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Salamanca(sälämäng`kä), city (1990 pop. 206,275), Guanajuato state, W central Mexico. Chiefly an oil center, it also serves as the commercial and distribution point for the surrounding agricultural region. The city lies on major national highway and rail systems. The first important battle between liberals and conservatives in the 19th-century War of the Reform (see MexicoMexico
, Span. México or Méjico , officially United Mexican States, republic (2005 est. pop. 106,203,000), 753,665 sq mi (1,952,500 sq km), S North America.
..... Click the link for more information. ) was fought at Salamanca.
Salamanca,city (1990 pop. 162,037), capital of Salamanca prov., W central Spain, in Castile-León, on the Tormes River, c.2,600 ft (790 m) above sea level. Food-processing and tourism are its most important industries. An ancient city, it was taken by Hannibal in 220 B.C. The Moors were driven out in 1085. Salamanca became world famous after the foundation (1218) of its university by Alfonso IX. The university soon rivaled Bologna, Paris, and Oxford, and it made Arabic philosophy available to the Western world. In the late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance, Salamanca was the center of Christian Spanish cultural life and the fountainhead of Spanish theology. In the Peninsular War the city was in part demolished (1811) by the French. It was (1937–38) the capital of the Insurgents in the Spanish civil war. Salamanca is rich in architectural interest; there is a Roman bridge in the city. The Plaza Mayor is among the finest colonnaded squares in Spain. Adjoining the old Gothic cathedral (12th cent.) is the imposing new cathedral (1513–1733), in which the Gothic, plateresqueplateresque
[Span.,=silversmith], earliest phase of Spanish Renaissance architecture and decoration, in the early 16th cent. Its richness of effect was primarily based upon the work of the Italian Renaissance, mingled, however, with surviving Moorish and late Gothic design.
..... Click the link for more information. , and baroque styles are combined. The university building (15th cent.) has a richly adorned facade and possesses a library with precious manuscripts. There are many splendid palaces, notably the Casa de las Conchas, named for the scallop shells on its facade, and the Casa de la Salina, with a picturesque patio.
a city in Léon, Spain, on the Tormes River (a tributary of the Duero). Capital of Salamanca Province; population, 125,000 (1971). Salamanca is an important transportation junction and trade center for agricultural products. Industries include food processing, metalworking, and the manufacture of chemicals, leather goods, and textiles.
In the fifth century B.C., Salamanca was a fortified settlement of the Vettone tribe. It was conquered by the Carthaginians in the third century B.C. and by the Romans in the second century B.C. The city was under Arab rule from the eighth to 11th centuries A.D. (with interruptions). Salamanca was ravaged during the Reconquest; the devastated city was resettled in 1102. The University of Salamanca, which was founded in the late 12th or early 13th century, became a major European center of learning. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Salamanca was renowned for its cloth manufacture and book printing. As a result of the general economic decline of Spain, the city subsequently lost its importance. During the national revolutionary war of the Spanish people against fascism (1936–39), Franco set up his headquarters in Salamanca.
One of Spain’s most beautiful cities, Salamanca has a comparatively regular layout. Its architecture is noted for its uniformity of building material (golden sandstone) and its stylistic unity (primarily the Plateresque and Churrigueresque styles). Noteworthy landmarks include the Plaza Mayor (1729–55, architect A. de Churriguera), the Romanesque old cathedral (1160) and the adjoining Late Gothic-baroque new cathedral (1513–1733, architects R. Gil de Hontañón and others), the Plateresque College of the Archbishop (1527–78, architects A. de Covarrubias and D. de Siloé), and the Plateresque Casa de las Conchas (1483, architect Talavera Maldonado).
a city in central Mexico, on the Lerma River, in Guanajuato. Population, 103,700 (1970).
Salamanca is a railroad and highway junction. It is a major center for the petroleum-refining and petrochemical industries. Artificial fertilizers are manufactured for farming in the central states. The city is linked by pipelines with the oil and gas industry regions on the Gulf of Mexico.