Salamis

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Salamis

(săl`əmĭs), ancient city on Cyprus, once the principal city. St. Paul visited it on his first missionary journey (Acts 13.5). Excavations there revealed the ruins of a Greek theater; there are also many Roman ruins. At nearby Enkomi, which preceded Salamis as the principal city of Cyprus, important Mycenaean remains have been found.

Salamis,

island, E Greece, in the Saronic Gulf, W of Athens. It early belonged to AeginaAegina
or Aíyina
, island (1991 pop. 12,430), 32 sq mi (83 sq km), off SE Greece, in the Saronic Gulf (or Gulf of Aegina), near Athens. Sponge fishing and farming (figs, almonds, grapes, olives, and pistachios) are the most important occupations.
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 but was later under Athenian control, except for a brief period after it was occupied (c.600 B.C.) by Megara. In the Persian WarsPersian Wars,
500 B.C.–449 B.C., series of conflicts fought between Greek states and the Persian Empire. The writings of Herodotus, who was born c.484 B.C., are the great source of knowledge of the history of the wars.
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 the allied Greek fleet, led by ThemistoclesThemistocles
, c.525–462 B.C., Athenian statesman and naval commander. He was elected one of the three archons in 493 B.C. In succeeding years many of his rivals were eliminated by ostracism and he became the chief figure of Athenian politics.
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, decisively defeated (480 B.C.) the Persians off Salamis.

Salamis

 

an island in the Aegean Sea, near the coast of Attica (Greece), around which a naval battle occurred on Sept. 28 (or 27), 480 B.C., during the Greco-Persian Wars.

After a naval battle off Cape Artemisium, the Greek Navy withdrew into the Salamis Strait and assumed a battle formation in two lines of ships along the Salamis shore. (The Greek Navy consisted of 350 to 380 triremes under the command of Eurybiades, who was operating in accordance with a plan worked out by the Athenian general Themistocles.) The approaching Persian Navy (more than 800 ships), under the command of King Xerxes, arranged themselves during the night in a dense battle order of three lines opposite the Greek Navy. As many as 200 Persian ships blocked the exits from the strait. In the morning the Greek ships attacked the right flank of the Persians. The densely congested battle order of the Persians prevented them from taking advantage of their numerical superiority. The Persian ships, unable to maneuver, became entangled and ran aground. Acting vigorously, the Greeks rammed and boarded the enemy ships. Xerxes’ brother Ariamenes was killed in the battle, and soon the Persian right wing was smashed. The remaining Persian ships fled in panic. The Persians lost 200 ships, and the Greeks, 40.

Salamis

Xerxes’ horde repulsed by numerically inferior Greek navy (480 B.C.). [Class. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 219]
See: Battle

Salamis

an island in the Saronic Gulf, Greece: scene of the naval battle in 480 bc, in which the Greeks defeated the Persians. Pop.: 20 000 (latest est.). Area: 95 sq. km (37 sq. miles)
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