Rodolfo Graziani

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Graziani, Rodolfo


Born Aug. II, 1882, in Filettino; died Jan. 11, 1955, in Rome. Italian fascist marshal (1937). From 1930 to 1934, Graziani was vice-governor of Cyrenaica and in 1935 governor of Italian Somali. For his participation in the Italo-Ethiopian War of 1935–36 (he commanded the Southern Army), he received the rank of marshal and the title of marquis of Neghelli. In 1936–37 he was viceroy of Ethiopia. In 1939–40 he was chief of staff of the land forces. In June 1940 he became commander in chief of the Italian forces in North Africa. After the defeat at Mersa-Matruh he was dismissed and went into retirement. During the fascist German occupation of Italy (1943–45) he was minister of war of the puppet Italian Social Republic of B. Mussolini and directed the struggle against the partisans. In 1950 he was sentenced to 19 years imprisonment but was amnestied in the same year. In 1952 he became honorary president of the neofascist Italian Social Movement.

References in periodicals archive ?
The ultimate confrontation between the resistance led by Al Mukhtar and the Italian occupiers in eastern Libya began when General Rodolfo Graziani became Italy's military commander in March 1930.
Oliver Reed played the part as the Italian General Rodolfo Graziani.
In 1937, the Italian viceroy in Ethiopia, General Rodolfo Graziani, retaliated against an assassination attempt on him by Ethopians by ordering the genocide of native civilians, with one of his subordinates (http://books.
Pietro Badoglio, the Italian commander in Ethiopia, claimed half the silver Maria Theresa dollars in the Bank of Ethiopia--which enabled him to build a palatial house back home--as well as over a hundred cases of miscellaneous loot, while his successor, Rodolfo Graziani, carried off over 70 such cases.
When Mukhtar learned that Mussolini assigned General Rodolfo Graziani, the butcher of Fez, as the governor of Libya as the attempts of other governors to suppress Libyan insurgencies failed, he knew war was inevitable.
A mausoleum and park in the village of Affile was dedicated to the memory of Field Marshall Rodolfo Graziani, known as the "Butcher of Fezzan" and the "Butcher of Ethiopia" for the brutal military campaigns he led in Libya and Ethiopia under the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini.