Safavid


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Related to Safavid: Shah Ismail

Safavid

(säfä`wēd), Iranian dynasty (1499–1736), that established Shiite Islam in Iran as an official state religion. The Safavid state provided both the territorial and societal foundations of modern Iran. Founded by Shah IsmailIsmail
, 1486–1524, shah of Persia (1502–24), founder of the Safavid dynasty. He restored Persia to the position of a sovereign state for the first time since the Arab invasion of Persia.
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, this Turkic-speaking dynasty claimed descent from a Shiite Sufi order. Shiite views, propagated with the help of clerics recruited from Jabal Amil (today in Lebanon) and Iraq, endowed Iran with an identity distinct from its Sunni neighbors. The consolidation of Safavid rule was completed during the reign of Shah Abbas IAbbas I
(Abbas the Great) , 1557–1629, shah of Persia (1587–1628), of the Safavid dynasty. In 1597 he ended the raids of the Uzbeks, and subsequently (1603–23) he conquered extensive territories from the Turks.
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. Recognizing his military inferiority vis-à-vis the Ottoman Sultanate, Abbas accepted the Ottoman occupation of the western parts of his domain and was thus able to concentrate his efforts on creating a standing army and halting Uzbek incursions from the east. He established Isfahan as his capital and transformed it into an architectural showcase. The strategic location of Iran and Safavid animosity toward the Ottomans, who were a continuing threat to European powers, generated European interest. Shah Abbas received numerous European legations and, with the help of English warships, conquered Hormoz, the Portuguese colony at the entrance of the Persian Gulf. His project to create a major competing maritime trade center at Bandar Abbas failed. Benefiting from a change in the balance of power, he expanded into Ottoman territory, annexing the holy Shiite cities of Karbala and Najaf. A period of upheaval followed his death, during which Ottoman pressure from the west and Mughal attacks from the east led to substantial territorial losses. Abbas II (1642–66) attempted to eliminate bureaucratic corruption, and gained a peace, largely due to the military exhaustion of Iran's neighbors. Husayn (1694–1722, see Sultan HusaynSultan Husayn
, d. 1729, Safavid shah of Persia (1694–1722). A weak and superstitious man, Shah Sultan Husayn was surrounded by astrologers and fanatics and was able to offer little opposition to the uprising of the Afghans.
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) devoted his energy to reconquering the island of Bahrayn, ignoring the opposition centered in Afghanistan. In 1722, Afghan forces entered Isfahan and forced Husayn to abdicate, putting an effective end to Safavid rule. The final blow came in 1736 when the Afshar Nadir, regent of young Abbas III, deposed him, becoming shah himself (see Nadir ShahNadir Shah
or Nader Shah
, 1688–1747, shah of Iran (1736–47), sometimes considered the last of the great Asian conquerors. He was a member of the Afshar tribe.
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).

Bibliography

See L. Lockhart, The Fall of the Safavi Dynasty (1958); I. Munshi, History of Shah Abbas the Great (1978); R. Savory, Iran under the Safavids (1980).

Safavid

 

(also Safawiyah), a dervish order of the Sufi sect. The Safavid order was founded in the late 13th century by Sheikh Safi al-Din (1252–1334) in the city of Ardebil, in Iranian Azerbaijan. Initially the order defended its followers against oppression by feudal lords. In the 15th century, however, its leaders themselves became feudal lords, sheiks of Ardebil, and initiated a struggle for political power, using propaganda based mainly on Safavid beliefs incorporated with elements of Shiism. The army of the Safavid sheikhs was drawn largely from the Kizilbash people. In 1499, Ismail Safavid led the followers of the Safavid order in a successful campaign against the Ak-Koy-unlu, which eventually led to the formation of the Safavid state.

References in periodicals archive ?
It also added, "The introduction of such images began during the Safavid era in the 17th Century with frescoes in royal palaces.
So the texts ascribed to Jamasp are difficult to accept as a successful archetype for subsequent Safavid and Mughal documents on sacral kingship, despite containing elements of value to court chroniclers.
The focus of communication, in Seyed Reza sample (a Safavid house) is in the yard of the house.
Isfahan music teaching is one of the most famous Iranian schools of music, which has been blossomed in the Safavid era, being the capital of the monarch then.
The market in old Safavid, old Kirman rugs, or high-end Persian city carpets from Isfahan, Kashan or Tehran is very strong,' says Mark Dance, head of the carpet department at Bonhams.
The Ottoman state was keen to extend its terms after the Safavid Empire fell to Afghan invaders in the 1720s, and the boundary agreement has basically lasted until today.
Contributors and sources of constituting political discourse in Safavid era in Iran:
She pointed out that "Building Our Collection: Mughal and Safavid Albums", a selection of miniature paintings and calligraphic compositions, shows a wide-ranging journey of artistic development from the Middle East to Asia and Europe across the centuries.
Expressing a bond with the Safavid state and its ruler, Shah Ismail, Ecamuroy-lu said he considers himself a descendant of Shah Ismail due to their common denominator, Turkishness.
Influence by Islamic art, Maliha's collection was a tribute to the masterpieces of the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires with the design ethos ranging from the pietra dura mosaics of Mughal architecture to the illuminations that decorate ancient Quranic scripts and opulent particular collection titled the "Three Empires" exhibited successfully in Dubai and Lahore.
was a response to the crimes of the Safavid government with the executions of a group of Islamists from the Sunni people in Iraq," said the statement posted on jihadist Internet forums.
It has become clear to the Muslim nation that he [Nasrallah] is but a tool in the Safavid, rejectionist project which seeks to impose the authority of Shiite jurisprudence .