saliva

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saliva

the secretion of salivary glands, consisting of a clear usually slightly acid aqueous fluid of variable composition. It moistens the oral cavity, prepares food for swallowing, and initiates the process of digestion

Saliva

 

the clear, viscid secretion of the salivary glands, with a weakly acid or weakly alkaline reaction (pH 5.6–7.6). A human adult secretes about 1.5 liters of saliva a day, and large farm animals from 40–60 to 120 liters. The composition and quantity of the saliva vary according to the consistency and chemical composition of the substances taken into the mouth and the organism’s functional condition.

Saliva contains 98.5–99.5 percent water, and dissolved anions of chlorides, phosphates, bicarbonates, thiocyanates, iodides, bromides, fluorides, and sulfates and the cations Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. It also contains the trace elements Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, Li, Zn, and others and organic matter, including protein and its fractions (albumin, globulins), amino acids, and mucin. In addition, it contains the enzymes amylase, lactase, ly-sozyme, kallikrein, and parotin, as well as cholesterol, glucose, lactic acid, and vitamins C, B1, B12, H, and K. Saliva helps dissolve the food, thus facilitating the perception of taste and the protection of the teeth against caries. It coats the alimentary bolus, thereby enabling the food to pass easily through the esophagus into the stomach; it also affects the secretory and motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract.

The level of development, habitat, and nature of the food consumed determine the content of certain constituents in the saliva of some animals. In snakes, for example, the saliva contains toxins and serves as a means of defense and attack. In other animals, including annelid worms and some birds, the secretions of the salivary glands are rich in the sticky substances needed to glue together the materials used in building nests. The saliva of bloodsucking animals, such as leeches and mosquitoes, usually contains anticoagulants, for example, hirudin in leeches. Carnivorous animals that feed on live prey may secrete paralyzing toxins in the saliva. Many insects, some mol-lusks (for example, Helix), and vertebrates secrete salivary car-bohydrases. The saliva of some predatory cephalopods contains proteases as well as toxins and mucus.

REFERENCE

Fiziologiia pishchevareniia. Leningrad, 1974(Rukovodstvo po fiziologii.)

V. D. SUKHODOLO

saliva

[sə′lī·və]
(physiology)
The opalescent, tasteless secretions of the oral glands.
References in periodicals archive ?
38) The calibration curve was obtained by the density reduction of two protein bands selected from the pool of salivary proteins that were better correlated with sensory analysis.
Electrophoresis of salivary proteins of different individuals shows presence of other salivary proteins in fewer quantities in the salivary films with variability between individuals and types of saliva.
According to some studies on transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of salivary proteins from female Ae.
The green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate precipitates salivary proteins including alpha-amylase: biochemical implications for oral health.
Recent evidences indicate that some of the salivary proteins can interact specifically with microorganisms [36].
By comparing the projected incidence using the Lyme disease transmission model to actual incidence of Lyme disease, we could assess the overall importance of factors missing from the basic model, such as the effects of inflammatory reactions against tick salivary proteins and acquired immunity to the spirochetal pathogen.
The allowed claims include compositions of matter for variations of naturally occurring human histidine-rich salivary proteins called histatins that are made with one or more D-amino acids.
Rodents and rabbits which routinely prefer and consume high-tannin plant foods, on the other hand, secrete salivary proteins which are proline-rich and bind the tannins so that they do not interfere with digestion (25).
Astringency in red wine is considered to be a result of the precipitation of salivary proteins by tannins and/or the binding of tannins to our oral mucosa.
Host-related factors such as sexual hormones, the presence of fibrin and fibrinogen, (2) and salivary compounds including mucine, (3) salivary proteins, (4) and secretory IgA (5) may also influence this process.
Salivary proteins as a biomarker for dental caries-A systematic review.