It is no mere coincidence that Jake is a devotee, that he does pray in that church in Pamplona, feeling himself "a rotten Catholic" (97), before he makes his way to Roncevaux
La geste de Roland se fonde quant a elle sur un veritable evenement historique: en 778, l'arriere-garde de Charlemagne doit affronter une attaque surprise au col de Roncevaux
, dans les Pyrenees.
Here Burland focuses especially--and interestingly--on the poem's careful use of antiquated language in order to validate Galien as a hero appropriate to the Roncevaux
When students and scholars speak of The Song of Roland, they generally refer to the text in the manuscript Digby 23 at Oxford University, but American scholar of French language and literature Burland points out that the story of the deaths of Roland and the 12 peers of France at the Battle of Roncevaux
circulated in countless oral and written versions.
don Roldan"), whose massacre at Roncevaux
(Roncesvalles) on 15 August 778 AD, along with some twenty thousand other French warriors, is famously memorialized in the Chanson de Roland.
Besides serving as a metonymy for the Saracen disaster at Roncevaux
, it echoes the "guant le destre" that Ganelon drops when Charlemagne designates him as the envoy to Marsile earlier in the song (vv.
In the Roland and Gaydon the crisis facing the Frankish kingdom, following the defeat at Roncevaux
, provokes an examination of communal identity in theological, ideological, and political terms.
Yet in order to become the modern monarch, he has to "sacrifice" the old feudal caste - a sacrifice in which the barons, either by going to their deaths at Roncevaux
or by ratifying the judgment on Ganelon, readily participate.
His militant zeal for Christianizing pagans is offset by his humble submission to fate when his beloved nephew Roland and twenty thousand of his troops are killed by Moorish forces in the Pass of Roncevaux
In addition to In Our Time, Nickel explores the pilgrimage structure of The Sun Also Rises, reading geographical sites such as Bayonne, Roncevaux
, "the ancient rue Saint-Jacques" (68), and Pamplona in terms of Stoneback's "theography.
1090-1100) preserves, restores and celebrates, in an historico-mythical form, the courage of all those who served "Caries li reis, nostre emperere magnes" (Charles the king, our great emperor [my emphasis]) (13) in the battle against the Saracens at Roncevaux
When in the stricken pass of Roncevaux
The good knight Roland, sorely battle-worn Among the paynim traitors, will not blow One blast of succour on his ivory horn.