Resid Pasa, Mustafa
Reşid Paşa, Mustafa
Born Mar. 13, 1800, in Istanbul; died Jan. 7, 1858, on Crete. Turkish diplomat and statesman.
As ambassador to Paris and London in the years 1834–37, Reşid became a proponent of European civilization. He was minister of foreign affairs several times in the years 1837–45, and grand vizier six times in the period 1846–58. He attempted to implement in Turkey the principles of European state organization and carry out reforms in finance and education without disrupting feudal relations. He was the author of a decree—Hatt-1 şerif of Gülhane—issued in 1839 by the sultan, which marked the beginning of the series of reforms known as the Tanzimat. Reşid felt that these reforms would save the Ottoman Empire from interference by the European powers, but he encountered stubborn resistance from reactionary circles, particularly the Muslim religious leaders and higher officials. He was repeatedly removed from senior posts and exiled from Istanbul.
REFERENCENovichev, A. D. Istoriia Turtsii, vol. 3, part 2. Leningrad, 1973. (Bibliography.)
G. A. KLEINMAN