Science and Scholarship

Science and Scholarship

 

A substantial and rapidly growing scientific and technological potential has been created in the USSR. It comprises the aggregate of the material and nonmaterial resources that determine the scientific and technological level of social production under historically defined socioeconomic conditions.

Scientific and technological potential is a dynamic combination of objective possibilities and conditions, both realized and as yet unexploited, for the further growth of social production. The most important components of scientific and technological potential are scientific potential, engineering and design potential, educational potential, and the technological potential of production. Scientific potential and engineering and design potential may be regarded as a single potential called research potential. The development of scientific and technological potential is accompanied by an intensification of the interdependence and interpenetration of all the components.

Scientific and technological potential is characterized by a number of main parameters. One such parameter is a network of scientific research, experimental design, and engineering design organizations that deal with the development of basic and applied science and the use of science in technology. A second parameter is personnel, that is, scientists and specialists in all the links of the chain that extends from the development of scientific ideas to the large-scale introduction of the achievements of science and technology. A third is a system for the training and retraining of scientific and engineering personnel. A fourth is financial, material, and technical support for research and development.

Another parameter of scientific and technological potential is the development of a scientific, experimental, and production base and the provision of the base with scientific instruments, tools, equipment, and materials for carrying out research and development and for introducing the results in production. A sixth parameter is the organization and management of scientific research and technological development and a system for the practical implementation of the achievements of science and technology. A seventh is a system for providing information, publicizing the latest developments in science and technology, and popularizing scientific and technological achievements. A final parameter is participation in international cooperation and specialization in scientific research and technological development and the ability to use effectively the advantages of the international division of labor.

The development of a country’s scientific and technological potential and the rate and character of the quantitative and qualitative growth of such potential are determined by the socioeconomic nature of the state, the general and specific characteristics of the country, and the level of the country’s economic and cultural development. Under conditions of socialism, scientific and technological potential grows steadily and is used in accordance with a plan on the scale of society as a whole. The growth and use of such potential are based on a single scientific and technological policy as a component of the national socioeconomic policy. In the USSR, the growth of scientific and technological potential is a primary condition for socioeconomic progress, for the comprehensive development of all members of society, and for the fullest satisfaction of the material and cultural needs of all members of society.

In the USSR, the planning of the development of scientific and technological potential—like the planning of the whole system of scientific and technological research—is a component of the overall system of administration and management. Consciously placing science at the service of the building of communism, the CPSU has drawn up a purposeful program of scientific and technological progress, thus ensuring that the achievements of the scientific and technological revolution are combined with the advantages of the socialist economic system and providing for the harmonious, proportional evolution of both the components of the scientific and technological potential and science, technology, and other realms of society. In this case, one of the main advantages of a socialist society consists in the possibility of concentrating efforts on the solution of the most important problems.

The scientific and technological potential of the USSR is being formed and is evolving as an organic part of the socioeconomic transformations being carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party. The growth and development of the material and technical basis for communism, the cultural revolution that has led to the extensive development of education and to the training of skilled specialists for all sectors of the national economy, the increasing financial and material resources being channeled by the state into the development of science and technology, and the moral and material stimulation of scientific and technological progress have made it possible to ensure the development of a tremendous scientific and technological potential in a brief historical period. The present-day scientific and technological potential of the USSR makes it possible to conduct research in all problems of science and technology.

As of 1980, the number of scientific personnel in the USSR was 1.4 million. In 1980 the total number of industrial and nonindustrial workers in science and related service activities exceeded 4 million; the total number in public education and culture was 10.5 million. The number of graduate engineers employed in the national economy was 4.7 million. A total of 146.0 million persons had a complete or partial higher or secondary education, as compared with 58.7 million in 1959. Some 28.6 million specialists with a higher or secondary specialized education, including 12.1 million with a higher education and 16.5 million with a secondary education, were employed in the national economy. The number of such specialists in 1977 was 133 times greater than in prerevolutionary Russia.

In 1981, 83.3 percent of the total employed population had a complete or partial higher or secondary education. In 1939 the corresponding figure was 12.3 percent.

After the October Revolution of 1917, the number of scientific personnel increased at a rapid rate. In 1913 the number of such personnel was 11,600. By 1980 the number increased by a factor of almost 120. Between 1960 and 1980, both the total number of scientific personnel and the number of personnel holding the academic degree of candidate or doctor of sciences increased by a factor of 4 (see Table 1). The growth rate of the number of scientific personnel was more than twice as high as that of industrial and nonindustrial workers. In 1975 the number of scientific personnel in the USSR amounted to one-fourth of the total number of scientific personnel in the world.

Table 1. Scientific personnel in the USSR (end of year, thousands)
 195019601980
1Including scientific pedagogic personnel at higher educational institutions
Total scientific personnel1 ...............162.5354.21,373.3
Doctors of sciences ...............8.310.937.7
Candidates of sciences ...............45.598.3396.2
Academicians, corresponding members, professors ...............8.99.927.4
Docents ...............21.836.2110.7
Senior research workers ...............11.420.366.0
Junior research workers and assistants ...............19.626.741.1

While preserving the high growth rate of scientific and technological potential, the Communist Party attaches the greatest importance to measures associated with the qualitative aspect, that is, increasing the efficiency with which the scientific and technological potential is used, improving and perfecting the system for organizing and managing scientific research institutions, and introducing new technology in production.

The overall supervision of scientific and technological research in the Soviet Union is carried out by the Council of Ministers of the USSR. The special body responsible for scientific and technological progress is the State Committee of the USSR for Science and Technology. The highest scientific institution in the USSR is the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (see Table 2).

The development of the scientific and technological potential of the USSR has been directed toward the expansion of the scientific base not only in traditional cultural centers but also in new industrial and agricultural regions and in all the Union republics. An extensive and interconnected system of scientific institutions that meets the requirements of the development of Soviet society has been established in the Soviet Union. The characteristics of the system are its coverage of a wide range of fundamental problems and, at the same time, its orientation toward practical applications and the solution of present and future tasks in building communism.

Table 2. Scientific personnel in selected academies in the USSR (end of 1980)
 Scientific personnelAcademicians, members, and corresponding members
USSR Academy of Sciences ...............47,825732
Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences ...............13,369344
Byelorussian SSR Academy of Sciences ...............5,378137
Uzbek SSR Academy of Sciences ...............3,878108
Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciences ...............4,139133
Georgian SSR Academy of Sciences ...............5,617128
Azerbaijan SSR Academy of Sciences ...............4,314124
Lithuanian SSR Academy of Sciences ...............1,72757
Moldavian SSR Academy of Sciences ...............1,05943
Latvian SSR Academy of Sciences ...............1,73355
Kirghiz SSR Academy of Sciences ...............1,50956
Tadzhik SSR Academy of Sciences ...............1,32444
Armenian SSR Academy of Sciences ...............2,99288
Turkmen SSR Academy of Sciences ...............97244
Estonian SSR Academy of Sciences ...............1,06844
USSR Academy of Arts ...............367149
V. I. Lenin All-Union Order of Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences ...............20,044220
USSR Academy of Medical Sciences ...............6,390275
USSR Academy of Pedagogical Sciences ...............1,712128
RSFSR Academy of Housing and Municipal Economy ...............455

Higher educational institutions and scientific organizations established under the auspices of such institutions play an important role in the development of scientific and technological potential. At the beginning of the 1977–78 academic year, there were 861 higher educational institutions in the USSR, which is eight times more than in prerevolutionary Russia. In the Soviet period, 14.1 million specialists with a higher education have been trained. In the USSR, three groups of higher educational institutions have been established: universities, polytechnic institutes, and specialized institutes. The educational and research system in higher schools is supervised by the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education of the USSR.

In addition to the training of specialists with a higher education, the system for training highly skilled scientific personnel is being expanded. Between 1961 and 1977, the number of graduate students increased by a factor of 2.6.

The scientific and technological potential of the USSR is financed by allocations from the state budget and by funds of enterprises and organizations. The allocations and funds are used for capital investment, current expenditures, organization and management, and personnel training. The development of the scientific and technological potential has been accompanied by a steady increase in allocations for science from the state budget and other sources. Such allocations amounted to 300 million rubles in 1940, 6.9 billion rubles in 1965, 11.7 billion rubles in 1970, 17.4 billion rubles in 1975, and 18.3 billion rubles in 1977.

