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English noble family. It first appeared prominently in the reign of Henry VIII when John Russell, 1st earl of Bedford, 1486?–1555, rose to military and diplomatic importance. He was lord high steward and lord keeper of the privy seal under Henry VIII and Edward VI, was created 1st earl of Bedford in 1550, and had a part in arranging the marriage of Mary I to Philip II of Spain. He died possessing great wealth and lands, which have remained in the family until the 20th cent.; these now include Woburn Abbey and large parts of Bloomsbury in London. His son, Francis Russell, 2d earl of Bedford, 1527?–1585, was an influential privy councilor under Elizabeth I and president of the council of Wales. Francis Russell, 4th earl of Bedford, 1593–1641, was the most important opponent of Charles I in the House of Lords and was the brightest hope for reconciliation between king and Parliament when he suddenly died in 1641. He also began the draining of the Fens. William Russell, 5th earl and 1st duke of Bedford, 1613–1700, fought first for Parliament and then for the king in the civil war. His son was Lord William RussellRussell, Lord William,
1639–83, English statesman; younger son of the 1st duke of Bedford. He entered Parliament in 1660. Contempt for the dissolute court and fear of Roman Catholicism and of France led him to join the opposition to Charles II.
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 (see separate article). In 1694, when his son's attainder was reversed, the 5th earl was made duke of Bedford, a title that had been held in the 15th cent. by John of Lancaster, brother of King Henry V. John Russell, 4th duke of Bedford, 1710–71, was one of the politicians who attacked Robert Walpole and served in the cabinets of Henry Pelham, duke of Newcastle, Lord Bute, and George Grenville. He was the leader of a faction of Whig politicians, known as the Bedford group, which had considerable electoral power. Francis Russell, 5th duke of Bedford, 1765–1802, was a follower of Charles James Fox and one of the friends of the prince of Wales (later George IV). His criticism of Edmund Burke's pension elicited Burke's Letter to a Noble Lord (1796). Bedford was a notable stockbreeder. One of the most outstanding members of the family was the 5th duke's nephew, John Russell, 1st Earl RussellRussell, John Russell, 1st Earl,
1792–1878, British statesman; younger son of the 6th duke of Bedford, known most of his life as Lord John Russell.
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 (see separate article). His grandson Bertrand RussellRussell, Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3d Earl,
1872–1970, British philosopher, mathematician, and social reformer, b. Trelleck, Wales.
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 (see separate article) became 3d Earl Russell. The current duke, Andrew Ian Henry Russell, 15th duke of Bedford, 1962–, succeeded to the title in 2003. The family seat is Woburn Abbey (see WoburnWoburn
, village, Central Bedfordshire, S central England. It is famous for Woburn Abbey (seat of the dukes of Bedford; see Russell, family), an 18th-century mansion constructed on the site of a Cistercian Abbey founded in 1145.
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, England).


See various studies of the family to 1771 by G. Thomson, especially Two Centuries of Family History (1930); C. Trent, The Russells (1966).


1. Bertrand (Arthur William), 3rd Earl. 1872--1970, British philosopher and mathematician. His books include Principles of Mathematics (1903), Principia Mathematica (1910--13) with A. N. Whitehead, Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy (1919), The Problems of Philosophy (1912), The Analysis of Mind (1921), and An Enquiry into Meaning and Truth (1940): Nobel prize for literature 1950
2. George William pen name ?. 1867--1935, Irish poet and journalist
3. Henry Norris. 1877--1957, US astronomer and astrophysicist, who originated one form of the Hertzsprung--Russell diagram
4. John, 1st Earl. 1792--1878, British statesman; prime minister (1846--52; 1865--66). He led the campaign to carry the 1832 Reform Act
5. Ken. born 1927, British film director. His films include Women in Love (1969), The Music Lovers (1970), The Boy Friend (1971), Valentino (1977), Gothic (1986), and The Rainbow (1989)


(After Bertrand Russell) A compact, polymorphically typed functional language by A. Demers & J. Donahue with bignums and continuations. Types are themselves first-class values and may be passed as arguments.

["An Informal Description of Russell", H. Boehm et al, Cornell CS TR 80-430, 1980].

["Understanding Russell: A First Attempt", J.G. Hook in LNCS 173, Springer].
References in classic literature ?
Lady Russell loved them all; but it was only in Anne that she could fancy the mother to revive again.
For thirteen years had she been doing the honours, and laying down the domestic law at home, and leading the way to the chaise and four, and walking immediately after Lady Russell out of all the drawing-rooms and dining-rooms in the country.
Their two confidential friends, Mr Shepherd, who lived in the neighbouring market town, and Lady Russell, were called to advise them; and both father and daughter seemed to expect that something should be struck out by one or the other to remove their embarrassments and reduce their expenditure, without involving the loss of any indulgence of taste or pride.
Once or twice lately, it is true, she had started, broad awake, before turning into Russell Square, and denounced herself rather sharply for being already in a groove, capable, that is, of thinking the same thoughts every morning at the same hour, so that the chestnut-colored brick of the Russell Square houses had some curious connection with her thoughts about office economy, and served also as a sign that she should get into trim for meeting Mr.
The suffrage office was at the top of one of the large Russell Square houses, which had once been lived in by a great city merchant and his family, and was now let out in slices to a number of societies which displayed assorted initials upon doors of ground glass, and kept, each of them, a typewriter which clicked busily all day long.
Seal brought sandwiches, which she ate beneath the plane-trees in Russell Square; while Mary generally went to a gaudy establishment, upholstered in red plush, near by, where, much to the vegetarian's disapproval, you could buy steak, two inches thick, or a roast section of fowl, swimming in a pewter dish.
Remembering Mary Datchet and her repeated invitations, she crossed the road, turned into Russell Square, and peered about, seeking for numbers with a sense of adventure that was out of all proportion to the deed itself.
As the other barge drew near Russell saw that in it there sat Thomas Wyatt, a young poet and courtier of twenty-three.
In the meantime original work of a high order was being produced both in England and America by such writers as Bradley, Stout, Bertrand Russell, Baldwin, Urban, Montague, and others, and a new interest in foreign works, German, French and Italian, which had either become classical or were attracting public attention, had developed.
I know that the tune I am piping is a very mild one (although there are some terrific chapters coming presently), and must beg the good- natured reader to remember that we are only discoursing at present about a stockbroker's family in Russell Square, who are taking walks, or luncheon, or dinner, or talking and making love as people do in common life, and without a single passionate and wonderful incident to mark the progress of their loves.
Let us then step into the coach with the Russell Square party, and be off to the Gardens.
Jos's marriage was now talked of by a very considerable number of persons in the Russell Square world.