Road Building


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Road Building

 

a complex of construction activities that includes both roadbed and pavement construction and the construction of service structures and maintenance buildings. In its narrow aspect, road building is limited to the construction of the automobile highway itself, namely, to the construction of the roadbed and of the road pavement, and in inhabited areas to the construction of high-speed roads away from pedestrians, interchanges at various levels, sidewalks and squares, underground tunnels, and overpasses.

The materials used in building roads include soils, such as clays, loams, sandy loams, and sands for roadbeds; crushed stone, gravel, sand, bitumens, portland cement, asphalt cement, and concrete cement for pavements; various surface-active additives, which improve the properties of paving materials; and prefabricated products, such as blocks, pipes, and curbstones. Road construction starts with the preparatory work: clearing the land by removing trees, shrubs, stones, and the like. The earthwork operations of building embankments up to 1 m in height involve the use of such road-building machinery as power graders and bulldozers, which move and level the soil, and road rollers, which compact the roadbed. The construction of embankments exceeding 2 m in height involves the use of more basic machines, such as scrapers, power graders, and rollers. Earthmoving involves the use of excavators, trucks, and transport carts.

In the construction of the pavement, the number of successive layers and of the required road-building machinery depends on the nature of the roadbed and the type of surfacing. For example, the construction sequence in building an asphalt-cement surface may include laying a lower base layer of sand, an upper base of crushed stone treated with cement, two layers of bitumen-mineral mixtures, and a top coat of asphalt cement. The sequence follows: the sand is transported, leveled, and compacted; the crushed stone, cement, and water are brought and mixed; and the premixed bitumen-mineral and asphalt-cement mixtures are brought, spread, and compacted. The process may be changed depending on the various types of pavement, but the basic operations, such as the transport of materials, deposit, spreading, and compaction remain the same.

The most advanced method of road building is the cascade method, which involves the performance of all steps on separate sections of equal length by specialized crews moving along the road one after the other in a predetermined sequence. The length of the section is, as a rule, between 200 and 600 m.

REFERENCES

Stroitel’stvo avtomobil’nykh dorog, parts 1-2. Edited by N. N. Ivanov. Moscow, 1969-70.
Shestoperov, S. V. Dorozhno-stroitel’nye materialy. Moscow, 1969.

N. N. IVANOV

Road Building

April
In areas of Nigeria where the Igbo live, especially Mbaise, there is a festival in April known as Emume Ibo Uzo, or Road Building. It is a time for everyone in the community to get together and maintain the major thoroughfares by clearing and leveling them. This festival was particularly important in the days before government-sponsored road building became common.
SOURCES:
FolkWrldHol-1999, p. 266
References in periodicals archive ?
It is the purpose of the Manatee County to establish a multi-year written agreement to purchase, on an as required basis , the supply and/or supply and delivery of Road Building Materials.
Ruth Bradshaw, policy and research R manager said: "This proposal completely goes against the Government's own policy on road building in national parks and would cause huge damage to England's oldest national park.
Terex has entered into a contract to sell its road building operations in Brazil and certain product lines in the US to Fayat Group - France's largest construction machinery group, and manufacturer of Bomag and Marini.
Kamal Nath said the government was aware of the problems and was engaging with the state governments to speed up road building across the country.
Interim Police Chief Pete Kerns said safety is the top priority for police, and the Country Club Road building fits the bill.
He added: "At present up to 10,000 machine drivers, pavers, pipe layers, engineers and other professionals are engaged in road building.
Indeed, for the 35% of households in our poorest communities who don't have cars, a focus on road building simply reinforces their transport poverty.
Road building does, of course, have environmental effects but, as noted by other writers, traffic congestion has serious impacts also.
The reality is that, while some small scale new road building has a place in accessing new developments or to address very specific problems, as a way to resolve congestion, large-scale road building is both expensive and ultimately self-defeating.
With its walking distance to shops and restaurants in the downtown center, this Clinton Road building is ideal.
The plan will prohibit road building and motor vehicles, and allow park-goers the new privilege of wading in the valley's creek.
I AM amazed Glasgow politicians faced with problems paying for the Equal Pay settlements to their staff are proposing to cut frontline services when what is really needed is a cutback on road building in the city.