Scientific research institutions, design institutes, and industrial design offices are an important component of the scientific and technological potential. Much of the applied research, as well as development and design work, is concentrated in such organizations. At the beginning of 1978, 44 percent of all scientific personnel were employed in specialized research institutes or in branches or divisions of research institutes operated by ministries or departments. In addition to scientists, a large number of design engineers, process engineers, and skilled workers are employed in such organizations. The technological potential of production also includes a large number of laboratories—for example, plant, factory, and shop laboratories—and design organizations funded by enterprises, as well as sections, offices, experimental sections, and mechanization and automation sections.

A trend toward stronger relationships between the various components of the scientific and technological potential is characteristic of the development of the potential. As the scientific and technological level of industrial production rises, labor becomes more intellectualized directly in the sphere of production. The increasing intellectualization of labor promotes the gradual disappearance of the substantial differences between mental and physical labor. A manifestation of this process is an increase in the number of inventors and production engineers who rely on the achievements of science and technology. In 1977, as compared with 1940, the number of inventions and rationalization proposals submitted increased from 591,000 to 5,097,000. The number adopted rose from 202,000 to 3,988,000. The annual savings increased from 90 million rubles to 5.296 billion rubles.

The relationship between science and production takes on a wide variety of forms at all stages of the process that begins with the conception of scientific ideas, proceeds through scientific experiments and engineering development, and results in the organized introduction of new technology and processes in production. The most important task under present-day conditions is to accelerate the process in every possible way.

Between 1971 and 1975, the lot production of 16,500 new types of industrial products was begun. In comparison, 8,400 new types of industrial products were first produced between 1966 and 1970. In 1976 and 1977, the production of about 7,000 such items was begun.

The output of the sectors that determine to the greatest extent both technological progress and the efficiency of the national economy—that is, the output of machine building, the electric power industry, the chemical industry, and the petrochemical industry—rose from 28 percent of the total industrial output in 1970 to 36 percent of the total output in 1977. The output of machine building increased by a factor of 2.1; this includes increases by a factor of 6.5 in computer equipment and by a factor of 2.3 in automation equipment and spare parts for such equipment.

Between 1966 and 1970, 414 automated control systems were set up, including 321 control systems for enterprises and technological processes. The corresponding figures for the period from 1971 to 1975 were 2,364 and 1,457; for 1976 and 1977, 703 and 483. Between 1965 and 1977, the number of completely mechanized or automated industrial enterprises rose from 1,900 to 5,900; the number of completely mechanized or automated sections, shops, and production units increased from 22,400 to 74,400. In the same period, the number of mechanized production lines increased from 42,900 to 125,800 and the number of transfer lines rose from 6,000 to 20,600.

The growth rate of the scientific and technological potential has outstripped that in every sphere of social production. This attests to the successful development of the scientific and technological revolution in the USSR.

A component of scientific and technological potential is a scientific and technical information service, which is organized as an integrated national system in the USSR. In 1975 the scientific and technical information network included ten all-Union research institutes, 86 specialized central agencies, and 93 regional information centers. More than 11,000 scientific and technical information agencies were operated directly by scientific research organizations, design organizations, enterprises, and other institutions. A total of 166,000 persons were employed in the scientific and technical information system.

The most important feature of Soviet science, a feature that continues the traditions of Russian science, is a close relationship with world science, the assimilation of the achievements of world science, and—at the same time—contributions to the development of world science. The rational utilization of international cooperation in science and technology and rising international cooperation are an essential condition for the growth of scientific and technological potential. International cooperation and its rational utilization are dictated by the increasing internationalization of science and by the fact that many problems have become global in nature. Such problems include the peaceful use of nuclear energy, space exploration, the development of the resources of the ocean, environmental protection, providing mankind with food and energy, and the control of certain diseases. The paramount importance of international scientific relations also consists in the fact that such relations exert an ever-increasing influence on political relations between states by promoting international security and creating an atmosphere of trust and mutual understanding between peoples.

Cooperation in science and technology has become an important prerequisite for the development of the socialist countries. It constitutes the basis for the economic integration of the socialist countries and is a factor that cements the solidarity of the socialist community, strengthening the community’s international standing. The cooperation of the socialist countries provides the basis for the effective integration of the scientific and technological potentials of the member states of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) and for the intensification of the international division of labor and international cooperation both in basic and applied research and in the utilization of the resources of the socialist countries.

Positive changes in the international situation in the late 1960’s and in the 1970’s have made possible a substantial broadening of scientific and technical relations between the USSR and many capitalist countries and have qualitatively altered the forms and methods of such relations. Scientific and technological relations with the developed capitalist countries have been almost entirely shifted to a long-term basis in the framework of intergovernmental agreements that outline the main tasks and forms of economic, scientific, and technological relations. The conclusion of such agreements is evidence that realistically minded representatives of Western business, scientific, and political circles recognize both the outstanding achievements of the USSR in science and technology and the importance of developing scientific and technological cooperation.

To the utmost extent, cooperation between the USSR and the developing countries is directed toward the strengthening of the economic independence of such countries and the creation of their own scientific and technological potentials.

International organizations play an important role in the development of scientific and technological cooperation. The USSR is a member of approximately 600 political, economic, scientific and technical, cultural, and other international organizations. About 320 such organizations deal with the study and solution of problems in economics, science, and technology.

Soviet scientists and specialists participate in the scientific and technical programs of, for example, the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). The USSR also takes part in nongovernmental organizations, such as the International Organization for Standardization and the International Electrotechnical Commission. Problems of current interest are studied in the framework of organizations that deal with problems of the energy industry, for example, the World Energy Conference and the International Conference on Large High Tension Electric Systems. Soviet scientists and specialists have participated fruitfully in international organizations that deal with the solution of problems of current interest in theoretical and applied physics, chemistry, mechanics, biology, and other scientific disciplines.

The intensification of international scientific and technological cooperation and the wide variety of the forms of such cooperation are both a characteristic of the present-day scientific and technological revolution and an effective means for the development of the scientific and technological potential and the economic potential of every participating country.

The Comprehensive Program for Scientific and Technological Progress and Its Socioeconomic Consequences in 1976–90, which is the first such program to be drafted, is destined to play a most important role in the future development of the scientific and technological potential of the USSR. The accelerated development of science and technology and of the entire scientific and technological potential is outlined in the program. Such development will serve as the basis for resolving the problems of building communism in the USSR.

D. M. GVISHIANI

Before 1917. The Soviet Union is a country with long-standing scientific and scholarly traditions. The activity of many centers of learning, the first of which appeared in the Middle Ages on what is now the territory of the USSR, has been recorded in the history of world culture. Such centers included the observatory in Merv (ninth century), the House of Wisdom in Bukhara (tenth century), the House of Science in Khwarazm (11th century), Ulug Beg’s observatory (15th century) near Samarkand, the universities of Gladzor (13th-14th centuries) and of Tatev (14th-15th centuries) in Armenia, and the Ikalto Academy (11th century) and the Gelati Academy (12th century) in Georgia. The schools founded by Prince Vladimir in Kiev (tenth century) and by Iaro-slav the Wise in Novgorod (11th century) were major cultural centers.

Beginning in the early 16th century, groups of specialists—both Russian specialists and specialists invited from abroad—were formed in the state administrative bodies, or prikazy, of Russia. Knowledge in individual fields of learning was accumulated. For example, by the late 17th century, the Aptekarskii Prikaz (Pharmaceutical Department) had at its disposal a sizable staff with a variety of specialties and skills, including physicians, chemists, alchemists, and apprentices, as well as an extensive specialized library, which became part of the library of the Academy of Sciences in the 18th century. The Pharmaceutical Garden operated under the auspices of the Aptekarskii Prikaz, where the properties of herbs were studied, manuals and works on pharmacology and medicine were compiled, and physicians and apothecaries were trained.

In the Pushkarskii Prikaz (Office of Field Ordnance), cannoneers, metallurgists, gunpowder specialists, and other craftsmen mastered techniques of working with various alloys and explosives. The prikaz had at its disposal an extensive library on problems of, for example, fortification, hydraulics, and ballistics.

