Erwin Schrödinger

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Schrödinger, Erwin

 

Born Aug. 12,1887, in Vienna; died there Jan. 4, 1961; buried in Alpbach, Tírol. Austrian physicist. One of the founders of quantum mechanics.

Schrödinger received the Ph.D. degree from the University of Vienna in 1910. In 1911 he began working at the Physics Institute of the University of Vienna. In 1920 he was a professor at the Technische Hochschule in Stuttgart, and in 1921, a professor at the Technische Hochschule in Breslau (Wrocław). From 1921 to 1927 he was a professor at the Technische Hochschule in Zürich, and from 1927, a professor at the University of Berlin. From 1933 to 1935 he was a professor at Oxford University, and from 1936 to 1938 at the university in Graz. In 1938–39 he was a professor in Ghent. Beginning in 1940, he was first a professor at the Royal Academy in Dublin, and then director of the Institute for Advanced Studies, which he founded in Dublin. From 1956, he was a professor at the University of Vienna.

Schrödinger’s main works dealt with mathematical physics, the theory of relativity, atomic physics, and biophysics. His early studies were devoted to the theory of the crystal lattice and the creation (1920) of the mathematical theory of color, which became the basis for modern colorimetry. His most important contribution was the creation of wave mechanics (late 1925 and early 1926): proceeding from L. de Broglie’s hypothesis regarding the wave properties of matter, Schrödinger showed that the stationary states of atomic systems may be considered as the self-oscillations of the wave field that corresponds to the given system. Schrödinger discovered the fundamental equation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics (the Schrödinger equation) and gave its solution for a number of particular problems; he provided a general method of applying the equation in perturbation theory. Schrödinger established the relationship between wave mechanics and the “matrix mechanics” of W. Heisenberg, M. Born, and P. Jordan and proved that they were physically identical. The mathematical formalism developed by Schrödinger and the wave function ψ introduced by him proved to be the most adequate mathematical apparatus of quantum mechanics and its applications.

Schrödinger received a Nobel Prize in 1933. He was a foreign member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1934).

WORKS

Abhandlungen zur Wellenmechanik, 2nd ed. Leipzig, 1928.
In Russian translation:
Izbrannye trudy po kvantovoi mekhanike. Moscow, 1976. (Series Klassiki nauki.)
Chto takoe zhizn’? S tochki zreniia ftziki, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1972.

L. S. POLAK

References in periodicals archive ?
The coefficient of t with i in one exponential term above has the physical dimensions and significance of a radial frequency, as Schroedinger noted [5], but we interpret that quantity in its particular context as energy E of a particular state divided by Planck constant h, as Schroedinger also applied.
Synge the playwright, served along with Schroedinger, Heitler, Lanczos and others is the DIAS, being a Senior Professor there from 1948 to 1972.
The first knowledge of the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) began with the Greek philosophers such as Democritus and Pythagoras and were further developed in the last two centuries by William Clifford, Irwin Schroedinger, Albert Einstein and Paul Dirac.
La ecuacion de Schroedinger no era en un inicio el objeto de estudio: resulto serlo en virtud de la realizacion practica del trabajo de campo.
When questioned later by the police, the elderly woman that had been sitting beside Schroedinger, the elderly woman that had screamed at the sight of the young thug's death, and who, by the way, had been spattered herself by the blood, was very clear about Schroedinger's lack of emotional response.
Examples are provided for acoustic simulation, and simulation of the Schroedinger equation, the heart of quantum mechanics.
By the way, as for Bohr, Schroedinger, and Heisenberg, theirs was the interpretation of quantum mechanics that insisted on a wave-particle duality that was only apparent.
To dramatize this point, Lindley invokes the famous paradox proposed by the Austrian physicist Erwin Schroedinger involving an imaginary cat whose life depends on the outcome of a quantum measurement.
The belief passes to faith in the face of deterministic Maxwell equations of the electromagnetic flux and the Schroedinger wave equation of the matter flux and the infinite spaces of equations that give rise to chaos.
Although Schroedinger introduced the phrase "negative entropy" for the inverse ratio between high order and low entropy in the metabolic exchanges of living organisms, the idea of symmetry as a reciprocal counteraction against entropy has not been extensively studied since then among physicists.
Schroedinger later showed that electrons don't whiz around the nucleaus.
All these viewpoints agree that the hilbert space formalism, with its operations on the complex conjugates bra and ket, as well as the equivalent Schroedinger formalism, to be accurate.