prostate cancer

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prostate cancer,

cancercancer,
in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.
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 originating in the prostate glandprostate gland,
gland that is part of the male reproductive system. It is an organ about the size of a chestnut and consists of glandular and muscular tissue. It is situated below the neck of the bladder, encircling the urethra.
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. Prostate cancer is one of the most malignancies in men in the United States, second only to skin cancer, and as a cause of cancer death in men is second only to lung cancer. It occurs predominantly in men 65 years of age and older. Black men have a higher incidence than white men. The cause of prostate cancer is unknown, but the incidence varies markedly by geographic region, an indication that there are environmental factors that may trigger the disease. For example, men in China and Japan have a low rate of prostate cancer, but the incidence rises in Chinese and Japanese men who move to the United States. The hormone testosteronetestosterone
, principal androgen, or male sex hormone. One of the group of compounds known as anabolic steroids, testosterone is secreted by the testes (see testis) but is also synthesized in small quantities in the ovaries, cortices of the adrenal glands, and placenta, usually
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 is believed to have a role in the development of prostate cancer, and studies have shown a relationship between high dietary fat intake and increased testosterone levels. Prostate tumors are often slow growing. Around 95% are classified as adenocarcinomas (arising from epithelial glandular tissue). The most common site of metastasis is the bone, and bone metastasis is the leading cause of death from prostate cancer.

Screening and Diagnosis

Traditionally, prostate cancer screening consisted of digital-rectal examination. Since 1986, however, a blood test for a tumor marker called prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has greatly increased the number of early-stage prostate cancers diagnosed. An elevated level of PSA can indicate the presence of prostatic malignancy. Elevated PSA is further investigated by an ultrasoundultrasound
or sonography,
in medicine, technique that uses sound waves to study and treat hard-to-reach body areas. In scanning with ultrasound, high-frequency sound waves are transmitted to the area of interest and the returning echoes recorded (for more detail, see
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 test and needle biopsybiopsy
, examination of cells or tissues removed from a living organism. Excised material may be studied in order to diagnose disease or to confirm findings of normality. Preparatory techniques depend on the nature of the tissue and the kind of study intended.
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, in which a fine needle is inserted into the gland and cells are extracted for laboratory analysis. In some cases a bone scan is also performed to rule out metastatic disease. Because PSA tests detect not only aggressive cancers but slow-growing cancers that are not life-threatening, many people disagree with routine PSA testing of asymptomatic men. A review of the test by a U.S. task force indicated that the test has led to treatments that compromise quality of life without assuring a longer life; the task force recommended (2011) that the test not be given to normal healthy men. An additional problem with the test is that some men with normal PSA levels will in fact have prostate cancer.

Treatment

Very small cancers or slow-growing cancers in older men are now often watched and not treated unless there are changes in test results; most men who have prostate cancer do not usually die from it even if it is not treated. For most other patients with localized tumors, surgical removal of the prostate gland (prostatectomy) is the initial treatment, despite possible side effects of urinary incontinence and impotence. After surgery, a repeated blood test for protein-specific antigen can indicate whether any cancer remains. In metastatic disease, other treatments are employed depending on the stage of the disease and the age and health of the patient. Treatment options include external-beam radiation, implantation of radioactive isotopes, and palliative surgery. Hormonal manipulation by giving estrogens or other drugs, or by orchiectomy (removal of the testes), is sometimes used to decrease levels of testosterone.

Bibliography

See M. Korda, Man to Man (1996), and P. Walsh and J. F. Worthington, Dr. Patrick Walsh's Guide to Surviving Prostate Cancer (2001). See also publications of the National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society.

References in periodicals archive ?
Locally recurrent prostate cancer after initial radiation therapy: Early salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound improves oncologic outcomes.
Four independent studies examined a total of 98 patients with elevated blood PSA levels but no sign of recurrent prostate cancer on conventional imaging.
17), (18) These series indicate that SRARP is feasible and safe in patients with locally recurrent prostate cancer after failure of radiation therapy and/or cryotherapy and suggest that the oncological and functional outcomes are comparable to those of open surgery.
MD, of the Foundation for Cancer Research and Education is building upon these early findings by conducting a study titled "A Single Site, Phase II Clinical Trial: Treatment of Slow-Growing Recurrent Prostate Cancer with Vitamin D3" in Earlysville, Virginia.
physicians and patients with the only therapeutic option approved by the FDA specifically for the treatment of recurrent prostate cancer.
Operational Characteristics of C-11 Choline PET Scan for Prostate Cancer Patients with Biochemical Recurrence Following Initial Treatment" - The operational performance of C11-choline PET for evaluating patients with recurrent prostate cancer supports the favorable claims regarding this technology.
Salvage cryotherapy using an argon based system for locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy: the Columbia experience.
Unfortunately, the current strategies for dealing with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer represent a difficult risk-benefit analysis.
Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs, who is currently in treatment for advanced, recurrent prostate cancer.
Treatment of locally advanced or locally recurrent prostate cancer often involves both radical prostatectomy and external beam radiotherapy; a multidisciplinary management approach is encouraged.
7] recurrent prostate cancer after radical radiation therapy is a common problem, with often a long interval from biochemical failure to the time of symptomatic relapse (with a recognized intermediary state being asymptomatic metastatic relapse).
The Prostate Cancer Foundation is the world's largest philanthropic source of support for prostate cancer research focused on discovering better treatments and a cure for recurrent prostate cancer.

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