The appearance of strictly scientific institutions—that is, institutions devoted mainly to research and scientific education—is associated with the state reforms of the first quarter of the 18th century. The requirements of the state for the exploitation of natural resources, the development of economically necessary branches of applied science and technology, and the training of its own specialists compelled the government of Peter I to implement a system of important cultural and scientific measures.

On the initiative of the state, the first expeditions for the study of the country were undertaken. They included an expedition to the Caspian Sea (1720), an expedition to Siberia (1720–27), and the First Kamchatka Expedition (1725–30). The following institutions were founded in 1714: the St. Petersburg Pharmaceutical Garden (from 1823, the Imperial Botanical Garden), a scientific library (later the library of the Academy of Sciences; opened as a public library in 1728), and the Kunstkamera (opened in 1719). The Kunstkamera was the first museum of natural science in Russia.

The Academy of Sciences was founded in St. Petersburg in 1724 and was opened in December 1725. It was charged with the responsibility of developing scientific research and education and of organizing and carrying out the scientific and technical work required by the state. In the 18th century, all scientific and cultural activity in Russia was associated with the academy. The Academy University, which operated within the Academy of Sciences, trained the first Russian scientists. The geographic and natural-scientific study of Russia was centralized in the academy, which organized scientific cartographic projects, the Second Kamchatka (Great Northern) Expedition of 1733–43, and the academic expeditions of 1768–74 in European Russia, the Urals, and Siberia. New research institutions were formed under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences. The Kunstkamera became part of the academy. The Physics Office was established in 1725, an observatory was built in the 1730’s, and the geographic department was founded in 1739. In 1748 a chemistry laboratory was established on the initiative of M. V. Lomonosov. In addition, studios for making tools and instruments were set up; the studios tested inventions and designs.

In 1755, Moscow University was opened. The university soon became a major center of science and scholarship. The network of specialized higher schools was enlarged. In 1765 the Free Economic Society, the first Russian scientific society, was established. In 1783 the Russian Academy was founded to study and refine the Russian literary language. In the second half of the 18th century, scientific institutions were created in the Baltic region. They included an astrophysical observatory (1753), a botanical garden, and a zoological museum (the 1780’s) in Vil’na (now Vilnius) and an astronomical observatory in Mitava (now Jelgava).

In the first half of the 19th century, science was characterized by a tendency toward a deeper study of natural processes and phenomena and the determination of the intrinsic unity of such processes and phenomena. New mathematical, physical, chemical, biological, and other scientific disciplines arose. The need for an association of scientists increased. The process of establishing new scientific institutions, which was dictated by the development of Russia and of Russian science, was constantly inhibited by the serf system and by the inconsistent and contradictory attitude of the ruling circles toward scientific work.

The Academy of Sciences remained the leading scientific institution in Russia. The number of subdivisions of the academy was increased, and the museums established under the auspices of the academy grew in number. The latter included the Asian Museum, the Botanical Museum, the Zoological Museum, the Mineralogical Museum, the Museum of Ethnography, and the Museum of Numismatics. In 1841 the Russian Academy was incorporated into the Academy of Sciences as the division of Russian language and linguistics. The Main Astronomical Observatory was founded at Pulkovo in 1839, and the Main Physical Observatory was established in 1849 under the auspices of the Ministry of Finance.

The need for educated civil servants, physicians, agronomists, and other specialists—a need that became especially acute after the reform of the state administration and the establishment of ministries in 1802—led to an increase in the number of educational institutions. Lycées and universities were founded in Dorpat, Kazan, Kharkov, St. Petersburg, and Kiev. Educational institutions were established, including the Forestry Institute, the Communications Institute of the Corps of Engineers, and the St. Petersburg Institute of Practical Technology. In 1828 the work of the Chief Pedagogical Institute was resumed.

Beginning in the early 19th century, scientific-administrative subdivisions were organized under government departments. Such subdivisions included the Military Topographic Section of the General Staff or, later, of the Main Headquarters (1812; founded in 1797 as the Map Depot), the Scientific Committee of the Department of Mining (1834), and the Agricultural Scientific Committee of the Ministry of State Domains (1857). The subdivisions supervised the training of specialists and organized necessary scientific research on the departmental level.

Scientific and scholarly societies founded in large provincial cities, mainly in university cities, began to play an important role in the development of science and culture. The scientific and scholarly societies organized at Moscow University were prominent in scientific and scholastic activity in Moscow. They included the Moscow Society of History and Russian Antiquities (1804), the Society of Medical and Physical Sciences (1804), the Moscow Society of Naturalists (1805), and the Society of Lovers of the Russian Word (1811). The societies that were active in St. Petersburg included the Mineralogical Society (founded in 1817 at the Mining School), the Physicomedical Society (1805), and the Forestry Society (1834). Similar societies were established in the Baltic region, Byelorussia, and the Ukraine. They included the Riga Society of Natural Scientists (1805), the Dorpat Physicians’ Society (1811), the Vil’na Society of Medical Sciences (1805), the Byelorussian Free Economic Society (founded in Minsk in 1824), and the Society of Philologists and Technical Scientists (founded in Kharkov in 1811).

Initially, the main function of scientific societies was the association of scientists for the exchange of information. However, they gradually began to assume the functions of, for example, organizing research and publishing literature, thus becoming centers for scientific work.

By the middle of the 19th century, the number of institutions that carried out scientific research increased by nearly a factor of four in comparison with the late 18th century. A network of scientific institutions had been established that remained virtually unchanged until 1917. The network comprised the Academy of Sciences and its subdivisions, observatories, the scientific subdivisions of higher educational institutions, the scientific committees of government departments, and scientific societies.

In the second half of the 19th century, scientific activity developed under conditions of the rapid growth of capitalism. The increase in industrial and agricultural production after the abolition of serfdom in 1861 led to the establishment of new higher educational institutions, such as the Petrovskoe Farming and Forestry Academy in Moscow, the Riga Polytechnic Institute, the Moscow Higher Technical School, the Kharkov Technological Institute, and the St. Petersburg Electrical Engineering Institute. Scientific research became more and more concentrated in the higher schools. Scientific schools of thought were formed in the universities and the newly established specialized educational institutions. Several new scientific-administrative bodies under government departments were created, including the Statistical Committee of the Ministry of the Interior (1852), the Geological Committee (1882), and the Central Hydrographic Board of the Naval Administration (1885).

Scientific research was carried out under difficult conditions. Alarmed by the growth of the revolutionary movement, the tsarist regime did not hesitate to close or abolish universities or to ban scientific societies. The state research institutions were impoverished and few in number. New institutions grew extremely slowly, and old institutions virtually did not expand. For example, in the Academy of Sciences, only three small laboratories—a physiological laboratory, a specialized zoological laboratory, and a laboratory of plant anatomy and physiology—were opened in the late 19th century.

Between 1860 and 1900, approximately 100 scientific organizations were founded, mainly small weather stations, experimental fields, archives, and museums. Only three major scientific institutions were established: the Institute for Experimental Medicine (1890; existed mainly on private funds), the Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine (1898), and the Central Board of Weights and Measures (founded in 1893 on the initiative of D. I. Mendeleev). Later, in 1914, the Central Scientific and Technical Laboratory of the Military Department was founded to study problems of armament and war production.

A characteristic of the development of science in the second half of the 19th century was a close connection between scientific thought and progressive social thought; scientists strove to solve not only research problems but also economic and sociopolitical problems of importance to the country. Scientific societies became the most characteristic type of research organization. The following societies became major scientific centers: the Russian Geographical Society (1845); the Society of Lovers of Natural Science, Anthropology, and Ethnology (1864); the Moscow Mathematical Society (1867); the Russian Physical Chemistry Society (1878); and the St. Petersburg, Kazan, Tomsk, and Kharkov societies of natural scientists (founded in the late 1860’s). In the late 1860’s, the 1870’s, and the 1880’s, the first scientific and technical societies were formed; they included the Russian Technical Society (1866) and the Moscow, Riga, and St. Petersburg polytechnical societies.

