Shapur II

(redirected from Sapor II)

Shapur II

or

Sapor II,

310–79, king of Persia (310–79), of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty. He was the posthumous son of Hormuz II and therefore was born king. His long reign was marked by great military success. Central Asian tribes had taken advantage of his minority to regain much of their former territory, then held by Persia. Later, however, Shapur crushed their kingdom in the east and annexed the area as a new province. Cultural expansion followed this victory, and Sassanian art penetrated Turkistan, reaching as far as China. Having removed the threat from the east, Shapur resumed warfare against the Romans over the control of Armenia. Although driven back at first, the Roman army counterattacked and threatened Ctesiphon. But when the emperor Julian the Apostate was killed (363) in battle, the Romans withdrew. The emperor JovianJovian
(Flavius Claudius Jovianus) , c.331–364, Roman emperor (363–64). The commander of the imperial guard under Julian the Apostate in his Persian campaign, Jovian was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers when Julian was killed.
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 made a humiliating peace, and Shapur recovered Armenia, which he placed under military occupation. Armenia had in the meantime accepted Christianity, and Shapur, an orthodox Zoroastrian, at first persecuted the Christians but later recognized their autonomy and respected their religion. He had a large rock sculpture made near Shapur to commemorate his victory over the Romans.
References in periodicals archive ?
At Amida in 359, Ammianus was amongst the defenders who held out against the Persian king Sapor II for seventy-three days.