Ruthenia

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Related to Ruthenian: Ruthenian language

Ruthenia

(ro͞othē`nēə), Latinized form of the word Russia. The term was applied to Ukraine in the Middle Ages when the princes of Halych briefly assumed the title kings of Ruthenia. Later, in Austria-Hungary, the term Ruthenians was used to designate the Ukrainian population of W Ukraine, which included GaliciaGalicia
, Pol. Galicja, Ukr. Halychyna, Rus. Galitsiya, historic region (32,332 sq mi/83,740 sq km), SE Poland and W Ukraine, covering the slopes of the N Carpathians and plains to the north and bordering on Slovakia in the south.
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, BukovinaBukovina
, Rom. Bucovina, Ukr. Bukovyna, historic region of E Europe, in SW Ukraine and NE Romania. Traversed by the Carpathian Mts. and the upper Prut and Siretul rivers, it is heavily forested [Bukovina
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, and Carpathian Ukraine. After 1918 the term Ruthenia was applied only to the easternmost province of Czechoslovakia, which was also known as Carpathian Ukraine, or by its Czech name, Podkarpatská Rus [Sub-Carpathian Russia]; for the history of this area from 1918, see Transcarpathian RegionTranscarpathian Region
, Ukr. Zarkarpattya Oblast or Zakarpats'ka Oblast, Rus. Zakarpatskaya Oblast, administrative region (1989 pop. 1,252,000), 4,981 sq mi (12,901 sq km), SW Ukraine, on the southwestern slopes of the Carpathian Mts.
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. The inhabitants of Carparthian Ukraine, known as Rusyns or Ruthenians, speak a language (Rusyn or Ruthenian) is closely related to Ukrainian, but culturally, however, the Rusyns were distinct from the Ukrainians, especially after 1596, when the Orthodox Church of the Western Ukraine entered into union with the Roman Catholic Church, and after 1649, when a similar union was effected in Hungary. The Ruthenian Uniate Church of the Byzantine (see Roman Catholic ChurchRoman Catholic Church,
Christian church headed by the pope, the bishop of Rome (see papacy and Peter, Saint). Its commonest title in official use is Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church.
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) thus included the majority of the Rusyns in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, while the Orthodox Church was fully restored (17th cent.) in the Russian part of Ukraine. When most Rusyns were united (1945) in Soviet Ukraine, government pressure resulted in the secession of the Ruthenian Uniate Church from Rome and its reunion with the Russian Orthodox Church. At the same time, the Soviets classified the Rusyns, who had been divided as to whether to regard themselves as ethnically Rusyn, Russian, or Ukrainian, as Ukrainian. This position also was adopted by Communist-ruled Czechoslovakia and Poland with respect to their Rusyn minorities. In 1989 the Uniate Church broke with the Russian Orthodox Church and reestablished its ties with Rome. The end of Communist rule in E Europe also brought a resurgence of a distinct Rusyn identity, although Ukraine has not recognized Transcarpathian Rusyns as an ethnic minority, as well as a interest among some in establishing a Rusyn nation.

Ruthenia

a region of E Europe on the south side of the Carpathian Mountains: belonged to Hungary from the 14th century, to Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1939, and was ceded to the former Soviet Union in 1945; in 1991 it became part of the newly independent Ukraine
References in periodicals archive ?
In teems of nomenclature, those generally referred to as "Ukrainian Canadians" today are a diverse group that were variously identified as Russians, Poles, Austrians, Ruthenians, or Germans.
Through sheer hard work the settlers create a veritable paradise, which results in their being overcome by hubris: "since they prospered, the Little Ruthenians believed themselves better and better loved by God" (79).
Numerous historians have documented early examples of changing religious values in borrowings from Ruthenian Orthodoxy in the decades following the Time of Troubles.
The allusion to the Polish or Ruthenian character of Theodor's site of origin accurately indicates the mixed ethnic makeup of the region at the time.
The mistrust and often outright ignorance of the Catholic hierarchs in the United States, who were reluctant to accept Greek Catholic clergy and their traditions--especially a married priesthood--into the existing structures of their church, ensured that in the 20 years before World War I numerous Ruthenian and Ukrainian communities joined the Orthodox Church.
Not until Peter and then Catherine the Great did Ruthenian lands return to the Russians up to the Curzon Line via the Polish partitions of the late eighteenth century.
Thus, step by step, and in the spirit of a humanism that the other contemporary musicians who collected folklore unfortunately missed--as a result he was singled out for many nationalist attacks in Hungary, especially after World War I, when many of his nationals regarded his efforts to study the folklore of the peoples who formed the nation states on the ruins of the Austro-Hungarian empire as unpatriotic--, Bartok began to study Romanian folk music, then Slovak, Ruthenian, Serbian, Croatian, Bulgarian, and even North-African or Turkish .
49) Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church v Fetsyk, [1922] 3 WTO 872, 32 Man R 452 (KB).
Nine papers from a September 2009 conference in New York City include six in English discussing such topics as Jewish-Christian collaboration in medieval Slavic translations from Hebrew, the afterlife of a Stoic concept in Old Rus', translation and the first Slavic life of Wenceslaus, and Ruthenian ways of (re)translating Russian history from Polish.
Christine's father, like Roy's own a settlement agent, tells his Ruthenian immigrants that the fire from which they attempt to rescue their material goods is a judgment upon them.
The Law on National Minorities adopted in 2003 recognizes 17 national self-determined minorities including Albanian, Czech, Jewish, Roma and Ruthenian.
Salamon's interpretations and explanations of matters and things Central European cultural and physical spaces--be those Slovak, Hungarian, Ruthenian, Jewish, or Czech--extend over much detail.