Scientific congresses became a unique form of scientific organization. Between 1867 and 1913, 13 congresses of natural scientists and physicians took place. In the 1880’s and 1890’s, congresses were first organized by archaeologists, historians, and specialists in technology. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, scientific congresses, like scientific societies, played a major role in uniting and organizing scientific manpower and in popularizing scientific and technical knowledge.

In the 1900’s, commissions dealing with problems in specific areas were first established under the auspices of a number of scientific institutions, such as the Academy of Sciences and the scientific committees of government departments. They included the seismological, magnetic, and polar commissions of the Academy of Sciences and the Commission on Aluminum of the Geological Committee. Such commissions were the means by which scientific institutions adapted to the solution of new problems and were an attempt to coordinate scientific work that had been uncoordinated. The Commission for the Study of the Natural Productive Forces of Russia (1915) became the most important of such organizations. It dealt with the problems of organizing and carrying out investigations of natural resources, uniting scientists, and establishing scientific institutes.

On the eve of the October Revolution of 1917, there were about 300 scientific institutions in Russia, including committees, commissions, and higher educational institutions. Virtually all the scientific institutions were concentrated in Moscow, Petro-grad, and a few large cities in the western and central provinces. In the Urals, Siberia, and the Far East, there were only four higher educational institutions: a technological institute in Tomsk, the University of Tomsk (1888), the Eastern Institute in Vladivostok, and the University of Perm’ (1916). In addition, there were a few experimental agricultural and forestry fields and regional organizations.

Middle Asia lacked even a single higher educational institution. An observatory was founded in Tashkent in 1873. Weather stations were established in Tashkent, Ashkhabad, Krasnovodsk, and Kushka. Seismological stations were founded in Tashkent, Samarkand, and other cities. An entomological station was established in Tashkent, and several museums were opened. The Murgab Experimental Field and the Repetek Sand and Desert Station were set up in Turkmenia in 1912. In Tashkent, several regional and scientific societies were organized, including the Middle Asian Scientific Society and the Society of Natural Scientists and Physicians of Turkestan Krai.

In the Caucasus, there were no higher educational institutions and only a very few scientific institutions. The latter included the Caucasian Museum (1853; a museum of ethnography), the Tbilisi Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory, local branches of the Russian Geographical Society and the Geological Committee, and botanical gardens in Sukhumi, Tbilisi, and Batumi.

Scientific activity in the outlying areas was extremely limited. The few scientific circles and societies drew their members from an extremely narrow segment of the intelligentsia. A lack of coordinated research was a characteristic of the organization of science in the prerevolutionary period. In fact, scientific institutions in the central region and in the provinces operated without any contact or coordination.

After the Great October Socialist Revolution. The October Revolution of 1917 marked a new era in the development of science and scientific institutions. The establishment of the world’s first workers’ state, the profound social changes that occurred in Russia, and the beginning of the building of socialism resulted in the transformation of science into a powerful force for economic, social, and cultural change. Under the leadership of V. I. Lenin, the principles for a new, socialist organization of scientific activity were developed and the first steps in the national planning of scientific research were taken.

In Lenin’s The Immediate Tasks of the Soviet Government (1918), “Draft Plan of Scientific and Technical Work” (1918), “On Proletarian Culture” (1920), and “Integrated Economic Plan” (1921), the strategy for the development of Soviet science was defined, the need for purposeful planned management of science was indicated, and the leading role of science in the development of the national economy was emphasized. The Party program adopted by the Eighth Congress of the RCP(B) in 1919 was of great importance.

Under the very difficult conditions of the Civil War and Military Intervention of 1918–20, very important measures were implemented with respect to involving scientists in the construction of the economy and of culture and in the formulation and solution of urgent scientific and technical problems of importance to the state. In 1920, on Lenin’s instructions and under his leadership, scientists drew up a program—the GOELRO plan—for the reconstruction and development of the national economy on the basis of electrification. In addition, investigations were carried out with respect to the Kursk magnetic anomaly, the chemical resources of Kara-Bogaz-Gol and the Solikamsk region, the oil field near Ukhta, the bauxite deposits in the Tikhvin region, the combustible shales in the northwestern European part of Russia, water resources, clays, peats, and other natural resources. A scientific base was developed for the most important sectors of industry, and the higher schools were reorganized. The toiling masses gained access to education and scientific work. New centers of scientific education were opened.

The establishment of a system of national coordination and centralized supervision of research was of great importance for the development of Soviet science. In 1918 the Scientific Department of the People’s Commissariat for Education (from 1922, the Central Scientific Administration [Glavnauka]) and the Scientific and Technical Department of the Supreme Council on the National Economy were formed. The latter was given responsibility for organizing science in the service of industry and for coordinating applied scientific and technical work.

As the state sector in various branches of the national economy grew and research activity expanded, scientific-administrative subdivisions were formed under the people’s commissariats and other government departments. They included the Scientific Commission of the Scientific and Technical Department of the Supreme Council on the National Economy, the Scientific Medical Council of the People’s Commissariat for Public Health, and the State Academic Council of the People’s Commissariat for Education. The State Planning Commission (1921) and the Special Provisional Committee on Science of the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR (1922–24) became important centers for the planning and coordination of scientific work on the nationwide level. The activity of the State Planning Commission and the Special Provisional Committee on Science helped direct development toward an integrated scientific and technological policy and provided for the formation of a national network of scientific research institutions in accordance with a plan.

New scientific research centers and a system of major scientific research institutes were established. By the mid-1920’s, despite the Civil War and the difficulties of the reconstruction period, more than 70 institutes that played a prominent role in the development of Soviet science were founded. They include the State Optics Institute (1918; founded by D. S. Rozhdestvenskii), the Central Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Institute (1918; a founder and the first director, N. E. Zhukovskii), the State Hydrological Institute (1919), the Institute of Biophysics (1919; founded under the supervision of P. P. Lazarev), the Institute of Biochemistry (1920; founded under the supervision of A. N. Bakh), the Institute for the Study of the North (1920), the Floating Marine Institute (1921; initiated marine research expeditions), the Petrograd Physicotechnical Institute (1921; founder and first director, A. F. Ioffe), and the State Radium Institute (1922; founded under the supervision of V. I. Vernadskii). Such scientific institutions were oriented toward the solution of basic scientific and economic problems.

In the first years after the revolution, the foundations were laid for a network of specialized scientific institutions; specialized complexes of scientific research institutes for industry, transportation, communications, agriculture, public health, and other fields were first formed. The nucleus of the main institutes of Soviet industry was established with the foundation of, for example, the L. Ia. Karpov Chemical Institute (1918; initially the Chemistry Laboratory of the Scientific and Technical Department of the Supreme Council on the National Economy), the Scientific Automotive Institute (1918), the State Institute of Applied Chemistry (1919), the Scientific Institute for Fertilizers (1919), the Institute of Applied Mineralogy and Metallurgy (1919), the Institute for the Mechanical Processing of Minerals (1920), the State Experimental Electrical Engineering Institute (1921; later the V. I. Lenin All-Union Electrical Engineering Institute), the State Heat Engineering Institute (1921), the State Peat Institute (1921), and the Nizhny Novgorod Radio Laboratory (1918). In 1925 there were about 30 institutes and large specialized laboratories in industry.

In 1918 the formation of a network of scientific institutions under the People’s Commissariat for Public Health was begun. In 1920 the institutes were consolidated into a single system called the State Institute of Public Health. In 1925 the State Institute of Public Health included eight large institutes.

The creation of a system of scientific support for agriculture was begun in the early 1920’s. The Central Selection and Genetics Station was established in 1920 outside Petrograd. The State Grasslands Institute and the Institute of Scientific Land Reclamation were founded in 1921. In 1922 the Institute of Experimental Agronomy was established. In 1924 the Institute of Applied Botany and New Crops was detached from the Institute of Experimental Agronomy.

In the early 1920’s, scientific research institutes under the jurisdiction of higher educational institutions were first created. The work of such institutes was closely associated with the educational process and, at the same time, with the implementation of the research programs of government departments and enterprises. These institutes played an important role in the development of Soviet scientific personnel.

The October Revolution brought about fundamental changes in the organization of research in the humanities. In the first years of Soviet power, major centers of Marxist social science were established. The centers focused their attention on the study of productive forces, class problems, and the class struggle.

