Red River Settlement

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Red River Settlement,

agricultural colony in present Manitoba, North Dakota, and Minnesota. It was the undertaking of Thomas Douglas, 5th earl of SelkirkSelkirk, Thomas Douglas, 5th earl of,
1771–1820, Scottish philanthropist, founder of the Red River Settlement.
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. Wishing to relieve the dispossessed and impoverished in Scotland and Northern Ireland, he secured enough control of the Hudson's Bay CompanyHudson's Bay Company,
corporation chartered (1670) by Charles II of England for the purpose of trade and settlement in the Hudson Bay region of North America and for exploration toward the discovery of the Northwest Passage to Asia.
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 to obtain from it a grant of land called Assiniboia. This project met opposition from the very start, principally from the North West CompanyNorth West Company,
fur-trading organization in North America in the late 18th and early 19th cent.; it was composed of Montreal trading firms and fur traders. Formation
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, but also from the fur traders in the Hudson's Bay Company. Despite efforts to discourage the colony, Miles Macdonnell, a Selkirk man, brought a small group to the colony in 1812. The determined hostility of the North West Company mounted, especially after the company men had won the Métis (people of mixed European–indigenous Canadian descent), entirely to their side. By cajolery and threat they persuaded settlers to desert, but a new group of settlers came, and the colony was restored in 1815. North West Company men and Métis now resorted to violence on a large scale, killing 22 in the massacre of Seven Oaks (June 19, 1816). On hearing the news of the massacre, Selkirk fell upon the North West Company post, Fort William, and seized it. Other attacks followed. The result of these moves was a series of court charges and countercharges that impoverished Selkirk and helped to bring about the union (1821) of the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company. Agriculture had by this time been firmly established on the Western plains, and the Red River settlements were to grow and flourish. See also Riel, LouisRiel, Louis
, 1844–85, Canadian insurgent, leader of two rebellions, b. Manitoba, of French and Métis parentage. In 1869–70 he led the rebels of the Red River settlements, mainly Métis (people of mixed European–indigenous descent) and indigenous
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.

Bibliography

See J. P. Pritchett, The Red River Valley, 1811–1849 (1942); J. M. Gray, Lord Selkirk of Red River (1964).

References in periodicals archive ?
From the earliest years of the Red River colony, a series of disasters prevented any real farming progress.
A hero of the War of 1812, he was in 1822 appointed governor of the District of Assiniboia, which included the Red River Colony and what today is northern North Dakota and Minnesota.
When Lord Selkirk's colonists arrived at the Red River colony in 1812, the first concern of the colony's manager--a lay Catholic named Captain Miles MacDonnell--was to arrange for the pastoral care of the Catholic population of the North West, which at that time comprised 750 traders, colonists, aboriginals, and Metis.
In 1811, the HBC established its entrepot the Red River Colony (present-day Winnipeg, Manitoba) at the confluence of the Red and the Assiniboine Rivers or 'The Forks' (as it was commonly called).
In 1814 Cameron took part in a campaign to drive the newly-arrived Selkirk settlers out of their Red River colony.
By the time the Red River Colony was established in 1811, marrying Indian women became less popular, Governor Simpson divorced Ms.
Meanwhile, in the Red River colony where the Metis had years before built their houses and laid their claim to the land, trouble was brewing.
The Red River Colony is a long-established settlement of mostly French-speaking Metis people.
After fifteen years he moved back to Canada, where he became the first sheriff of the Red River Colony.
Andrew's Society of Winnipeg, asked Winnipeg officials to rename the land Fort Douglas Park after Thomas Douglas, the 5th Earl of Selkirk, who established the Red River colony there in 1813.
Today, however, the organization is trying to confine its membership to descendents of the Red River colony and a few other pockets of "traditional homeland" in the prairie provinces, northwestern Ontario and northeastern British Columbia.
The only baptized woman in the Red River colony, she became known as the `Godmother' of the Prairies.