But these conceptual operations must not be confused with the particular instance of the quantitative operation transformation refers to which involves the mathematical transformation of value into price and the rate of surplus value into the rate of profit and the inverse calculation or movement between these categories.
That the edifice of capital accumulation hinges upon this determination is related to the question of the division of the working day into necessary labour time and that time devoted to surplus labour, as in our simple example above, and the rate of surplus value that is derived therefrom.
In order to prevent a decline in the rate of surplus value
, capital would need to either (a) increase the absolute rate of exploitation, or (b) increase investment in the means of production by improving labor productivity.
value of money or the rate of surplus value when a theory of prices has
rate of surplus value [equivalent to] [epsilon] = [P'Y -
Furthermore, if one takes the rate of surplus value,
The rate of surplus value is assumed to be 100 per cent in each department, and [pounds sterling] 1 of output is assumed equal to a unit of labour.
409) At a 100 per cent rate of surplus value it can be assumed that 1,000 [pounds sterling] of surplus-value is appropriated.
11) As I indicated in my book, Catastrophe or Catharsis, the rate of surplus value in late Soviet times was higher than in the United States, where the working class (at least in the few decades after World War One) was able to improve its relative share in national income.
Real wages fell substantially, but profits fell as well, and the rate of surplus value was reduced to only 49.
Since the rate of surplus value is derived from the length of the work day and the wage rate, it followed that it tended to be equal among different sectors.
When the rate of surplus value is expressed in that form, it has meaning only within the sphere of production.