Roman Province


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Province, Roman

 

(in Latin provincia), any of the territories outside of Italy that were subordinate to ancient Rome. The provinces were administered by Roman governors (proconsuls or propraetors), who embodied the military, administrative, and juridical power of Rome.

The first Roman provinces were the island of Sicily (from 241 B.C.) and the islands of Sardinia and Corsica (from 227 B.C.). By the end of the republican period, there were approximately 20 provinces, and during the imperial period, approximately 50. During the republican period, the provinces were regarded as the domain of the Roman people, and a considerable portion of the land was taken from the local population and handed over to Roman colonists. In addition, inhabitants of the provinces were obligated to maintain Roman governors and troops. Publicans, who bid at auctions for the right to collect taxes in the provinces, unrestrainedly ruined the local population. A policy of forced romanization was carried out. Roman domination provoked protests in the provinces, which at times led to revolts, such as those of the Lusitanians, Celtiberians, and other Spanish tribes during the second and first centuries B.C. and the revolt led by Bar Kochba in Judea.

The basis for provincial policy during the empire was laid down by Julius Caesar, who won over the provincial upper class by granting to entire communities and certain individuals the rights of Roman or Latin citizenship. Caesar also admitted citizens from the provinces to the Senate and enacted a law (59 B.C.) against extortion in the provinces. In fact, from the time of Augustus, at the end of the first century B.C., all the provinces came more and more under the control of the emperor, despite the division, in 27 B.C., into senatorial and imperial provinces. The gradual process of equalization between Italy proper and the Roman provinces, a process which reflected the interests of the empire’s slaveholding aristocracy, found expression in the edict of the emperor Caracalla (A.D. 212), according to which all free inhabitants of the empire received the rights of Roman citizenship. The process culminated in the administrative reform of the emperor Diocletian (third century A.D.), according to which the entire Roman empire, including Italy, was divided into administrative units. The borders of these new provinces did not coincide with those of the former provinces.

I. L. MAIAK

References in classic literature ?
All South Britain became a Roman province, and the people paid tribute or taxes to the Roman Emperor.
It was in much the same way that Britain was a Roman province.
to the beginning of the fifth, the island was a Roman province, with Latin as the language of the ruling class of Roman immigrants, who introduced Roman civilization and later on Christianity, to the Britons of the towns and plains.
Separate chapters are dedicated to the Roman province Dacia, the Migration Period and the period before the foundation of the state, the Kingdom of Hungary in the Middle Ages, the period of the independent principality after the Turkish conquest, the Habsburg Empire from 1690, Transylvania living on as part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy from 1867, the territory which became part of Romania as of 1918, and the period leading through the fall of communism in 1990 to the present day.
Gerulata, the Roman military camp, used to lie on the area of today's suburb of Bratislava, Rusovce, and was part of the Roman Province of Pannonia.
The version he chose is as follows: "One of the legends tells how the apostle James goes to the Roman province of Hispania to spread the Gospel.
While the house fell into disrepair, Ptolemais remained the capital of the Roman province of Cyrenaica which succeeded the Ptolemaic Empire, until the year 428.
At the age of 14, she became the second wife of King Odaeanathus, Lord of Palmyra, which at that time, was subservient to the Roman Empire, and part of the Roman province of Phoenice.
The Lunt Roman Fort is the archaeological site of a Roman fort, of unknown name, in the Roman province of Britannia AD60 following the Boudiccan rebellion.
Childeric, as is now known, was a barbarian chieftain who, much like Arbogast, Odoacer, Theodoric the Great and others, managed to establish both a strong position among the Franks and at the same time to be accepted by Gallo-Romans and Roman imperial elites as a person worthy of rule in a Roman province (FRYE 1992).
As late as the mid-fourth century, by which point Britain had been a Roman province for 300 years, the very notion of a cultured Briton could generate snorts of derision.
A group of Goths known as Thuringians, after being overwhelmed by the Huns in several military engagements, took advantage of a lull in the Huns' advance to flee west to the border of the Danube River, beyond which lay the Roman province of Thrace.