Calcium plays a multitude of roles in brain cell physiology, including such events as the generation of the action potential that innervates neurons, the calcium-induced release of neurotransmitters
at the synaptic junction that transmits the electrical activity of one neuron to another, and the calcium activation of genetic events leading to the formation and the modification of synaptic junctions.
2) Impaired exocytosis and release of neurotransmitter
This in turn triggers the release of neurotransmitters
into the next synapse which then stimulate receptors in an adjacent nerve cell and so it goes on and on.
The release of neurotransmitters
(ligands) also requires a mechanism that involves voltage-sensitive calcium and sodium channels.
The researchers added: "Exercise, like drugs of abuse, leads to the release of neurotransmitters
such as endorphins and dopamine, which are involved with a sense of reward.
Magnesium acts as a mild calcium antagonist on vascular smooth muscle tone, and on postreceptor insulin signaling; it is critically involved in energy metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, glucose utilization, ATPase functions, release of neurotransmitters
, and endothelial cell function and secretion.
It causes the release of neurotransmitters
that are associated with positive feelings such as pleasure, energy, relaxation, focus, and euphoria.
Many studies under way around the country suggest that when placed in the acupuncture point, an acupuncture needle stimulates the release of neurotransmitters
, or neurochemicals, from the brain and spinal cord--natural occurring painkillers such as endorphins and serotonin, among others--that help reduce pain and inflammation.
Release of neurotransmitters
from nociceptive neurons (and at all CNS synapses) depends on N-type and P/Q-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs).
Mechanisms of action include activation of nerve pathways, release of neurotransmitters
and hormones, triggering of local immune and circulatory responses, and alteration of gene expression.
Furthermore, nitric oxide has an important role in LTP, acting as a retrograde messenger (Bliss and Collingridge 1993; Prast and Phillipu 2001; Snyder 1992), increasing the release of neurotransmitters
including glutamate, which in turn stimulate the NMDA receptors.
For the past couple of decades psychiatrists have been very concerned with events occurring at the synapse-the area where two nerve cells meet and communicate via the release of neurotransmitters