ships specially equipped for research and scientific observations on oceans, seas, and lakes. Depending on size and purpose, they have various laboratories and equipment for observations and data processing, as well as deck facilities (such as hydrological, trawling, and other hoists; equipment for launching weather rockets; and radar installations).
Depending on their purpose, research ships are classified as (1) oceanographic ships, which handle meteorological, oceano-graphic, biological, and geological-geophysical research; (2) weather ships, which make meteorological and oceanographic observations utilized for reports used by ships and aircraft; (3) acoustic ships, which do hydroacoustic and oceanographic research; (4) geomagnetic ships, which study the earth’s magnetic field; (5) biological and fishery ships, which study biology, fishing, and oceanography; (6) geological research ships, which investigate the geological structure of the sea bottom and the mineral resources of the seas and oceans; and (7) hydrological ships, which make observations in coastal zones of seas, the mouths of rivers, and lakes.
Depending on the purpose and on the area in which they work, research ships vary from sloops and boats to vessels of medium to large tonnage. The Soviet research fleet includes all types of research ships. The largest of them are the Academik Kurchatov, Academik Korolev, Academik Knipovich, Sergei Vavi-lov, and Mikhail Lomonosov, reaching displacements of 7,000 tons and more. Research ships are often called expeditionary ships.
A. M. MUROMTSEV