In 1918 the Socialist Academy of Social Sciences was founded; in 1924 it was renamed the Communist Academy. In the first half of the 1920’s, institutes and scholarly societies were formed under the auspices of the academy. The institutes and societies studied problems of, for example, philosophy, law, economics, and Soviet construction, as well as the history of the international working-class movement and the history of the October Revolution.

The Russian Academy of the History of Material Culture, where studies in archaeology and ethnography were centralized, was opened in 1919. The Marx-Engels Institute (1921), the Commission on the History of the October Revolution and the RCP(B) (Istpart; 1920), and the V. I. Lenin Institute (1923) were founded by resolutions of the Central Committee of the RCP(B). The V. I. Lenin Institute was established on the initiative of Moscow Communists.

The activity of old scientific institutions, especially the Academy of Sciences, was broadened considerably. Between 1918 and 1925, the number of scientific subdivisions in the Academy of Sciences virtually doubled. Within the academy, scientific research institutes were created, including the Institute of Platinum (1918), the Institute of Physicochemical Analysis (1918; first headed by N. S. Kurnakov), the Physicomathematical Institute (1921; first headed by V. A. Steklov), the Chemical Institute (1924), the Institute of Physiology (1925; first headed by I. P. Pavlov), and the V. V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute (1927). The academy carried out much theoretical, expeditionary, and organizational work and was in charge of the study of the country’s natural resources. The Academy of Sciences was recognized as the highest scientific institution in the Soviet Union. On July 27, 1925, it was renamed the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

The creation of scientific and educational centers in such regions as Transcaucasia, Middle Asia, the Urals, and Siberia was an important trend in the formation of a national network of scientific institutions. In 1918 universities were opened in Voronezh, Nizhny Novgorod, Tbilisi, and Irkutsk. Between 1919 and 1921, a number of universities were founded, including the University of Baku (1919; since 1924 the University of Azerbaijan), the University of Yerevan (1920), the Urals University (1920; from 1925 to 1931, a polytechnic institute), the University of Turkestan (1920; from 1923 the Middle Asian University, since 1960 the University of Tashkent), the Far East University (1920), and the Byelorussian University (1921). The establishment of new universities played an important role in the training of local intelligentsias and in the development of science and culture.

The Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR was founded in 1919.

After the formation of the USSR in 1922, the organization of science in the provinces assumed a much broader scope. The study of the natural resources, economies, ethnography, and cultures of the Union republics was greatly expanded. Aided by the scientific institutions of the RSFSR—the Academy of Sciences, universities, and new institutes—and supported by local universities, the other Union republics began to train their own national scientific and technical personnel and to form their first scientific research institutions.

In the first half of the 1920’s, various institutions were founded in outlying areas. They included the Tbilisi Bacteriological Institute and several scientific societies in Georgia, the Lake Sevan Hydrobiology Station (1923) in Armenia, the Society for the Exploration and Study of Azerbaijan (1923; later an institute), the Society for the Study of Local Lore of the People’s Commissariat for Education of Turkmenistan (1925), the Scientific Society of Tadzhikistan (1925), the Institute of Byelorussian Culture (1922), and a scientific committee in Moldavia (1926).

The Siberian Geological Committee (1918), the Siberian Commission of GOELRO (1921), and the Siberian Agricultural Academy (1923) played an important role in the organization of scientific work in Siberia. The Urals Scientific Research Institute was founded in 1925 to study the most important economic problems of the Urals.

In the mid-1920’s, there were more than 600 scientific institutions, that is, twice as many as in the prerevolutionary period.

The evolution of science and scientific institutions in the second half of the 1920’s and in the 1930’s was closely associated with the development of socialist construction. In 1927 the Fifteenth Congress of the ACP(B) outlined the path to the creation of the material and technical basis for socialism. The congress stressed the importance of the industrialization of the USSR and set forth as a separate task “the broad development of the network of scientific research institutes and factory and plant laboratories and resolutely narrowing the gap between academic scientific work and industry and agriculture” (KPSS v rezoliutsiiakh, vol. 4, 1970, p. 47).

The transformation of the USSR into a mighty industrial power and the scope of the cultural revolution led to a rapid increase in the number of scientific research institutions. During the prewar five-year plans (1929–40), the Soviet national intelligentsia, which includes Soviet scientists, was formed and grew. In 1928, on the initiative of a group of scientists, the All-Union Association of Scientific and Technical Workers for Active Participation in Socialist Construction in the USSR (VARNITSO) was established. VARNITSO played a prominent role in uniting the advanced scientific and technical intelligentsia.

In 1931 the Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute of the Central Committee of the ACP(B) (since 1956 the Institute of Marxism-Leninism of the Central Committee of the CPSU) was founded on the basis of the Marx-Engels Institute and the V. I. Lenin Institute. The network of institutions within the Communist Academy was reorganized. In 1929 institutes of philosophy and of history were opened under the auspices of the Communist Academy. In 1931 institutes of, for example, literature, art, and languages were founded within the academy.

A transition from highly specialized research to the comprehensive solution of the most important theoretical and practical problems was a characteristic of Soviet science in the prewar period. The Communist Party and the Soviet government regarded the systematic growth of the network of research institutes in all fields of science and technology as a top-priority task in the development of science. The system of institutions carrying out basic research was expanded considerably, and such research became more and more centralized in the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. By the beginning of 1941, the Academy of Sciences encompassed 167 scientific institutions, that is, 78 institutes and 89 associations. They included the Geological Institute (1930), the Institute of Physical Chemistry (1931), the P. N. Lebedev Institute of Physics (1934; first director, S. I. Vavilov), the Institute of Organic Chemistry (1934; founded by A. E. Favorskii and N. D. Zelinskii), the Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (1934; first director, N. S. Kurnakov), the Institute for Physical Problems (1934; first director, P. L. Kapitsa), and the Institute of Theoretical Geophysics (1938; first director, O. Iu. Shmidt).

Institutions that studied fundamental problems of technology were founded within the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. They included the Institute of Power Engineering (1930; first director, G. M. Krzhizhanovskii), the Institute of Automation and Telemechanics (1939), and the Institute of Machine Science (1938).

In 1936 the institutions of the Communist Academy were placed under the jurisdiction of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Institutes of, for example, history, the state construction of the USSR, and economics were established within the Academy of Sciences.

In the first half of the 1930’s, more than 20 percent of the scientific institutions in the USSR dealt with industry, transportation, and communications. Various institutions devoted to these spheres had been founded, such as the Scientific Research Institute of Machine Building and Metalworking (1926; later the Central Scientific Research Institute of Transportation Machine Building), the State Institute for the Design of Metallurgical Plants (Gipromez, 1926), the State Institute for the Design of Nonferrous Metallurgical Enterprises (Giprotsvetmet, 1929), the Central Institute of Transportation Construction of the People’s Commissariat of Railroad Transportation (1930), and the All-Union Institute for the Mechanization of Agriculture (1930).

A number of major institutes for the chemical industry were established. They included the Institute of Solid-fuel Chemistry (1929), the Institute of Petroleum (1929), the Institute of High Pressures (1930), the Institute of Plastics Chemistry (1932), and the central institutes of the Groznyi and Emba oil trusts. The Jet Scientific Research Institute, the first such institute in the USSR, was founded in 1933.

In the second half of the 1930’s, the work of scientific research institutes in aircraft engine construction, tractor building, motor vehicle transport, and water transport was expanded. Scientific research institutions were established in every branch of the infant Soviet industry.

Many scientific and research organizations, such as the Dneprostroi construction organization and the Central Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Institute, took part in designing the V. I. Lenin Dnieper Hydroelectric Power Plant (Dneproges). The Magnitogorsk, Novolipetsk, and Novotagil metallurgical combines were built according to the designs of Gipromez, as were the Uralmash, Rostsel’mash, and other plants. Giprotsvetmet designed the Krasnoural’sk and Balkhash copper-smelting works, the Chimkent Lead Works, and the Cheliabinsk Zinc Works. The Institute of Solid-fuel Chemistry, the All-Ukrainian Institute of Chemistry, and other scientific institutions studied the coals of, for example, the Donets Coal Basin, the Kuznetsk Coal Basin, and the Urals; in particular, problems associated with the creation of the Urals-Kuznetsk Combine and other enterprises were solved.

