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Rochester,town, SE England, on the Medway River, chief town of the borough of Medway, which also includes ChathamChatham,
town, Kent, SE England, on the Medway River. Chatham, Rochester, and Gillingham form a contiguous urban area that is now the unitary borough of Medway. Chatham was a major naval station, with well-equipped dockyards, dry docks, and shipbuilding and repairing equipment;
..... Click the link for more information. and GillinghamGillingham
, town, SE England, on the Medway River, part of the unitary borough of Medway (which also includes Chatham and Rochester). Some of the former Chatham dockyards were in Gillingham.
..... Click the link for more information. . Cement, heavy machinery, electronic equipment, precision tools, and clothing are made. In Roman times it was called Durobrivae; it was also important in Saxon times. St. Augustine founded a mission and bishopric there in 604, and Bishop Gundulf had a cathedral built on its site in the late 11th and early 12th cent. Most of the present cathedral is of 12th- to 14th-century construction. A Norman wall 12 ft (3.7 m) thick surrounds the ruins of a 12th-century castle, which was several times beseiged. King's School for boys was refounded in 1542. James II left Rochester in disguise in 1688. Charles DickensDickens, Charles,
1812–70, English author, b. Portsmouth, one of the world's most popular, prolific, and skilled novelists. Early Life and Works
The son of a naval clerk, Dickens spent his early childhood in London and in Chatham.
..... Click the link for more information. 's home at Gadshill is nearby.
Rochester(rŏch`ĕstər, –ĭstər). 1 City (1990 pop. 70,745), seat of Olmsted co., SE Minn.; inc. 1858. It is a farm trade center, and its industries include printing and publishing, food processing, machinery, fabricated metal products, computers and electronic equipment, and construction materials. The city is famous as the home of the Mayo Clinic, the hospital complex that Charles Horace MayoMayo, Charles Horace
, 1865–1939, American surgeon, b. Rochester, Minn., M.D. Northwestern Univ., 1888. He specialized in goiter and cataract operations. His brother, William James Mayo, 1861–1939, b. Le Sueur, Minn., M.D. Univ.
..... Click the link for more information. and William James Mayo developed from the clinic founded (1889) by their father, Dr. W. W. Mayo. A state mental hospital and a Bible college are also there. Rochester has a symphony orchestra; a municipal band; and museums of art, medical science, history, and antique vehicles.
2 City (1990 pop. 26,630), Strafford co., SE N.H., on the Cocheco River, near the Maine line; settled 1728, inc. as a city 1891. Manufactures include electronic equipment, apparel, metal products, and consumer goods. An annual agricultural fair has been held there since 1875. In Rochester are an art gallery and an antique aircraft museum. The Lake Winnipesaukee recreation area is nearby.
3 Industrial city (1990 pop. 231,636), seat of Monroe co., W N.Y., a port of entry on the Genesee River and Lake Ontario, in a rich fruit and truck farm region; inc. 1817. It is a leading center in the production of photographic, photocopying, optical, and dental equipment; process control and recording instruments; and thermometers. Several major manufacturers of these products have head offices there. Rochester also ranks high in the manufacture of electronics, machinery, transportation equipment, and metal and plastic products. The city's core businesses declined in the 1990s, but growth in computer and technology companies provided new jobs.
The city is the seat of the Univ. of Rochester, Nazareth College of Rochester, the Rochester Institute of Technology (est. 1829), St. John Fisher College, and a theological seminary. The city's cultural features include the Rochester Philharmonic and the Eastman School of Music ensembles, the Rochester Museum of Art and Sciences (with a planetarium), the Memorial Art Gallery, the historical society, a zoo, and the Rundell Memorial Building, which houses the public library and an art gallery. Numerous parks and nurseries have earned Rochester the name Flower City.
Permanent settlement by Col. Nathaniel Rochester and others began in 1812. The Erie CanalErie Canal,
artificial waterway, c.360 mi (580 km) long; connecting New York City with the Great Lakes via the Hudson River. Locks were built to overcome the 571-ft (174-m) difference between the level of the river and that of Lake Erie.
..... Click the link for more information. gave impetus to Rochester's growth; flour milling became the first important industry. Rochester was a stop on the Underground RailroadUnderground Railroad,
in U.S. history, loosely organized system for helping fugitive slaves escape to Canada or to areas of safety in free states. It was run by local groups of Northern abolitionists, both white and free blacks.
..... Click the link for more information. . Prominent residents have been Susan B. AnthonyAnthony, Susan Brownell,
1820–1906, American reformer and leader of the woman-suffrage movement, b. Adams, Mass.; daughter of Daniel Anthony, Quaker abolitionist. From the age of 17, when she was a teacher in rural New York state, she agitated for equal pay for women
..... Click the link for more information. , who is buried in the Mount Hope Cemetery; Frederick DouglassDouglass, Frederick
, c.1818–1895, American abolitionist, b. near Easton, Md. as Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey. The son of a black slave, Harriet Bailey, and a white father, most likely his mother's owner, he reinvented himself by taking the name of Douglass (from
..... Click the link for more information. ; and George EastmanEastman, George,
1854–1932, American inventor, industrialist, and philanthropist, b. Waterville, N.Y. By mass production of his photographic inventions, Eastman enormously stimulated the development of photography as a popular hobby.
..... Click the link for more information. .
a city in the northeastern USA, in New York State. Population, 286,000 (1973; including suburbs, 990,000). It is a port on Lake Ontario (near the influx of the Genesee River) and the Erie Canal. As of 1973, industry employed 145,000. Rochester is the center of the optical-instruments industry in the USA and of the manufacture of still photography and motion-picture equipment. There is also chemical, pharmaceutical, electrotechnical, and electronics industry; production of medical equipment and scientific instruments; and textile, wood-products, canning, and clothing industries. Rochester has a university.
a city and port in Great Britain, in Kent, at the mouth of the Medway River. Population, 56,000 (1971). Rochester is a transit point on the Dover-London railroad and highway lines. The city has machine building, including electrotech-nology and motor-vehicle assembly, and paper-making. Charles Dickens’ home, Gad’s Hill (now a museum), is near Rochester.
a city in the northern USA, in Minnesota. Population, 55,000 (1974; including suburbs, 88,000). The city has plants producing medical instruments and electronic equipment. There is also food industry. The Mayo Clinic, known worldwide, is located in Rochester.