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(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.



in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.




References in periodicals archive ?
Seniors are also invited to participate in a resistance training webcast Brookdale will hold at 3:30 p.
Due to the lack of scientific data on the nutritional supplement, NMDA, and having to rely on manufactures' claims and anectodtal reports regarding the effectiveness of NMDA supplementation in increasing endogenous testosterone levels, it is tenuous at best to assume that the NMDA product may prove beneficial as a means in which to increase muscle performance associated with heavy resistance training.
Kraemer of the University of Connecticut, co-edited the book, a review of existing research in the field (much of it quite new) and a plea for more scholars to study the potential of resistance training and more health care providers to recommend it.
It found only 16 per cent undertake regular resistance training, while 32 per cent said they did it occasionally as part of mixed circuit routines.
Basal concentrations and acute responses of serum hormones and strength development during heavy resistance training in middle-aged and elderly men and women.
When the results were analyzed, it was shown that the protein supplement taken 20 minutes before resistance training created a significantly greater metabolic response than the carbohydrate.
The women were assigned to resistance training or balance and tone training.
At one session they performed moderate intensity aerobic exercise (treadmill running at 60% of their predetermined VO2 peak) of 45 minutes followed by a 45 minute bout of resistance training (three sets of eight repetitions with 90 seconds rest between sets).
They randomly assigned 195 patients with stage 1 - 4 disease on the Hoehn and Yahr staging scale (which ranges from 1 to 5, with higher stages indicating more severe disease) to 1 of 3 groups: tai chi, resistance training, or stretching.
Some research suggests that slightly higher protein intake, coupled with resistance training, can lead to improved muscle mass in older men (5).
However, resistance training improves muscular strength and endurance, enhances flexibility, changes body composition specially decreases fat-free mass, and decreases risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have reported changes in IAAT after resistance-exercise training (RT) (3).
Tai chi improved postural stability and other functional outcomes in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease to a significantly greater extent than did resistance training over the course of a 6-month period in a randomized, controlled trial.

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