicals archive ?
An increasing strain rale will significantly alter the iniennolccular interaction within the amorphous domains of the PP matrix, and will therefore, enhance the strength properties of the PP/ZnO composites (22)
In this study, the strength values of PP/ZnO composites were increased gradually, up to 5%of the filler loading, for each applied strain rale.
Usually, rale sensitivity is calculated based on the flow stress recorded by the material up to a specific strain rate [10.
025 as the reference sirain rale was based on several factors.
il can be seen that all tested specimens showed positive increments in lenns of their rale sensitivity of flow stress, with increasing sirain rales (from static lo dynamic regions).
From fractographic analysis, il was observed lhal a coarser appearance, with a massive plastic deformation and catastrophic fracture, occurred on the specimen's surface, due to the enhancement of the applied stress during a high strain rale loading.
Static and dynamic compression lesiing was successfully perfonned on PP/ZnO nanocomposites using a conventional universal testing machine and a SHPB apparatus up to nearly a 1200 s (-1) sirain rale.
However, the strain rale sensitivity and absorbed energy of all lesied specimens significantly increased wilh increasing strain rale, whereas the thermal activation values showed a contrary trend.
10, and 100 Hz) used in this study corresponded lo sirain rales of 0.
The RALES study, conducted in 15 countries, was a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, which enrolled 1,663 severe heart failure patients with systolic left ventricular dysfunction.
Originally scheduled to conclude in December, 1999, the RALES trial was halted a full 18 months early.
It is not indicated for adjunctive therapy of heart failure as used in the RALES study.