Remonstrants


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Remonstrants

(rĕmŏn`strənts), Dutch Protestants, adherents to the ideas of Jacobus ArminiusArminius, Jacobus
, 1560–1609, Dutch Reformed theologian, whose original name was Jacob Harmensen. He studied at Leiden, Marburg, Geneva, and Basel and in 1588 became a pastor at Amsterdam.
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, whose doctrines after his death (1609) were called Arminianism. They were Calvinists but were more liberal and less dogmatic than orthodox Calvinists and diverged from the teachings of the Dutch Reformed Church. After the death of Arminius and under the leadership of Simon EpiscopiusEpiscopius, Simon
, 1583–1643, Dutch Protestant theologian, whose original name was Biscop, Bischop, or Bisschop. Episcopius accepted the teachings of Jacobus Arminius and was a leader of the Arminians, or Remonstrants, who opposed the Calvinist conception of
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, they set forth their articles of faith for Holland and West Friesland in a petition that became known as the Remonstrance. Their main variations from orthodox views, as set forth, were conditional, rather than absolute, predestination; universal atonement; the necessity of regeneration through the Holy Ghost; the possibility of resistance to divine grace; and the possibility of relapse from grace. A movement to suppress the Remonstrants was led by Franciscus Gomarus and Prince Maurice of NassauMaurice of Nassau
, 1567–1625, prince of Orange (1618–25); son of William the Silent by Anne of Saxony. He became stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland after the assassination (1584) of his father.
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, and finally, after a hearing at the Synod of Dort (1618–19), the orthodox position prevailed. Remonstrants were denied church services, and their leaders were persecuted and exiled. With the death of Prince Maurice in 1625 the ban was lifted and the religion was tolerated until 1795, when it was recognized as an independent church. The Remonstrants survive as a small group in the Netherlands. They have had a liberalizing influence on Calvinist doctrine as well as on other evangelical churches.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Flushing Remonstrants who asked for toleration for Quakers were punished severely as a consequence of their temerity in presuming that an appeal to the Netherlands' reputation for welcoming all the "sons of Adam," including "Jews, Turks, and Egyptians," would move the colony's government to reverse itself with respect to the enforcement of laws against welcoming Quakers.
In his view, unity between Lutherans and Calvinists could be established if the Five Articles of the Remonstrants were approached with the relevant experience of theologians from the Palatinate taken into account.
But by the mid-1980s both churches managed to produce a Declaration of Consensus, which was attractive enough to appeal to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands as well as the Remonstrant Brotherhood (Arminians) to participate in the "Together-on-the-Way" process.
34) "Catch-all charges such as "disturbing the peace" and "parasitism" resulted in police interrogation and jail time for remonstrants and other nuisances.
In this criticism, the Remonstrants are the polar opposite of the members of the "Reformed Alliance in the NRC".
Remonstrants and Contra-Remonstrants refer respectively to the Arminian party and their traditional Reformed opponents in the Netherlands.
This usage of 'Reformed' is not intended," he writes, "as a denial of the fact that Arminius and the Remonstrants before the Synod of Dort (1618-1619) considered themselves to be Reformed.
Other Protestant denominations included Baptists, Lutherans, Anglicans, Protestants from the United States, and Remonstrants.
This appointment provided the starting point for the ten-year battle between Remonstrants (Arminians) and contra-Remonstrants (also known as anti-Arminians or Gomarists), which ended only in 1619, when the Synod of Dordrecht banned Vorstius from Dutch soil.
In Holland, the Baptists presumably were aware of the theology of the Remonstrants, the followers of James Arminius, whose "Five Arminian Articles" were published in 1610 and elicited from the established church in Holland a five-point response by a famous Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618-19.
Since Zwicker's most important works were written during his Amsterdam tenure, Bietenholz's analysis offers good insights into the religious milieu of the city with its range of Christian options, reflected in the predominant Reformed tradition, divided among strict Calvinists and Remonstrants, its various strains of Mennonites, Moravians, free-thinkers, and underground Catholic schulkerken.
Turrettin, in the tradition of Grotius and the Remonstrants, attributed the obscurity of the Old Testament to its being accommodated to the ancient Israelites, and in consequence made little effort to defend the accuracy of the accounts in Genesis; instead, he vindicated their doctrinal content.