Renal Insufficiency

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Related to Renal Insufficiency: Adrenal insufficiency

Renal Insufficiency


a syndrome in which all kidney functions are impaired; it results in disturbance of water, electrolyte, and nitrogen metabolism.

Renal insufficiency may be acute or chronic. Acute renal insufficiency may be caused by shock resulting from trauma, burns, blood transfusions, or surgery. It may also be caused by the effect of such poisons as mercury or arsenic on the kidneys; by mushroom poisoning, drugs, infections, and such acute renal diseases as nephritis and pyelonephritis; and by obstruction of the upper urinary tract. The principal symptoms are oliguria or anuria (daily quantity of urine less than 400–500 ml), retention of nitrogenous residues in the body, disturbance of the fluid and acid-base balances, cardiovascular disorders, and anemia. Most of the changes that occur in the kidneys are reversible and diuresis is restored within two weeks, less commonly in one to two months. Treatment is aimed at eliminating such causes as shock and poisoning and at eliminating the metabolic disturbances. Hemodialysis and other means of extrarenal cleansing of blood are used to prevent and control uremia. Recovery with restoration of ability to work takes place within three to 12 months.

Chronic renal insufficiency may result from such kidney diseases as chronic diffuse glomerulonephritis, chronic pyelonephritis, and renal amyloidosis. It may also result from such dynamic or mechanical obstructions of the urinary tract as nephrolithiasis and urethrostenosis, from cardiovascular and collagen diseases, and from such endocrine disorders as diabetes mellitus. Chronicrenal insufficiency is accompanied by general weakness, insomnia, pruritus, dyspepsia, anemia, high and stable hypertension, electrolyte disturbances and, at a later stage, by polyuria giving way to oliguria. It is also accompanied by polyneuritis and by azotemia and uremia.

Treatment in the initial stage consists of a low-protein diet with restricted sodium intake and administration of hypotensive agents in the case of hypertension and of anabolic hormones, cardiac stimulants, and other drugs. At a later stage, when there is an increase in canalicular insufficiency as well, the diet is less restricted and additional measures are taken to maintain the blood’s electrolytic balance. Chronic hemodialysis and kidney transplants are used in the terminal stage of chronic renal insufficiency.


Osnovy nefrologii, vol. 1. Edited by E. M. Tareev. Moscow, 1972.


References in periodicals archive ?
The inclusion of an overload of sodium chloride to the diet caused a more evident renal insufficiency in a shorter period of time, without loss of animals.
5 Additionally, coronary ischemia is frequently present in patients with renal insufficiency and it is not very clear whether the Tn-I elevation is caused by ischemia or the chronic process of renal insufficiency.
8%) of 51 renal insufficiency patients developed CIN during their admission; but no patient were discharged with continued CIN.
The overall rates of CIN in patients with renal insufficiency were low (5.
Renal insufficiency is defined as "defective function of the kidneys, with accumulation of waste products (particularly nitrogenous) in the blood" (Pugh et al.
In 2005, Brigouri and colleagues reported that contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) rates were not significantly different when patients with chronic renal insufficiency were randomized to iodixanol or the low-osmolar agent iobitridol for their angiography procedures (CIN rates of 2.
At baseline, infants who weighed less than 2 kg; those with liver or renal insufficiency, or diabetes; or those requiring extracorporeal circulation membrane oxygenation (ECMO) were excluded.
Illustrated with diagrams and tables, 14 concise chapters discuss such topics as the nutritional requirements of healthy adults, the effects of renal insufficiency on endocrine function, and nutrition intervention for chronic renal disease.
The bottom line in patients with CKD or chronic renal insufficiency is that the outcome seems to be related to baseline blood pressure and the degree of renal insufficiency at the time of conception," she said.
There have been 29 reported cases of acute renal failure or renal insufficiency out of 4.
SAN DIEGO -- Older adults with moderate renal insufficiency as indicated by an elevated serum creatinine level are at 58% higher risk for vascular-type dementia, Dr.