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mineral, one of three forms of titanium dioxide (TiO2; see titaniumtitanium
[from Titan], metallic chemical element; symbol Ti; at. no. 22; at. wt. 47.867; m.p. 1,675°C;; b.p. 3,260°C;; sp. gr. 4.54 at 20°C;; valence +2, +3, or +4.
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). It occurs in crystals, often in twins or rosettes, and is typically brownish red, although there are black varieties. Rutile is found in igneous and metamorphic rocks, chiefly in Switzerland, Norway, Brazil, and parts of the United States.



a mineral, one of the three polymorphs of titanium dioxide (titania), TiO2. It contains iron, chromium, and sometimes vanadium, niobium, and tantalum as admixtures. The structure of rutile differs from that of the other two polymorphs of TiO2—ana tase and brookite—in the nature of the coupling of the octahedral [TiO6] groups, which are connected to each other by two common edges, forming chains parallel to the c-axis. The c-axis lies in a plane corresponding to layers of close hexagonal packing. Rutile crystallizes in the tetragonal system. It is a semiconductor and is antiferromagnetic. It has a hardness of 6–6.5 on Mohs’ scale, and its density ranges from 4,200 to 5,600 kg/m3, depending on the content of niobium and tantalum. Pure rutile is colorless, but the mineral is almost always found in various tints as a result of various admixtures.

Rutile is a common accessory mineral in rocks. In pegmatites and hydrothermal veins it occurs as large prismatic or acicular crystals. Rutile-bearing quartzites and chloritic, graphitic, and other schists have industrial value as titanium ores. Rutile is also accumulated in placers, which are especially valuable ores. Synthetic rutile is used in the jewelry industry.


Mineraly: Spravochnik, vol. 2. Moscow, 1965.


TiO2 A reddish-brown tetragonal mineral common in acid igneous rocks, in metamorphic rocks, and as residual grain in beach sand.


A common mineral, red-to-brown or black in color; contains 60% titanium; used in paints, as a coating on welding rods to stabilize the arc, and as an opacifier in ceramic glaze and in glass.