CCD

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CCD

Abbrev. for charge-coupled device. A light-sensitive electronic detector, invented 1970, now widely used in ground- and space-based astronomy for imaging, photometry, spectroscopy, astrometry, etc. CCDs are normally sensitive over a wide range of wavelengths from blue light to near-infrared; developments have extended the range further into the IR (see infrared detectors), and into the ultraviolet and X-ray regions (to energies up to about 6 keV). A CCD is small (typically several square centimeters) compared with a photographic plate, and therefore covers a relatively small field of view. It also has a lower resolution than a fine-grained photographic emulsion. It does, however, have a much higher quantum efficiency – i.e. is a much more efficient detector – than emulsion; exposure times are therefore relatively much shorter. CCDs are thus well suited to the imaging of faint objects. They also have a linear response over a wide range of illumination, and in a properly designed and operating CCD system, the response is very stable over long timescales.

Astronomical CCDs are fabricated as a two-dimensional array of tiny pixels (picture elements) on a thin wafer of semiconductor, usually silicon; there may be up to several thousand rows and columns of pixels. When light or other radiation is directed onto this array, each pixel responds to the photons falling on it by producing electrons. Electric charge thus accumulates in each pixel in proportion to the amount of incident radiation. After an exposure, these packets of charge are shifted out of the array and the accumulated charge in each pixel is measured, row by row. The values are digitized and stored in a computer, and may be used to form an image on a computer screen or may be further manipulated or analyzed. There is a direct relationship between the intensity of the recorded image and the original exposure, hence the linear response. Noise is, however, introduced as the charges are moved out of the CCD, amplified, digitized, and stored in the computer, thus placing a lower limit on the signal that can be accurately recorded; this readout noise can be reduced by cooling the CCD.

CCD

(electronics)

CCD

CCD

(1) (Charge-Coupled Device) See CCD sensor.

(2) (Consumer Computing Device) An earlier term for a low-cost consumer-oriented computing product such as a PDA or Internet appliance.
References in periodicals archive ?
21] IL-1 can also stimulate ALP activity and mineralization by inducing a mechanism that is independent of Runx2 in VSMCs.
A network connecting Runx2, SATB2, and the miR-23a~27a~24-2 cluster regulates the osteoblast differentiation program.
Functional analysis of RUNX2 mutations in Japanese patients with cleidocranial dysplasia demonstrates novel genotype-phenotype correlations.
Transcription expression of cytokines IL-1[beta] and TNF-[alpha]; osteogenic markers RUNX2, ALP and OCN; and OCT-4 were examined by RT-qPCR.
Treatment with the combination of all four plant extracts, the C treatment, increased expression of RUNX2, considered one of the 'master genes' for bone formation (Deschaseaux et al.
La displasia cleidocraneal es una patologia de herencia autosomica dominante, con penetrancia completa y expresividad variable, resultante de la mutacion con perdida de funcion del gen RUNX2 (runt-related transcription factor 2; locus 6p21.
In vitro and animal studies indicated that metformin inhibits adipocyte differentiation and stimulates osteoblasts' differentiation, through the inhibition of PPAR gamma [73] and the transactivation of osteoblast-specific Runx2 transcription factor [74].
Surprisingly, the exogenous expression of KLF15 weakened induction of mRNA expression of ALP, OPN, OCN, Runx2, Osterix (a transcription factor required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation), and Tcf4 (an effector of downstream of Wnt signaling), while promoting increase of KLF15 mRNA level by approximately 7-fold (Figure 7(a)).
18,19,31,38) De hecho, podria existir una asociacion de caracter hereditario autosomico dominante o una asociacion de genero con expresion variable, y la asociacion genetica con la presencia de la mutacion del gen RUNX2 en el desarrollo de dientes supernumerarios.
in their study of the impact of the TWIST1 transcription factor in the pulp homeostasis in mice showed that TWIST1 inhibited the RUNX2 factor responsible for intensifying the mineralization process.
Dried plum polyphenols attenuate the detrimental effects of TNF-alpha on osteoblast function coincident with up-regulation of Runx2, Osterix and IGF-I.