Institutional Revolutionary party

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Institutional Revolutionary party,

Span. Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI), Mexican political party. Established in 1929 as the National Revolutionary party by former President Plutarco CallesCalles, Plutarco Elías
, 1877–1945, Mexican statesman, president (1924–28). In 1913 he left schoolteaching to fight with Álvaro Obregón and Venustiano Carranza against Victoriano Huerta.
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, it brought together the country's governmental, military, and agricultural leaders in a program of socioeconomic reform. In 1938 it was renamed the Mexican Revolutionary party, and in 1946 it acquired its present name. During the rest of the century all Mexican presidents and most officials belonged to the PRI, which was often accused of corruption and electoral fraud, the most clear-cut national example of the latter being the 1988 presidential election. Its victory margins decreased in the 1980s and 90s, and it lost some state elections to its opponents, but the party still remained Mexico's dominant political group.

In 1994 the PRI's presidential candidate, Luis Donaldo Colosio MurrietaColosio Murrieta, Luis Donaldo
, 1948–94, Mexican politician and government official, b. Magdalena del Kino, Mex. He studied at the Univ. of Pennsylvania and in Austria, returning to Mexico, where he began his political career.
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, was assassinated; the party's new candidate, Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de LeónZedillo Ponce de León, Ernesto
, 1951–, Mexican politician, president of Mexico (1994–2000). Educated as an economist in Mexico and the United States and a member of the Institutional Revolutionary party (PRI) since 1971, he served as Mexico's minister of
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, won the presidency by a narrow margin. In the 1997 National Congress elections the party lost its majority in the lower house, although it remained the largest party. Zedillo worked to modernize and democratize both Mexico and the party.

In 1999 the PRI broke with the tradition of having presidents pick their own successors and held its first presidential primary. Nonetheless, in the 2000 national elections, the PRI candidate, Francisco Labastida Ochoa, lost to Vicente Fox QuesadaFox Quesada, Vicente
, 1942–, Mexican political leader, president of Mexico (2000–6). Raised on a ranch in rural central Mexico's Guanajuato state, he became a successful rancher and business executive.
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, of the National Action party (PAN), ending more than 70 years of PRI control of the national government. The 2006 elections saw Roberto Madrazo, the PRI candidate for president, place third, and the party also came in third in terms of the vote for members of Mexico's congress.

The PRI nonetheless continued to be the nation's largest party in terms of local and state government officeholders, and when Mexico experienced an economic downturn in 2009 the party won a plurality in the lower house of Congress. The PRI regained the presidency in 2012, when its candidate, Enrique Peña Nieto, the former governor of Mexico state, won, and with its allies won a lower house majority in 2012 and 2015.

Bibliography

See J. Castañeda, The Inheritance (1999).

References in periodicals archive ?
Political analysts, members of the Catholic church, academics, popular leaders and street vendors alike say events in Chiapas have prompted a nationwide impulse that could eventually loosen the ironclad grip of the Revolutionary Institutional Party (PRI), which has ruled Mexico for 70 years.
Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto, of the right-center Revolutionary Institutional Party (PRI), has unveiled the oil industry's much-awaited plans to allow the private sector to play a larger role in the finances of the state-owned oil company, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), which is set to take the form of legislation soon.
Such an agreement would presumably give the party greater influence in government in exchange for assuming the role of negotiator with other political parties-- particularly the Revolutionary Institutional Party (PRI)--to push through priority reforms.
Having successfully campaigned as an independent voice who would not be beholden to the Revolutionary Institutional Party (PRI) that ruled Mexico for 70 years, Fox finds himself with few reliable allies as he tries to push a very ambitious agenda.
Mexico's charismatic president-elect--then eleven days from taking the oath of office and ending the seventy-one-year monolithic rule of the center-left Revolutionary Institutional Party (RPI)--arrived to introduce his new cabinet.
Although the $141 billion budget won praise from foreign analysts for its spending discipline, it has come under attack from both the Revolutionary Institutional Party (PRI) and the leftist Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), which are demanding increases in social spending.
But within a week, authorities had arrested 40 people in connection with the massacre, most of them linked to the ruling Revolutionary Institutional Party, PRI, including the local mayor of Chenalho, Jacinto Arias Cruz.
GUADALAJARA -- A contested election in Jalisco state has energized the Revolutionary Institutional Party (PR[) just a few months after losing its 70-year grip on power in Mexico earlier this summer and embarrassed President-elect Vicente Fox.
Mexico's ruling Revolutionary Institutional Party, PRI, and the opposition National Action Party, PAN, have been struggling to out-Catholic each other as they posture and politic for the Nov.
Fox was elected as a crusading reformer who promised to clean up the Mexican public sector and government that has been run for 71 years by the often autocratic and corrupt Revolutionary Institutional Party (PRI).

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