From the literary criticism of the raznochintsy
, in the 1840s, emerged a new understanding of society and the way individuals participate in it (220), according to which self-realized, active individuals must devote themselves to critical work on their surroundings.
This monograph takes a comprehensive approach to the role of the "new people" (the raznochintsy
without deep connections to native history and culture) in literary and philosophical texts, from N.
Yes, Chatsky was not born poor like Molchalin, but it was not uncommon for men of higher social status to mimic the so-called awkward manners of the raznochintsy
in order to demonstrate political allegiance with the often more radical men of lower social origins.
Maybe it would snow, a white landscape would be an appropriate background for the event, highlighted by my dark, but not entirely black, slightly old-fashioned clothes--this would remind Maria Petrovna slightly of the raznochintsy
, those members of the Russian non-bourgeoisie intelligentsia in the nineteenth century, I hoped.
One can point, in support of this thesis, to the ecclesiastical influences on Uspenskii (his father and uncles and he himself were educated in seminaries, and his uncles became priests) and to the general prominence of men from a similar background among the raznochintsy
, the dominant force in the radical intelligentsia in the age of Alexander II (1855-81).
I]t came to be made up more and more of so-called raznochintsy
, 'people of diverse rank': sons of clergymen, peasants, petty officials, army officers, artisans, and tradesmen who had become divorced by virtue of their education or inclination from their fathers' social station and could no longer fit into the official estate system.
Finally, Wirtschafter's work builds on her two previous books dealing with the Russian army and the raznochintsy
-- the so-called people of various ranks.
What he finds is that "among nobles and raznochintsy
this occurred in the late 18th to early 19th centuries; among various strata of the urban estate, over the course of the 19th century; and among the peasants, after the emancipation.
Participants in Land and Freedom regarded dissenting faiths as the true forms of popular religiosity; hence they believed that all ordinary Russians, from peasants and soldiers to merchants and raznochintsy
wished for freedom of confession.
Richard Wortman, "Review of A Parting of Ways: Government and the Educated Public in Russia, 1801-1855," Journal of Modern History 50, 1 (1978): 176-78; Elise Kimerling Wirtschafter, "The Groups Between: Raznochintsy
, Intelligentsia, Professionals," in Cambridge History of Russia, 2:245-64, 255.
Such an approach requires more substantial evidence, since the nobility and raznochintsy
of the 18th century had very little to do with each other, especially if we take into consideration that at mid-century the raznochintsy
--the category of imperial subjects and taxpayers who did not officially belong to any estate--were transferred into either the peasantry or the merchantry.
Nowhere does this become more apparent than in the middle ground where the raznochintsy
and meshchane cavort and produce a highly eclectic--and highly mediocre--literature that is hard to label with a single genre.