In both studied species, the adult rhizophore is thickened and exhibits a uniseriate epidermis (Figure 12) with stomata.
In both species, the adventitious root system of the rhizophore consists of roots at different stages of development.
In addition, because the rhizophore is an organ capable of expanding the rhizosphere and conferring resistance and vegetative propagation (Andreata and Menezes, 1999), it is understandable that the rhizophore accumulates large amounts of starch grains, such as the ones regularly found in the cortex and throughout the vascular cylinder of the structure in both studied species.
In conclusion, the axillary bud and the pericycle participate in the process of rhizophore nodal thickening.
According to them, the rhizophores of this species, unlike the rhizomes, have two stem axes during the early stages of development.
The rhizophores of Smilax exhibit nodal thickening from which all adventitious roots of the plant are emitted (Martins et al.
Rhizophores and adventitious roots of different diameters in the underground system were analysed.
Regarding the rhizophores (Figures 1-4), the two species have in common the rigidity, thickening in the nodal regions, and the formation of white (Figure 2) and brown adventitious roots (Figures 3-4).
The epidermis with stomata in rhizophores, most likely resulting from the derivation from aerial structures (Andreata and Menezes, 1999; Appezzato-da-Gloria, 2003), is a pattern already recorded in other Smilax species (Andreata and Menezes, 1999; Palhares and Silveira, 2005; Guimaraes et al.