Riazan


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Riazan’

 

a city and the administrative center of Riazan’ Oblast, RSFSR. Situated on the right bank of the Oka River (2 km from the river), at its confluence with the Trubezh River, Riazan’ is a large landing on the Oka and a junction of railroad lines to Moscow, Vladimir, Ruzaevka, and Riazhsk. Population, 419,000 (1975; in 1939, 95,000; in 1959, 214,000; in 1970, 350,000). The city is divided into four urban districts.

Initially, Riazan’ was the name of the capital of the Riazan’ Principality, located 50 km southeast of present-day Riazan’. Today the old capital is called the gorodishche (site of a fortified town) of Riazan’ Staraia (Old Riazan’). The city was devastated by the Mongol Tatars in 1237. In the mid-14th century the capital of the principality was transferred to Pereiaslavl’-Riazanskii (first mentioned in the annals under 1095), which in 1521 became part of the Muscovite state. In 1708, Pereiaslavl’-Riazanskii was included in Moscow Province; in 1778 it was renamed Riazan’ and became the capital of a vicegerency; and in 1796 it became the center of Riazan’ Province.

In the second half of the 19th century, iron foundries, distilleries, and lard-making enterprises were established in the city. The first Social Democratic circle was founded in Riazan’ in 1904, and the workers of Riazan’ participated in the October All-Russian political strike of 1905. Soviet power was established on Oct. 26-30 (Nov. 8-12), 1917. In 1929-30, Riazan’ was a district administrative center in Moscow Oblast, and in 1937 it became the administrative center of Riazan’ Oblast.

During the Soviet era, Riazan’ was transformed into a major industrial center. The city provides 60 percent of the oblast’s gross industrial output. Prior to the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) food-processing, light industry, and woodworking accounted for two-thirds of the city’s industrial output. After the war Riazan’ became an important industrial center with a preponderance of heavy industry, primarily machine building. The largest plants produce machine tools, forge and press equipment, potato-harvesting combines, tabulating machines, thermal instruments, radios, and chemical fibers. A refinery processes petroleum obtained via the Al’met’evsk-Gorky-Riazan’-Moscow pipeline. Other major industries include the production of cardboard, roofing materials, and building materials, food processing, light industry (garment and footwear factories, tanning plant), and woodworking (furniture combine).

The ancient heart of Riazan’ is the kremlin (founded in 1095), situated on the northern edge of the city on a high promontory at the confluence of the Trubezh and Lebed’ rivers. In the kremlin are the 15th-century Khristorozhdestvenskii Cathedral, rebuilt in 1826 in the classical style; the 16th-century Arkhangel’skii Cathedral, whose height was increased by additions in 1647; and the Uspenskii Cathedral (1693–99, architect la. G. Bukhvostov), built in the Naryshkin style, with an overall height of 60 m. The Uspenskii Cathedral’s detached bell tower (1789–1840, principal architects I. F. Russko and N. I. Voronikhin), reflecting the influence of the classical style, has an overall height of 83.2 m. Also noteworthy are the Church of the Holy Spirit (1642, architect V. Kh. Zubov), with two tent roofs, and the Archbishop’s Palace, known as the Oleg Palace (1653–92, architects lu. K. Iarshov and G. L. Mazukhin). Southwest of the kremlin are the main squares—Sovetskaia (formerly Sobornaia) and Lenin.

In accordance with a general plan adopted in 1780, the city’s main thoroughfares were laid out essentially following the routes of the old streets: Sobornaia Street (now Revolution Street), opening onto Sobornaia Square and leading to the kremlin’s Uspenskii Cathedral, as well as Pochtovaia Street (now First of May Prospect) and Astrakhan Street (now Lenin Street), both crossing the city from southeast to northwest. The city acquired buildings in the classical style, notably the Gymnasium, now the agricultural institute (1808–15); the former Assembly of the Nobility, whose central part dates from the late 18th and early 19th centuries; the hospital (1816); and the commercial arcade, built in the first half of the 19th century.

In Soviet times, Riazan’ was reconstructed and modernized. A general plan drawn up by G. M. Slepykh and other architects was adopted in 1968. Noteworthy buildings erected between the mid-1950’s and mid-1970’s include the S. Esenin Theater and Concert Hall (1956, principal architect I. P. Antipov), the Post Office (1962, architects A. I. Kushkin and N. N. Istomin), the Riazan’-2 Station (1967, principal architect lu. M. Boldychev), and the Circus (1971, standard design). Large-scale residential construction is under way in the southern, western, and northwestern parts of the city. There are monuments to I. P. Pavlov (1949, architect A. A. Dzerzhkovich) and V. I. Lenin (1957, architect I. E. Rozhin), both executed in bronze and granite by M. G. Manizer. A granite monument to F. A. Poletaev was erected in 1970 (sculptor V. E. Tsigal’, architect L. G. Golubovskii).

