Whereas The Fair Maid of the West and A Christian Turned Turk affirm the permanence of a true turning Turk (even if that turn is isolated within a particular segment of the individual's identity), Phillip Massinger's 1624 play The Renegado
challenges rigid notions of the permanence of turning Turk by opening up the possibility of both partial and complete prodigal return.
It is the work of tragicomedies like The Island Princess and The Renegado
, she argues, to assist in such imagining: "in these narratives, it is the very liberating effects of trade that enable value to be transferred and profits to be made" (117).
Beatnik's Production Music Site provided such titles as Astral Anakhy, Dark Decks, Gang Star, In-Tendo, Loungy Sixties, Renegado
de la causa en que fundaste tu vida entera.
Valerie Forman argues, in the only in-depth study of economics and religion in Massinger to date, that The Renegado
is tragic-comical insofar as it proffers a "logic of investment" that redeems money exported to foreign markets with the expectation of "prosperous return.
Ward's story joins other dramas, such as Marlowe's Tamburlaine, Thomas Heywood's Fair Maid of the West, Robert Greene's Selimus, Emperor of the Turks, and Philip Massinger's The Renegado
, that exploit foreign otherness, especially that embodied by the Turks.
Of these, Marlowe's Tamburlaine and Jew of Malta, Daborne's A Christian Turn'd Turk, Fletcher's Island Princess, Massinger's Renegado
, Middleton's mayoral pageants, Fulke Greville's Mustapha, and Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice and Othello, earn sustained, productive attention.
Philip Massinger's The Renegado
(1624) dramatizes the predicament of displaced Europeans in Ottoman North Africa, the religious and sexual temptations of which appear as fantasies of miscegenation and emasculation.
This feared, and what was to some, apocalyptic, trend, inspired many popular English plays, notably Robert Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk and Phillip Massinger's The Renegado
She examines mimesis, demonic doubling, conversion, cross-dressing, and castration in Heywood's Fair Maid of the West, Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk, Heywood and Rowley's Fortune by Land and Sea, and Massinger's The Renegado
Such texts as Ercilla's Araucana is paired for discussion with Perez de Hita's Guerras civiles de Granada, as are the Inca Garcilaso's Comentarios reales with Guaman Poma de Ayala's Nueva coronica I buen gobierno, and from England, Heywood and Rowley's Fortune by Land and Sea and Massinger's The Renegado
The English came to fear the Turk within, came to fear the convert to Islam--the renegado
or runagado and yet to be fascinated by him or her too.