reverse transcriptase

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Reverse transcriptase

Any of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerases present in particles of retroviruses which are able to carry out DNA synthesis using an RNA template. This reaction is called reverse transcription since it is the opposite of the usual transcription reaction, which involves RNA synthesis using a DNA template. See Retrovirus

The transfer of genetic information from RNA to DNA in retrovirus replication was proposed in 1964 by H. M. Temin in the DNA provirus hypothesis for the replication of Rous sarcoma virus, an avian retrovirus which causes tumors in chickens and transformation of cells in culture, and reverse transcriptase has since been purified from virions of many retroviruses. The avian, murine, and human retrovirus DNA polymerases have been extensively studied.

Studies indicate that reverse transcriptase is widely distributed in living organisms and that all reverse transcriptases are evolutionarily related. For example, the organization of the nucleotide sequence of integrated retroviral DNA has a remarkable resemblance to the structure of bacterial transposable elements, in particular, transposons.

Reverse transcriptase genes are present in the eukaryotic organisms in retrotransposons and in retroposons or long interspersed (LINE) elements. Both of these types of elements can transpose in cells. See Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Ribonucleic acid (RNA), Transposons

reverse transcriptase

[ri′vərs tran′skrip‚tās]
(genetics)
A polymerase that mediates deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis by using a ribonucleic acid template.
References in periodicals archive ?
A) Three plaque preparations (AcSINV-3 CiC, AcSINV-3 CiD, and AcSINV-3 DiD) were separated by centrifugation into soluble and pelleted fractions, treated with DNase I, reverse transcribed, and the 3' end of the genome amplified by PCR.
Total RNA extracted from Dictyostelium-epo extracted by the modified method and reverse transcribed.
Total RNA from the samples (12 [micro]L) was reverse transcribed in a reaction volume of 20 [micro]L, using 2 [micro]L 10 x RT buffer, 2 [micro]L 25 x dNTPs, 1 [micro]L 10 x RT random primer, 1 [micro]L oligo(dT) primer, 1 [micro]L RNase inhibitor, and 1 [micro]L Omniscript RT.
Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed into complementary DNA.
The RNA extracted from formalin-fixed brain tissue was reverse transcribed and amplified by polymerase chain reaction.
Total RNA was extracted from tissue samples and reverse transcribed.
In contrast, oligo(dT) priming gave a relatively higher absolute concentration of the 3' amplicon because RNA molecules without a 3' end could not be reverse transcribed in this system.
5 [micro]g) was reverse transcribed using MuLV (murine leukemia virus) reverse transcriptase (50 U) in 1 x PCR buffer (50 mM KCl and 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.
XMRV RNA was reverse transcribed from total RNA, after which nested PCR or real-time PCR were conducted as recently described (1,12).
When we instead added RNA MultiStandard with the same sequence as the DNA standard to the test samples and reverse transcribed it before QPCR, the reverse transcription yield could be calculated as:
5 [micro]g) was reverse transcribed using murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (50 U) in 1 x polymerase chain reaction (PCR) buffer (50 mM KCl and 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.

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