Riazan’ is the site of the All-Union Research and Planning Institute for the Organization and Economics of the Material and Technical Supplying of Agriculture and for the Technology of Storing and Using Fertilizers and Toxic Chemicals; institutes of radio engineering, agriculture, pedagogy, and medicine; and 11 special secondary schools. Cultural institutions include the Museum-Preserve of the History of Architecture, the Art Museum, the Museum House of Academician I. P. Pavlov, and dramatic, young people’s, and puppet theaters.

I. P. Pavlov was born in Riazan’, and L. A. Zagoskin, M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin, K. E. Tsiolkovskii, and I. V. Michurin lived there.

REFERENCES

Dvorov, I. M. Riazan’: Ekonomiko-geograficheskii ocherk. Riazan’, 1961.
Mikhailovskii, E. V., and I. V. Il’enko. Riazan’. Kasimov [Moscow, 1969.]
Vagner, G. K. Riazan’. Moscow, 1971.
Denis’ev, S. N., and N. N. Demkin. Riazan’: Putevoditel’. Moscow, 1973.
Vagner, G. K., and S. V. Chugunov. Riazanskie dostopamiatnosti. Moscow, 1974.
Ocherki istorii Riazanskoi organizatsii KPSS. Moscow, 1974.
References in periodicals archive ?
A long personal experience in the archives in the deep country of Riazan province, 200 kilometers southeast from Moscow, is the priceless ground for Tracy McDonald's solid study on the Soviet countryside during the 1920s.
El 24 de marzo del 2000, dos dias antes de las elecciones en las que Putin gano la presidencia, la cadena NTV, propiedad del multimillonario ruso Vladimir Gusinski -a quien Putin tambien persiguio-, emitio un programa dedicado al incidente acaecido en la ciudad de Riazan.
Pero en el ano 1237 volvieron con 500 mil jinetes bajo el mando de Batu, sobrino nieto de Gengis Khan; destruyeron Bolgar, Riazan, Suzdalia, Rostov, Kiev, Chernigov, Moscu y Pereyaslavl.
Por aquellos dias me escribio a Riazan una larga y fogosa carta, por no llamarla casi tierna, porque, aunque eso fuera ajeno a su caracter, habia ese espiritu en su misiva: "mucho, mucho habian elogiado su relato, pero solo al leerlo veo que los elogios se quedan infinitamente cortos"; "debo reconocer que hace mucho no tenia la suerte de encontrar un trabajo de tan delicada y elevada factura artistica"; "es un relato para lectores atentos: en cada frase hay una revelacion"; "los detalles y pormenores de la vida cotidiana, el comportamiento de todos los personajes, son muy precisos y frescos, deliciosamente frescos".
Primero, las tropas mongolas ocuparon la importante ciudad rusa de Riazan, luego Kiev, pero nunca lograron conquistar las tierras del norte de Rusia con la ciudad de Novgorod como su capital.
72) Like the Riazan affair, this was a case of Tajik officials overreporting cotton production to meet central quotas.
Mais les fumees ont fait leur reapparition dans la capitale russe, portees par des vents depuis les regions voisines de Riazan et de Vladimir, dans le centre de la Russie, oE trois importants feux de tourbieres faisaient rage.
42) In 1388, the metropolitan in Moscow consecrated Archbishop Ioann, with the bishops of Smolensk and Riazan present; (43) and in 1416, the bishops of Rostov, Suzdal', Tver', Sarsk, and Perm, as well as the Grand Prince of Moscow and his brothers, attended the consecration of the monk Samson (Simeon) as Archbishop of Novgorod.
The Commissariat of Justice reported that in the second half of 192423% of the cases initiated by denunciations from selkory in Leningrad, 27% in Viatka, 31% in Riazan, and 50% in Vologda had to be dropped due to lack of evidence.
On the night of 27 January 1930, Avanesov, a member of a collectivization brigade, raped a peasant woman in the village of Malye Mochily in Pitelinskii district, Riazan county.
In addition to re-examining well known materials located at the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RGADA) and other established repositories of Old Belief writings, he effectively uses provincial diocesan archives -- notably those of Vologda, Riazan, Kholmogory, Novgorod, and Viatka.
In 1901, for instance, the peasant woman Pelagiia Markelova from the Riazan diocese sought and received the help of her parish priest in finding a particular icon to which she had been alerted in a series of dreams.