Sailing Vessel

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Sailing Vessel


a vessel propelled by sails that catch the wind. Depending on its size, a sailing vessel may have from one to seven masts. Sailing craft are also distinguished according to the type of rig. A sailing vessel’s total sail area and the center of effort of its sails (the point acted upon by the resultant of the wind forces) are important determinants of the vessel’s sailing qualities and maneuverability. Sailing vessels are guided by the combined action of rudder and sails, which are used to effect changes in course and speed.

The history of the sailing ship goes back more than 5,000 years. In ancient Egypt, Phoenicia, China, Greece, and Rome, sails were used to provide auxiliary power on oar-driven military and transport vessels. Ships using sails as the principal means of propulsion appeared in the Scandinavian and Mediterranean countries between the tenth and 13th centuries. Drakes, nefs, carracks, and caravels are examples of such early sailing ships. In ancient Rus’, two shipbuilding regions formed between the ninth and 14th centuries: in the north, around the White Sea and Novgorod, and in the south, Kiev. The Eastern Slavs voyaged aboard sailing vessels called lod’i, kochi, and karabasy on the White, Barents, Baltic, and Black seas. They reached Tsar’grad (Constantinople) and sailed into the Mediterranean.

The development of the art of navigation, improvements in rigging and sails, and advances in shipbuilding and sail-handling techniques contributed to the great geographical discoveries and the expansion of world trade. In the 16th and 17th centuries the principal shipbuilding centers shifted from the Mediterranean to the North Sea countries—Holland and England. By the early 18th century, sailing ships had replaced oar-driven vessels everywhere. Merchant vessels with cargo capacities of several hundred tons and 100-gun battleships of the line with crews of approximately 800 men were built during the time of Peter I. The sailing fleet reached the height of its development by the mid-19th century, when it constituted the nucleus of merchant, fishing, and naval fleets. Thus, there were merchantmen with crews of 100, cargo capacities in excess of 5,000 tons, and gross tonnages of more than 1,500 registered tons. Clippers, the fastest sailing ships, exceeded speeds of 18 knots (approximately 33 km/hour).

Sailing ships lost their importance as the principal means of transport in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when the use of steamships and diesel-powered vessels became general. They are now used primarily for yacht and dinghy racing, for carrying tourists, and for training.


References in periodicals archive ?
TWENTY- FIVE Indian sailors, who were aboard two Gujaratbased sailing vessels that accidentally drifted into Pakistani waters in mid- April, have been convicted of making an " illegal entry" by a court in Gwadar.
ISLAMABAD, October 04, 2010 (Balochistan Times): Newly acquired Pakistan Navy sailing vessel RAH NAWARD arrived in Brest, France on Sunday on a four day long goodwill stop over.
As the lifeboat began to tow it back to Pwllheli it was discovered the sailing vessel was taking on water.
I became a merchant seaman and was sent to the training ship school Vindicatrix, an ex-German sailing vessel at Sharpness, Gloucester.
A spokesman for designer Designnobis said: "The objective was to create an alternative sailing vessel that would achieve a lightweight system, high sail performance and all-weather navigation capacity with near zero emissions.
Based in Isafjordur, the capital of the remote West Fjords in North West Iceland, Borea Adventure's expeditions take place aboard 12-berth, 60ft sailing vessel, the Aurora.
A 36-foot sailing vessel lost power and its navigational equipment 200 miles off the coast of Cape Hatteras, N.
You know I'm kinda the guy out front, almost like the figurehead on the front of a sailing vessel.
The John-John, a 109ft motorised yacht owned by a wealthy businessman of dual British and French nationality, collided with the sailing vessel on Saturday afternoon, about a mile off Cap Dramont, near the exclusive seaside resort of Saint-Raphael, rescue officials said.
HISTORIC sailing vessel the Cutty Sark is in danger of falling to pieces after being denied a pounds 4 million lottery lifeline.
Perhaps it is as close to life as a felled tree can come again, being incorporated into the mast and deck and planking of a wooden sailing vessel, wind sailing through the rigging now instead of the boughs.