internment

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internment,

in international law, detention of the nationals or property of an enemy or a belligerent. A belligerent will intern enemy merchant ships or take them as prizeprize,
in maritime law, the private property of an enemy that a belligerent captures at sea. For the capture of the vessel or cargo to be lawful it must be made outside neutral waters and by authority of the belligerent.
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, and a neutral should intern both belligerent ships that fail to leave its ports within a specified time and belligerent troops that enter its territory. The practice of detaining persons considered dangerous during a war is often called internment, even though they may not be enemy nationals. In World War II the United States detained persons of Japanese ancestry and German or Italian citizenship in relocation centersrelocation center,
in U.S. history, camp in which Japanese and Japanese-Americans were interned during World War II. Fearing a Japanese invasion, the military leaders, under authority of an executive order, defined (Mar.
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 on the mainland; Japanese and Japanese Americans were also detained in internment camps in Hawaii. The Geneva Convention of 1949 on the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War provides for the unrestricted departure of enemy aliens from the territory of a belligerent at the outbreak of conflict, and the humane treatment of those aliens who choose to remain.

Internment

 

in international law the compulsory detention of foreign citizens by warring or neutral states during a time of armed conflict. Internees are settled in a defined locality which they are forbidden to leave. Internment of foreign civilians is distinguished from the internment of foreign military personnel.

Internment applies mainly in relation to civilians of one of the warring sides in permanent or temporary residence on the territory of the other warring side. Military personnel falling into the hands of the enemy are not internees but prisoners of war. Internment of enemy troops can take place only during an armistice, when military action and consequently the taking of prisoners cease.

Also subject to internment are military personnel of the warring sides arriving on the territory of a neutral state. Interned military personnel are disarmed and subjected to restrictions to prevent them from leaving the territory of the neutral state and resuming military activities. The neutral state supplies the internees with food and clothing and extends other services to them, which gives it the right to compensation after the end of hostilities.

Questions of internment were regulated by various clauses of the Geneva Convention of 1929. The Geneva Convention of 1949—Protection of the Civilian Population in Time of War— regulates in detail the status of foreign citizens and specifies that the place of internment must be outside the zone of military activities and, when possible, be designated by special markings. Internees are supported free of cost by the warring sides (they are supplied with such essentials as food, clothing, and medical help), and they have the right to correspond with relatives and with appropriate international organizations.

During World War II, fascist Germany brutally flouted the norms of international law on internment (for example, with regard to the right of asylum). Also in violation of international law was the internment by Anglo-American occupation authorities of Soviet citizens who had been forcibly transported by the Hitlerites to Germany and other European countries.

V. I. KUZNETSOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Remembering Manzanar describes the first of ten relocation camps established by Executive Order 9066 at the beginning of World War II for the internment of immigrant Japanese and Japanese Americans.
In the wake of Executive Order 9066, she instead joined the rest of her family at a temporary relocation camp in north Portland before being sent to a wartime internment camp in Idaho.
They lived in a relocation camp in eastern Italy during World War II and eventually immigrated to the United States.
Sights Unseen: The Photographic Constructions of Masumi Hayashi, collages depicting notorious places such as Manzanar Relocation Camp and a Superfund site, idyllic landscapes and affectionate portraits.
The lamps are especially suited for use in relocation camps and other temporary lodgings as they are safe, inexpensive and easy to assemble.
I felt a strange sensation in my stomach when I heard the last phrase "with liberty and justice for all" as I looked towards the veterans in their 90s who had once been incarcerated in wartime relocation camps, deprived of their liberty and justice as American citizens, and had to fight to regain it by proving their loyalty to the country through joining the military forces.
They were expected to be taken to relocation camps inside Greece.
The Greek government drafted in the army last month to ensure the five registration centres and two relocation camps on the mainland were completed on time.
As the bill was signed, Reeves records, Representative Robert Matsui of California, a former resident of the war relocation camps, said he believed the constant suspicion of disloyalty surrounding Japanese Americans had finally been lifted.
OVER THE last 50 years the national government has created a web of relocation camps in Metro Manila that resemble in some ways the Siberian gulags of the Soviet empire.
No citizens are interned in relocation camps because of their race, as was done to Japanese-Americans during World War II.
In February 1942, President Roosevelt signed the relocation order affecting all Japanese Americans on the west coast, moving them first into evacuation centers and then into relocation camps, "places where nobody had lived before and no one has lived since" (102).