SARS


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SARS

or

severe acute respiratory syndrome,

communicable viral disease that can progress to a potentially fatal pneumonia. The first symptoms of SARS are usually a high fever, headache and body aches, sore throat, and mild respiratory symptoms; diarrhea may occur. A dry cough and shortness of breath typically develop two to seven days after the first symptoms, and in most persons pneumonia develops in a lobe of the lungs. In 10%–20% of all patients, the pneumonia spreads to other lobes, and death occurs in about 9% of all cases. The death rate is higher among older persons. There is no vaccine or treatment for the virus that causes the disease.

SARS is caused by a coronaviruscoronavirus,
any of a group (family Coronaviridae, subfamily Coronavirinae) of enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses that have a crownlike or sunlike appearance under an electron microscope due to the presence of spikes on their surface.
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, one of a group of viruses that are responsible for about one third of all cases of the common coldcold, common,
acute viral infection of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, often involving the sinuses. The typical sore throat, sneezing, and fatigue may be accompanied by body aches, headache, low fever, and chills.
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. The variety that causes SARS had not been previously identified, and may have been transmitted to humans from civetscivet
or civet cat,
any of a large group of mostly nocturnal mammals of the Old World family Viverridae (civet family), which also includes the mongoose. Civets are not true cats, but the civet family is related to the cat family (Felidae).
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 or bats; a number of studies have suggested that bats were the ultimate source of the virus and civets were intermediate hosts. Infection with SARS mainly occurs when a person in close contact with someone who has the disease is exposed to exhaled droplets. The spread of the disease has been controlled by isolating infected patients and quarantining those exposed to them.

The disease apparently first occurred in Nov., 2002, in Foshan, Guangdong prov., China, but provincial authorities withheld information about it, and when it spread to Beijing local authorities there acted similarly. In Feb., 2003, the World Health Organization first noted reports of cases of atypical pneumonia from China, but Chinese officials did not begin cooperating fully with international experts until April. SARS subsequently spread to some 30 countries on five continents, and affected the economies of China, Hong Kong, and Toronto, where cases were the highest; Taiwan and Singapore were also hard hit. No new cases have been reported since 2004. The rapid international spread of the 2002–3 outbreak was facilitated by air travel and the lack of prompt, early information about SARS from Chinese officials.

Bibliography

See study by T. Abraham (2004).

Sars

 

an urban-type settlement in Oktiabr’skii Raion, Perm’ Oblast, RSFSR. It is located on the upper Sars River (Kama River basin), 7 km from the Chad railroad station on the Kazan-Sverdlovsk line. Sars has a woodworking plant.

SARS

severe acute respiratory syndrome; a severe viral infection of the lungs characterized by high fever, a dry cough, and breathing difficulties. It is contagious, having an airborne mode of transmission
References in periodicals archive ?
If SARS was rampaging through China, we'd probably rush it through testing," says Collins.
Editorial Note: The revised surveillance case definition for SARS reflects an improved understanding of the clinical and laboratory characteristics of SARS-CoV.
penicillins--are not effective against viruses, so routine antibiotic treatment against SARS is not recommended.
In this study we demonstrated that SARS-CoV RNA is detectable in the plasma of pediatric SARS patients with a detection rate of 87.
SARS appears to be natural in origin, but the effects could be the same.
The case was reported on the basis of contact with an index case that was subsequently excluded as a case of SARS provided other possible epidemiologic criteria are not present
Welcome as the freedom to report on SARS has been, such striking openness is not as unusual as it might at first appear.
He adds that student health centers should be working with their local hospitals and health departments to deal with any SARS threats.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, has stricken about 3,293 people, most of them in southern China, since last November, according to information released April 17 by the World Health Organization.
In the 2003 SARS outbreak in Toronto, Canada, at least 23,000 persons participated in voluntary quarantine in their homes because of possible exposure (1).
Now, a research team has claimed victory in the race to identify the cellular receptor--the protein to which the virus attaches when it infects cells--for the SARS virus.
To control the epidemic, public health officials initiated enhanced surveillance, isolation of SARS patients, use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by health-care workers, and quarantine of contacts of known SARS patients.