known from the time of the Punic Wars (third to second centuries B.C.).
Camps were set up by the troops of ancient Rome after each daily move during military campaigns. They were square in shape at first and later rectangular. Part of the camp area was allocated for the consuls and the persons attending them and for the formation of legions. The soldiers’ leather tents (or barracks-type quarters habitable in winter) were arranged in a strictly defined order in several lines. Each side of the camp had large gates, which were guarded by sentries. When besieging enemy fortified points and when setting up permanent camps, usually for the winter, a double moat was dug, and a high earthen bank reinforced with a palisade was made. Sometimes wooden, or more rarely stone, towers were built, which made it possible to shoot arrows, spears, or stones at the approaches to the camp; they were defended by felled log obstacles and concealed pit traps. In battles conducted in the field the Roman camp served as a strongpoint that held reserves, wounded, food, and various matériel. Later many of the permanent Roman camps became fortresses, and cities grew up alongside them.
REFERENCESPolibius. Vseobshchaia istoriia ν soroka knigakh, book 1. Moscow, 1890. (Translated from Greek.)
Razin, E. A. Istoriia voennogo iskusstva, vol 1. Moscow, 1955.