Roman roads

Roman roads,

ancient system of highways linking Rome with its provinces. Their primary purpose was military, but they also were of great commercial importance and brought the distant provinces in touch with the capital. The roads often ran in a straight line, regardless of obstacles, and were efficiently constructed, generally in four layers of materials; the uppermost layer was a pavement of flat, hard stones, concrete, or pebbles set in mortar. Roads were built or rebuilt by the Romans throughout the empire in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Many modern roads are laid out on their routes, and some of the old bridges are still in use. Examples of Roman roads exist near Rome and elsewhere.

In Italy roads led out of Rome in every direction. The most ancient were the Ostiense Road to Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber; the Praenestine Way SE to Praeneste; and the Latin Road or Latin Way to a point near Capua where it later joined the Appian WayAppian Way
, Lat. Via Appia, most famous of the Roman roads, built (312 B.C.) under Appius Claudius Caecus. It connected Rome with Capua and was later extended to Beneventum (now Benevento), Tarentum (Taranto), and Brundisium (Brindisi).
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, which was the first of the great highways. The Flaminian WayFlaminian Way
, one of the principal Roman roads, the greatest artery from Rome to Cisalpine Gaul. Construction was begun (220 B.C.) by Caius Flaminius. The road ran N from Rome to Narnia (modern Narni), to Mevania (Bevagna), NE to Nuceria (Nocera Umbria), thence N to the Burano
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 was the most important northern route. It ran from Rome NE to Ariminium (Rimini); from that point it was extended (187 B.C.) as the Aemilian Way, which ran in a straight line NW through Bononia (modern Bologna) to the Po at Placentia (Piacenza); later it was extended farther to Mediolanum (Milan). Another northern route was the Aurelian Way from Rome along the Tyrrhenian coast to Pisae (Pisa) and Luna; from there it was extended to Genua (Genoa). The third northern route was the Cassian Way from Rome through Etruria to Faesulae (Fiesole) and Luca (Lucca); near Luca it joined the Aurelian Way. The three roads from Rome to the north were connected with others crossing the Alps by the great Alpine passes—Alpis Cottia (Montgenèvre), Alpis Graia (Little St. Bernard), Alpis Poenina (Great St. Bernard), the Brenner Pass, and others leading into Rhaetia and Noricum.

The chief roads leading from Rome to the regions across the Apennines and to the Adriatic were the Salarian Way to Ancona and the Valerian Way to Aternum (Pescara). There were other roads in Italy, most notable among them the Postumian Way, leading from Genua across the Po valley to Aquileia at the head of the Adriatic. A wide system of roads was also built and rebuilt by the Romans in Britain, mainly for military purposes. The best-known British roads were Ermine StreetErmine Street,
Saxon name for the Roman road in Britain that ran from London to Lincoln and York. It was one of the four main highways of Saxon England. The name is derived from the Earningas, a group of people who inhabited an area in Cambridgeshire through which the road
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, Fosse WayFosse Way
, Roman road in England. It apparently ran from Exeter (Isca Dumnoniorum) NE past Bath (Aquae Sulis), Cirencester (Corinium Dobunnorum), and Leicester (Ratae Coritanorum) to Lincoln (Lindum). It intersected Watling Street.
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, Watling StreetWatling Street
, important ancient road in England, built by the Romans in the course of their military occupation. It ran from London generally north to the intersection with the Fosse Way, c.
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, and the pre-Roman Icknield StreetIcknield Street
, name for a prehistoric road in England, extending SW from the Wash, along the line of the Chiltern Hills and Berkshire Downs, to Salisbury Plain.
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.

Bibliography

See T. Ashby, The Roman Campagna in Classical Times (1927, repr. 1970); I. D. Margary, Roman Roads in Britain (2 vol., 1955–57; rev. ed. 1967); V. W. Von Hagen, The Roads that Led to Rome (1967).

References in classic literature ?
It provided a means of getting to the Severn, round which lay the great Roman roads then coming into existence, and made possible the great waterway to the heart of England--through the Severn and its tributaries.
Three miles further she cut across the straight and deserted Roman road called Long-Ash Lane; leaving which as soon as she reached it she dipped down a hill by a transverse lane into the small town or village of Evershead, being now about halfway over the distance.
It is altogether a place that you won't forget, a place to open a man's soul, and make him prophesy, as he looks down on that great Vale spread out as the garden of the Lord before him, and wave on wave of the mysterious downs behind, and to the right and left the chalk hills running away into the distance, along which he can trace for miles the old Roman road, "the Ridgeway" ("the Rudge," as the country folk call it), keeping straight along the highest back of the hills--such a place as Balak brought Balaam to, and told him to prophesy against the people in the valley beneath.
Somehow it did not seem particularly unnatural that we should find a sort of Roman road in this strange land.
We came over the hill, uncle--what they call the Roman Road.
The face in the looking-glass was serious and intent, apparently occupied with other things besides the straightness of the parting which, however, was being driven as straight as a Roman road through the dark hair.
The Devil's Causeway is unlike other Roman roads as it is thought to have been made only to be used by cavalry patrols rather than everyday traffic and marching legions.
Gareth Roberts, of Deiniolen, will spend three days following old Roman roads for 75 miles from Trawsfynydd to Holyhead.
TWO Roman roads were unearthed as archaeologists probed potential foundation areas for Chester's new s theatre.
The Roman roads were far superior to the existing rough Celtic tracks and bridleways.
Above: Archaeologists in 1969 at nearby Metchley Fort, on Icknield Street, and a map of the Roman roads
SIR - King Arthur was a Romanised British cavalry general who (circa 500 AD) used the old Roman roads to confront the Gaels from the west and the Teutonic tribes from the north and east attempting to settle on Brythonic Celtic, ie British, land.