Anthony Eden(redirected from Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon)
(Earl of Avon). Born June 12, 1897, in Windleston, Durham. British statesman; a leader of the Conservative Party.
Eden comes from an aristocratic family. He was educated at Eton and Oxford University and was an infantry officer during World War I. He was a Conservative member of the House of Commons from 1923 to 1957. Eden was closely involved with British foreign policy for many years. He was secretary of state for foreign affairs from 1935 until 1938, when he left this post because of differences, basically of a tactical character, with Prime Minister N. Chamberlain, who was carrying out a policy of encouraging Germany’s fascist aggression. He was secretary of state for dominion affairs in 1939–40 and was secretary of state for foreign affairs in W. Churchill’s coalition cabinet from 1940 to 1945. Eden took part in the work of the Tehran Conference in 1943, in the Crimea [Yalta] and Potsdam conferences in 1945, and in other international conferences. He was again secretary of state for foreign affairs from 1951 to 1955 and was prime minister from April 1955 to January 1957. He attached primary importance to the preservation of Great Britain’s colonial position. Eden was one of the initiators of the Anglo-French-Israeli aggression against Egypt in 1956. After its failure, he was compelled to retire and to withdraw from active political life. He received the title of lord in 1961.
A. M. BELONOGOV