Raymond VII

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Raymond VII,

1197–1249, count of Toulouse; son of Count Raymond VI. He fought with his father in the Albigensian Crusade (see under AlbigensesAlbigenses
[Lat.,=people of Albi, one of their centers], religious sect of S France in the Middle Ages. Beliefs and Practices

Officially known as heretics, they were actually Cathari, Provençal adherents of a doctrine similar to the Manichaean dualistic
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), assisting Raymond VI in his attempt to regain Toulouse from Simon de MontfortMontfort, Simon de
, c.1160–1218, count of Montfort and earl of Leicester. A participant in the Fourth Crusade (1202–4), he did not join in the sack of Constantinople, but instead proceeded to Syria. He later led the crusade against the Albigenses.
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 and Simon's son, Amaury. Continuing the war on his father's death (1222), he signed (1223) a truce with Amaury in which the latter renounced the countship of Toulouse. In 1226, King Louis VIII of France resumed the Albigensian Crusade. Defeated by the French, Raymond VII agreed in 1229 to a treaty that virtually transferred the major part of S France to the French crown, partly through cession, partly through the proposed marriage of his daughter to AlphonseAlphonse
, 1220–71, count of Poitiers and of Toulouse, brother of King Louis IX of France. By his marriage to the daughter of Raymond VII, count of Toulouse, he inherited Raymond's lands in 1249.
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 of Poitiers, a brother of King Louis IX of France. Raymond was permitted to keep much of his lands during his lifetime. He was compelled, however, to allow the establishment of the Inquisition in his lands. In 1242, in alliance with King Henry III of England, he revolted against France. He was forced to sue for peace after Henry's defeat and agreed to destroy the Albigenses. He executed many heretics.