Rhineland


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Rhineland

(rīn`lănd'), Ger. Rheinland, region of W Germany, along the Rhine River. The term is sometimes used to designate only the former Rhine ProvinceRhine Province,
Ger. Rheinprovinz, former province of Prussia, W Germany. The province was also known as Rhenish Prussia and as the Rhineland. The northern section of the former province (which contained part of the industrial Ruhr district) is now included in the state
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 of Prussia, but in its general meaning it also includes the Rhenish PalatinatePalatinate
, Ger. Pfalz, two regions of Germany. They are related historically, but not geographically. The Rhenish or Lower Palatinate (Ger.
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, Rhenish and S HesseHesse
, Ger. Hessen, state (1994 pop. 5,800,000), 8,150 sq mi (24,604 sq km), central Germany. Wiesbaden is the capital. It is bounded by Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria in the south, Rhineland-Palatinate in the west, North Rhine–Westphalia and Lower Saxony in
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, and W BadenBaden
, former state, SW Germany. Karlsruhe was the capital. Stretching from the Main River in the northeast across the lower Neckar valley and along the right bank of the Rhine to Lake Constance (Bodensee), the former state of Baden bordered on France and the Rhenish Palatinate
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. (For a description, see RhineRhine
, Du. Rijn, Fr. Rhin, Ger. Rhein, Lat. Rhenus, principal river of Europe, c.820 mi (1,320 km) long. It rises in the Swiss Alps and flows generally north, passing through or bordering on Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, France, and
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.) Cologne, Mainz, and Ludwigshafen are among the chief cities. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) after World War I provided for the Allied occupation of most of the region; the RuhrRuhr
, region, c.1,300 sq mi (3,370 sq km), North Rhine–Westphalia, W Germany; a principal manufacturing center of Germany. The Ruhr lies along, and north of, the Ruhr River (145 mi/233 km long), which rises in the hills of central Germany and flows generally west to the
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 district was occupied by French and Belgian forces from 1923 to 1925. Largely as a result of the efforts of the German foreign minister, Gustav StresemannStresemann, Gustav
, 1878–1929, German statesman. A founder (1902) and director (until 1918) of the Association of Saxon Industrialists, Stresemann entered the Reichstag in 1907 as a deputy of the National Liberal party and represented the interests of big business.
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, the last occupation troops (who were French) withdrew from the Rhineland in June, 1930, five years before the terminal date set by the treaty. The Treaty of Versailles had also provided that after Germany recovered the occupied territories, it was to maintain no fortifications on the left bank of the Rhine and within a zone extending 31 mi (50 km) E of the Rhine. Germany specifically reaffirmed those conditions in the Locarno Pact of 1925. In Mar., 1936, however, the National Socialist (Nazi) government of Germany began to remilitarize the Rhineland, and at the same time Hitler denounced the Locarno Pact. The League of Nations censured Germany, but took no further action. The German fortifications in the Rhineland—the so-called Siegfried Line—were an extensive system of defenses in depth, which were penetrated by the Allies in World War II only after very heavy fighting. The Rhineland was the scene of the Rhenish separatist movement, whose leaders staged uprisings in Düsseldorf, Bonn, Koblenz, Wiesbaden, and Mainz, and proclaimed a Rhineland republic at Aachen in 1923; the movement, however, collapsed in 1924.

Rhineland

the region of Germany surrounding the Rhine
References in periodicals archive ?
Focusing mainly on the newly Prussian Rhineland, James M.
Brophy proposes looking at Vormarz Rhineland, which after the Vienna settlement in 1815 became a province of eastward-looking and absolutist Prussia.
Somewhat surprisingly, the old bishoprics of the Rhineland encouraged widespread schooling, leading to a literacy rate of somewhere between 70 and 80 per cent.
So far, the Ford Focus (European model), Focus C-MAX, S-MAX, and Galaxy models have achieved the TUV Rhineland "Allergy-Tested Interior" seal of approval.
The head honcho, gun designer and machinist at Rhineland Arms is Thomas Seidel.
The Rhineland Regional Museum started as long ago as the 1820s, and has accumulated a distinguished collection ranging from the 40000 year old skeleton of Neanderthal man to contemporary artworks.
Landesbank Nordrhein-Westfalen is owned by the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, the Regional Associations of the Rhineland and Westphalia-Lippe, and the Savings and Giro Associations of the Rhineland and Westphalia-Lippe.
When Hitler contemplated retaking the Rhineland, for instance, Neurath boldly contradicted the Fuhrer's other advisers and urged him to move ahead, secure in the knowledge (through reports he'd gathered but not shared) that France wasn't prepared to protect the area.
The so-called "Retrofit Program" of the lignite power plants of RWE Rheinbraun AG, the German Rhineland brown coal miner and power generator, has been completed with the bringing back into operation of a generating block at its Niederaussem power plant.
The catalog begins with a brief essay by Herzig assessing the question of continuity of antisemitism in the Rhineland and Westphalia.
The military records and two history books detailing Chuck's service at Normandy, northern France, Rhineland, the Ardennes and Central Europe during World War II.