The first major construction projects in heavy industry and in power engineering in the USSR became a school for the scientific and technical intelligentsia of the country. Large scientific collectives of metallurgists, mechanical engineers, hydroelectric power engineers, and other specialists were formed in the process of practical work.

In the second half of the 1920’s, agricultural research institutions were rapidly formed. In 1929 the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) was founded. In 1930 the academy included 11 new scientific institutes, such as the All-Union Institute of Horticulture, the Institute of Agricultural Economics, the Institute of Agricultural Economics, the Institute of Livestock Breeding, the Institute of Land Reclamation, and two fishing industry institutes. The establishment of VASKhNIL and its network of institutions was a part of the measures implemented by the party and the government in the socialist reconstruction of agriculture.

The Academy of Housing and Municipal Economy of the RSFSR was founded in 1931. The Academy of Architecture of the USSR was established in 1934.

The development of a scientific research base for public health was continued. In 1932 the All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine was founded. In the late 1930’s, there were about 300 scientific medical institutions.

Scientific institutions gave much attention to the strengthening of the defense capability of the USSR, the improvement of the technical means and equipment available to the Red Army, and the enhancement of the army’s fighting power. In the 1920’s and the 1930’s, design offices were set up in the defense sectors of industry. The design offices dealt with the development and introduction into production of airplanes, tanks, field ordnance, and small arms.

In the 1930’s, an important step was taken toward the complete coverage of the most essential fields of science and technology and the extension of the network of scientific research institutions throughout the USSR. Large research centers were established in the new industrial regions of the RSFSR and in the other Union republics. The development of the Northeast and the creation of a new, potent base for power and raw materials beyond the Urals—a base that included Magnitogorsk, the Kuznetsk Coal Basin, and Karaganda—led to the advance of science across the Urals and into Siberia, Kazakhstan, and the Far East. In the early 1930’s, there were more than 20 scientific research institutions, mainly in industry, in the Urals.

The expansion of the work of branches and bases of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in the Urals and the Far East was of great importance. The academy’s branches and bases were in charge of the study of both the productive forces of the Urals and the Far East and the histories and cultures of the peoples inhabiting the two regions.

The institutions of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR that were founded in the 1930’s in Transcaucasia and Middle Asia played a prominent role in the organization of the study of local natural resources and in the training of national scientific personnel.

The Academy of Sciences of the Byelorussian SSR was founded in 1929.

New universities were established in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Karelia. The network of specialized higher educational institutions was expanded, and research organizations were rapidly set up.

In 1940, the number of scientific personnel outside the RSFSR amounted to 19,300 in the Ukraine, 2,200 in Byelorussia, 6,500 in Transcaucasia, and 5,900 in Kazakhstan and the republics of Middle Asia. In the prewar period, approximately one-third of all the scientific research institutions in sectors of industry and up to 40 percent of the institutions engaged in basic research—mainly local subdivisions of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR—were outside the RSFSR. By the beginning of 1941, the total number of such institutions was about 40.

In the second half of the 1920’s and in the 1930’s, the administration of specialized scientific institutions in the USSR was centralized in the corresponding people’s commissariats or departments. The rapid growth of the network of scientific research institutions and the increasing specialization of the institutions with respect to both area of study and function made the coordination of scientific activity a major problem. On the recommendation of the Soviet government, scientific research on the national level was planned at all-Union conferences or congresses dealing with sectors of industry or with comprehensive problems. The State Planning Commission, the Committee for the Management of Academic and Educational Institutions of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR (the Academic Council of the Central Executive Committee; 1926–36), the Department of Scientific Institutions (1928–29), and the Commission for Assisting Scientists (1931) of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR were national centers that coordinated research and directed the work of the largest all-Union institutions. The Committee for Affairs of Higher Schools also carried out coordination functions.

During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, all the forces of Soviet science were directed toward ensuring victory over the enemy. Despite the fact that the war inflicted considerable damage on the scientific potential of the USSR (more than 600 scientific institutions, including the Pulkovo and Simeiz observatories, were destroyed), the development of Soviet science continued. The new research centers that had been established in the eastern regions before the war served as the base for the work of the scientific institutions—for example, academic institutes, universities, and major industrial institutes—that were evacuated from the western and central oblasts. Important research on the improvement of defense technology and the exploitation of natural resources, as well as prospective theoretical research, was carried out at the new scientific centers in the Volga region, the Urals, Siberia, and Middle Asia.

The need for the expeditious resolution of many problems gave rise to specific forms in the organization of science, that is, to the creation of study groups and advisory groups of scientists. Such groups worked directly in the field on the instructions of the State Defense Committee, the General Staff, the staffs of fronts or fleets, people’s commissariats, government departments, or individual enterprises.

Expeditions for the study of natural resources were productive. Problems in the organization of research were resolved by the Scientific and Technical Council under the State Defense Committee’s commissioner for science. The network of scientific research institutes and laboratories was expanded.

Between 1941 and 1945, 240 new scientific institutions were founded. The institutions established under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR included the Pacific Ocean Institute (1942), the Institute of Crystallography (1943), a volcanology laboratory, and a helminthology laboratory. The Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR was founded in 1944; the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the RSFSR, in 1943.

Intensive work on important economic and theoretical problems fostered the further development of scientific research activity in outlying areas. During the war, academies of sciences were founded in Georgia (1941), Armenia (1943), Uzbekistan (1943), and Azerbaijan (1945). The network of scientific institutions in Siberia was expanded; by the end of the war, there were 15 higher educational institutions and 19 scientific research institutes in Siberia. Scientific institutions of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR were established in a number of regions. The Western Siberian and Kirghiz branches of the academy were founded in 1943, the Kazan Branch was created in 1945, and the academy’s scientific research base in the Komi ASSR was organized in 1944.

In the postwar period, Soviet science was confronted with tasks associated with, for example, the speedy reconstruction of the national economy, the development of the scientific and technological revolution, the mastering of nuclear energy, the development of computers, the complete mechanization and automation of production, problems in electronics, rocketry and space technology, and the production of materials with desired properties. The Communist Party and the Soviet government steered a course toward the intensified acceleration of scientific and technological progress.

A number of measures were implemented with respect to the development of a mechanism for the planning and coordination of scientific research. In 1947 the State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the Introduction of New Technology Into the National Economy (Gostekhnika SSSR) was established. The committee existed until 1951 and was reestablished in 1955 as the State Committee on New Technology of the Council of Ministers of the USSR; in 1957 it was reorganized as the State Scientific and Technical Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. The committee was in charge of work on the use of scientific and technological achievements in the national economy and work on the organization of the most important scientific and technical research, both specialized and interbranch.

Scientific work was centralized in several large systems: the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and its network of central institutes, branches, and other institutions; the academies of sciences of the Union republics; the specialized academies and research institutes of ministries and departments; and the scientific subdivisions of higher schools.

In 1946 the Academy of Social Sciences of the Central Committee of the CPSU was founded. By the late 1940’s, branches of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism of the Central Committee of the CPSU had been set up in 14 Union republics and in the cities of Moscow and Leningrad.

The network of institutions under the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was expanded considerably. In the second half of the 1940’s and in the 1950’s, more than 30 new institutes were established within the academy. They included the Institute of Physical Chemistry (1945), the V. I. Vernadskii Institute of Geochemistry and Analytic Chemistry (1947), the Institute of Macro-molecular Compounds (1948), the Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Technology (1948), the Institute of Higher Nervous Activity (1950), the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (1953), the Institute of Scientific Information (1952; since 1955 the All-Union Institute of Scientific and Technical Information), and the Institute of Evolutionary Physiology (1956), as well as the Institute of Linguistics (1950), the Institute of Slavic Studies (1946; later the Institute of Slavic and Balkan Studies), and the Africa Institute (1959). New institutions of the academy were set up in outlying regions, for example, the Moldavian and Bashkir branches, scientific research bases in Dagestan and Yakutia (later branches of the academy), and a scientific research base on Sakhalin.

The Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was founded in 1957. Incorporated into the Siberian Division were the Far Eastern Branch, the Western Siberian Branch, and the Eastern Siberian Branch (established 1949) of the Academy of Sciences, as well as the academy’s Sakhalin Integrated Scientific Research Institute and its Institute of Physics in Krasnoiarsk. In the late 1950’s, the Siberian Division included 16 large institutes.

The raising of the economic and cultural level in the various Union republics fostered the development of science, the expansion of scientific research institutions, and an increase in the number of scientific personnel. The following new universities were founded: the University of Kishinev (1945), the University of Uzhgorod (1945), Tadzhik University (1948), Turkmen University (1950), Kirghiz University (1951), the University of Yakutsk (1956), Bashkir University (1957), the University of Dagestan (1957), Kabarda-Balkar University (1957), Mordovian University (1957), and the University of Novosibirsk (1959).

Academies of sciences were established in Kazakhstan (1946), Latvia (1946), Estonia (1946), Turkmenistan (1951), Tadzhiki-stan (1951), Kirghizia (1954), and Moldavia (1961). Work was resumed at the Academy of Sciences of Lithuania, which had been founded in 1941. The scope of the research carried out at the Union-republic academies of sciences was broadened, and the academies’ share of national scientific work was increased. In the early stage of the work of the Union-republic academies, attention was given mainly to regional problems. However, in the second half of the 1950’s, the academies began to study theoretical problems in modern natural science and social science. For example, academic institutes of nuclear physics were established in the Uzbek SSR and the Kazakh SSR, and an institute of astrophysics was founded in the Turkmen SSR. Computer centers were organized in the republics.

The development of scientific work at the specialized academies of sciences was rapid. The network of institutions under the specialized academies were expanded.

In the mid-1950’s, more than 30 research institutions dealt with the development of construction methods. In 1956 the Academy of Construction and Architecture of the USSR was founded on the basis of the Academy of Architecture. The new academy, which operated until 1964, incorporated a number of specialized institutes as well as several integrated research institutes in various cities. The specialized institutes included institutes of rural construction, underground and mine construction, and sanitary engineering.

Research activity at the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR was accelerated. In 1957 the academy included 28 scientific institutions.

The role of the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) was enlarged, and the amount of work carried out at the academy was increased. In 1956 more than 1,000 institutes, experiment stations, and laboratories studied problems of agronomy, zootechny, agricultural machine building, and agricultural economics. The growth in the role of agricultural science resulted in the establishment of Union-republic agricultural academies. In 1956 an agricultural academy was founded in the Ukraine. In 1957, on the basis of local institutions of VASKhNIL, agricultural academies were established in Byelorussia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan.

In 1955 the management of the scientific and technical societies of the USSR was assigned to the trade unions of the USSR. The societies became mass organizations that promote the broad dissemination of scientific knowledge.

As the USSR entered the period of developed socialism, the role of science grew to an extraordinary degree. Science was transformed into a direct productive force in society and became a powerful means for both the creation of the material and technical basis for communism and the formation of communist ideology and culture. The growing creative role of science in all aspects of life in the USSR was clearly reflected in the party program adopted by the CPSU in 1961 and in resolutions of party congresses. The CPSU posed a task of great historical importance by calling on scientists and the entire Soviet people “to combine organically the achievements of the scientific and technological revolution and the advantages of the socialist economic system” (Materialy XXIVs”ezda KPSS, 1971, p. 57).

In the 1960’s and the early 1970’s, a number of special decrees were issued by the party and the government. They included the following: On Measures for the Development of the Social Sciences and the Enlargement of Their Role in Communist Construction (issued by the Central Committee of the CPSU in 1967), On Measures for Improving the Activity of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Academies of Sciences of the Union Republics (issued by the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR in 1963), On Measures for Raising the Efficiency of the Work of Scientific Organizations and for Accelerating the Use of Scientific and Technological Achievements in the National Economy (issued by the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR in 1968), On the Development of Scientific Institutions in Individual Economic Regions of the RSFSR (issued by the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR in 1969), and On the 250th Anniversary of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (issued by the Central Committee of the CPSU in 1973).

A number of measures were implemented for the purpose of accelerating the growth of scientific research and development work, design work, and invention. The system for managing research and development was improved.

In 1965 the State Committee for Science and Technology of the Council of Ministers of the USSR became the national body responsible for scientific and technological progress and for the implementation of an integrated scientific policy. It was put in charge of defining guidelines in the development of science and technology, planning and organizing the study of the most important scientific and technological problems of national significance, and organizing the introduction of discoveries, inventions, and research results into production. The committee helps compile plans for the financing of scientific research and development work and helps develop the material basis for science. Scientific councils that deal with the most important integrated and inter-branch scientific and technological problems operate under the auspices of the State Committee for Science and Technology. The councils coordinate all the respective scientific research and development work.

The Academy of Sciences of the USSR is in charge of organizing research in the main fields of the natural and social sciences. While the Academy of Sciences focuses its attention on basic research, it also takes part in the study of a wide range of scientific and technological problems of current interest for the national economy. The academy plays an important role in current and long-term planning and in forecasting scientific development. More than 200 councils that deal with individual scientific problems or trends in scientific development operate under the auspices of the academy’s presidium, sections, or divisions.

New institutes have been founded within the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. They include the Institute of Chemistry (Gorky, 1969), the Institute of Experimental Mineralogy (1969), the Institute of Nuclear Research (1970), the Limnology Institute (Leningrad, 1971), the Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences (1969), the Institute of Psychology (1971), and the Institute of Socioeconomic Research (Leningrad, 1974).

Problem-oriented groups of scientific research institutes and other institutions of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR have been set up in the Moscow region. In Pushchino, a biology center was established for the study of problems of, for example, proteins, photosynthesis, biophysics, biochemistry, and soil science. In Krasnaia Pakhra, a physics center was organized to deal with such fields as geomagnetism, spectroscopy, and high-pressure physics. In Noginsk, a center for chemicophysical research was founded for the investigation of, for example, chemical kinetics and the chemistry of phosphorus-containing compounds.

In 1975 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR included about 250 scientific institutions. The academy maintains a research fleet of its own.

The Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR has evolved into a major base for scientific development. In 1975 it encompassed about 50 scientific research institutions, more than 70 scientific stations, and an experiment plant. Dozens of specialized scientific research institutes and ministerial or departmental organizations in Siberia are managed by the division.

A considerable amount of basic research is done by the branches of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The academy’s Urals and Far East scientific centers were founded on the basis of the corresponding branches. In 1975 there were nine branches of the Academy of Sciences, including three branches within the Siberian Division.

The scientific research institutes and other scientific institutions of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR direct their efforts toward the solution of the most important problems in the development of science, the economy, and culture; they seek new ways of transforming the productive forces of the USSR. In accordance with a commission from the Central Committee of the CPSU and the government, the academy’s institutes, together with ministries and departments, have drafted the Comprehensive Program for Scientific and Technological Progress and Its Socioeconomic Consequences in 1976–90. The program, an organic part of current and long-term planning, is intended to provide guidelines for the management of the Soviet economy.

Large numbers of Soviet scientists are on the staffs of the academies of sciences of the Union republics. In 1975 the 14 Union-republic academies included about 400 scientific institutions. Many of the scientific research institutes of the Union-republic academies occupy leading positions in the respective fields of science and are the main organizations in the USSR for the study of specific scientific problems and trends in scientific and technological development.

The network of institutions that directly provide scientific support for various sectors of industry, agriculture, transportation and communications, and medicine has been expanded. More than 60 percent of all scientific institutions operate within government ministries and departments. The organizational role of the specialized academies of sciences has increased, and the network of research institutes and other institutions under the specialized academies has become more elaborate.

In 1971 the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR was organized. In 1975 the academy included 38 scientific research institutions.

In 1966 the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the RSFSR was reorganized as the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR. By 1975 the academy included 12 scientific research institutes.

In 1975 the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences had seven regional divisions: the Siberian Division in Novosibirsk, the Southern Division in Kiev, the Middle Asian Division in Tashkent, the Eastern Division in Alma-Ata, the Transcaucasian Division in Tbilisi, the Western Division in Minsk, and the Nonchernozem Zone Division in Leningrad. As of 1975, the academy maintained more than 60 scientific research institutes, as well as dozens of laboratories, scientific stations, experiment stations, farms, and other institutions.

