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widespread pathological processes of decay and partial mineralization of organic intercellular tissue, cell walls, and cell substances in plants, caused by semiparasitic and saprophytic fungi and bacteria. In the process of rotting, tissue maceration and cell separation occur, the structure of the tissues is destroyed and their durability is reduced, and cell, tissue, and organ function is disturbed or destroyed. Juicy, woody, and rich nutrient-bearing parts of plants are subject to rots (fleshy leaves, flower buds, fruits, tuber and root crops, roots, and stems).

Various types of rots may be classified etiologically according to the pathogen of the rotting processes. Rots may also be grouped according to the infected plants and their organs (fruit, root, stem, or trunk rots) or according to the various types of plant material affected (wood, fiber, hay, and straw rots). These two systems of classification are used in scientific production practice. In addition, rots may be grouped according to characteristic symptoms and, in part, according to consistency (soft and dry rots) and color (black, white, gray, red, pink, blue, and dappled rots). Within the etiological classification the group of rots caused by polyphagous fungi and bacteria is particularly important for the number of types and the losses it causes. The group includes white rot, soft rot of tubers, root crops, bulbs, and head crops, storage rot of beets—one of the most serious diseases of beet root crops during storage—wood rot, and Texas root rot. Individual species or groups of related plant species are infected by root rots of grain ears, bean crops, and cotton, black rot of beets, dry rot of potatoes, ring rot of potatoes, fruit rot of pit- and seed-producing plants, blossom-end rot of tomatoes, and neck rot of onions.

Rots often cause premature plant death and great economic loss. Countermeasures include the elimination of conditions that reduce resistance to the pathogen and application of phytosanitary methods, such as destruction of infected plants and their parts, protection of plants from mechanical damage, and observation of accepted principles for harvest storage. Chemical methods such as fertilization and the use of pesticides are also indicated.


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References in periodicals archive ?
Hence there is a need to assay local medicinal traditional plants crude extracts in order to control Irish potato soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora in tropical conditions.
Integrated management strategies of bean root rot with Bacillus subtilis and Rhizobium in Minnesota.
Gulya, ARS plant geneticist Jerry Miller, and NDSU colleague Bob Henson used conventional breeding techniques to develop the three germplasm lines' improved resistance to head rot using French, Russian, and other sunflower sources.
It would be helpful to have indicators that give a measurement of the degree of Lenga timber rot either in standing trees or logs because this is valuable information for decision making during silvi-cultural management and logged wood utilization.
Decay caused by fungal diseases such as gray molds, blue molds, router rot, bull's eye, side rot and brown rot cause millions of dollars of loss to fruit growers in the Pacific Northwest alone each year," says Bob Sports, professor of plant pathology at the OSU center in Hood River.
Most organisms are incapable of breaking down the lignin to get through to the more digestible cell wall and cell contents, but the white rot fungus possesses an enzyme system that can.
With the addition of ROTS, Siliconix now offers three off-the-shelf options for high-reliability designs, including military, aerospace, commercial, and medical applications.
Although fungicides can control most fruit rots, their use is causing concerns about possible effects on human health and the environment.
He found a strain of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis that controls brown rot on peaches, and he and ARS hold patents on its use against storage rots of various commodities.
Postharvest lenticel rot has been known in California for nearly a century, but did not reach damaging levels until the late 1990s.
The plants grow very well but the fruit develops white spots, which later cause the fruit to rot.
In preliminary laboratory and greenhouse tests, the tubers resisted attack by the microorganism that causes soft rot, according to William R.