The development and practical implementation of integrated long-term economic programs, including such tasks as the intensification of agricultural production and the establishment of highly productive territorial-production complexes, are associated with the activity of central and local specialized scientific research institutes, which collaborate closely with academic institutions and production organizations. The long-term economic programs also include the nationwide development of the mineral raw material and fuel and power base of metallurgy and of the leading branches of machine building and the chemical industry.

Dozens of scientific research institutes and design organizations under various ministries and departments actively participate in solving the numerous production and technological problems associated with the discovery and exploitation of oil and gas deposits in Western Siberia, with agricultural development in the RSFSR’s nonchernozem zone, with the development of the industrial and agricultural zone in the region of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, and with the economic development of the Western Siberian, Angara-Enisei, Southern Tadzhik, and other complexes and of the areas opened up by the Baikal-Amur Main Line.

The scientific research institutes and design organizations of various ministries and departments have combined their efforts to implement interbranch scientific and technological programs, of which there were more than 200 in the tenth five-year plan (1976–80). Such programs include, for example, the development of highly efficient machinery and equipment systems, automated production sections, and new technological processes. The implementation of the programs will contribute to a substantial increase in both the productivity of labor and the quality of manufactured articles.

New technology and new production processes are developed and introduced by scientific production associations, the first of which were established in the late 1960’s. By 1975 there were dozens of such organizations, for example, the All-Union Scientific Research and Design Institute for Metallurgical Machine Building, Pozitron, Plastpolimer, Agropribor, Kriogenmash, and Neftekhim.

The plant sector of science has been further developed. The sector includes scientific research laboratories, offices, and groups at industrial enterprises. For example, in 1975 the Avto-ZIL production association maintained more than 50 scientific research laboratories.

Institutions maintained by higher schools have made a large contribution to Soviet science. The scientific work performed at higher educational institutions ensures the high-quality training of specialists and enables both the large number of scientific personnel on the staffs of such institutions and the students at the institutions to participate in the solution of problems of current interest for the national economy and culture. More than one-third of the scientific personnel in the USSR, nearly half the doctors and candidates of sciences, and over 55,000 graduate students are engaged in research at higher educational institutions.

As of 1975, the higher-school system included more than 60 scientific research institutes and design offices and about 1,300 scientific research laboratories, sectors, and other facilities. The activity of the institutions maintained by higher schools is coordinated by the Scientific and Technical Council of the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education of the USSR.

Well-known research has been carried out by, for example, the institutes of nuclear physics and mechanics at Moscow State University, the Siberian Physicotechnical Institute at the University of Tomsk, the departments of the Moscow Higher Technical School, and laboratories at the Lensovet Leningrad Institute of Technology, the M. I. Kalinin Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, the L’vov Polytechnic Institute, and the Kharkov Polytechnic Institute.

A considerable amount of the scientific work done at higher educational institutions is devoted to the solution of problems associated with the development of, for example, industrial production, agricultural production, and transportation. In just the period from 1971 to 1975, the amount of such scientific work financed from the state budget increased by 38 percent and the amount of contract work rose by 78 percent.

The Northern Caucasus Higher School Scientific Center, the USSR’s first regional complex of higher school-based scientific institutions, was founded in 1969. The center coordinates the scientific activity of more than 40 higher educational institutions and 60 scientific research organizations in the Northern Caucasus.

Contracts pertaining to collaboration in scientific work have been concluded between higher educational institutions and enterprises. Such contracts call for the joint study of scientific and technological problems and the introduction of the results into production.

In the late 1960’s and the early 1970’s, a number of measures were implemented for the fundamental improvement of the national scientific and technical information system. Regional special and interbranch information agencies and systems were established, as were information branches and bureaus in scientific institutions and at enterprises. The work of scientific libraries in providing information became more diversified. The All-Union Scientific and Technical Information Center was founded in Moscow.

All-Union scientific societies and scientific and technical societies have stepped up their work. In 1976, 17 scientific societies operated under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and 37 scientific medical societies operated under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Health. As of 1976, through the scientific and technical societies of the USSR, about 2.8 million persons took part in the activity of, for example, study teams, public economic analysis bureaus and groups, public scientific research institutes and laboratories, and technical information bureaus. In 1976 there were more than 450,000 such public voluntary organizations. The All-Union Society of Inventors and Innovators maintained over 20,000 public design offices and more than 7,000 public patent offices.

M. S. BASTRAKOVA

International scientific ties of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Creative contact between scientists from different countries is an important factor for progress in world science and serves the cause of peace, détente, and cooperation. The Communist Party and the Soviet government give serious attention to the development of international scientific ties. The Academy of Sciences of the USSR has an important role in the development of the Soviet Union’s international scientific cooperation.

During the October Revolution of 1917 and the Civil War, Russia’s cultural and scientific ties were disrupted. The scientists and scholars of the Russian Academy of Sciences played a major role in overcoming the cultural and scientific blockade imposed by the capitalist states. Having introduced plans for socialist construction, the Communist Party regarded the use of the achievements of world science and technology as an important condition for the accelerated development of Russia. In early 1921, on the initiative of Lenin, the Soviet government sent the first group of scientists representing the Russian Academy of Sciences to a number of European countries in order to set up the scientific contacts of the young Soviet republic. The group included A. N. Krylov, A. F. Ioffe, P. L. Kapitsa, and D. S. Rozhdestvenskii.

At first the international ties of the Russian Academy of Sciences were insignificant. However, they were gradually stepped up. Increased ties were promoted, in particular, by the academy’s 200th anniversary in 1925; the anniversary became an international event for science. By a decree of the government of the USSR, the academy was recognized as “the highest all-Union scientific institution” and was renamed the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (AN SSSR). The development of scientific ties was especially substantial after the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45.

The AN SSSR has established bilateral and multilateral ties with various countries in many fields of science. As of 1976, the academy collaborated with scientists from 108 states. Especially favorable possibilities for the development of scientific cooperation arose in the 1960’s and 1970’s under conditions of détente.

The most extensive ties have been established between the scientists of the AN SSSR and of the academies of sciences of the other socialist countries. In addition to bilateral ties, multilateral cooperation was organized in 1962 on the initiative of the AN SSSR, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and the Polish Academy of Sciences. In the framework of multilateral cooperation, research and joint studies with respect to scientific problems of current interest are coordinated. The international socialist division of labor in science and joint efforts of the academies of sciences contribute to the most efficient solution of scientific problems with optimum expenditures of time, intellectual resources, and material resources. The division of labor and the joint efforts are an important factor in the overall integration of the socialist countries.

The multilateral collaboration of the academies of sciences of the socialist countries covers 18 major scientific problems. The academies have established the International Laboratory of Strong Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures in Wroclaw, Poland, as well as three international centers for the advanced training of scientific personnel: a mathematics center in Warsaw, a center for problems of heat and mass exchange in Minsk, and a center for electron microscopy in Halle (German Democratic Republic). A permanent conference on the social sciences of vice-presidents of the academies has been created to determine subjects for joint research and ways of conducting the research.

The substantial scientific results of the multilateral collaboration are published in the form of joint monographs and articles, papers presented at international conferences and symposia, and author’s certificates. Regular business contacts have been set up. Problem-solving commissions that include prominent scientists have become well-coordinated brain trusts.

The AN SSSR takes part in the study of scientific and technological problems in the framework of the Committee for Scientific and Technological Cooperation of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON). The plan for the coordination of scientific and technological research covers more than 30 problems of major importance. The academy’s institutions often function as the leading organizations in such research. The Comprehensive Program for the Further Extension and Promotion of Cooperation and Development of Socialist Economic Integration Among the Members of COMECON (adopted 1971) provides, in particular, for the study of a number of scientific problems of primary importance for the development of the national economies of the COMECON members. The studies are to be based on the use of both the most effective methods of cooperation and new organizational forms.

In 1975 agreements on converting to five-year planning of bilateral cooperation were reached for the first time in the history of the international scientific ties of the AN SSSR. Five-year problem-oriented plans for the period from 1976 to 1980 were agreed to with the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, the Cuban Academy of Sciences, the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the German Academy of Sciences, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Sciences of the Mongolian People’s Republic, the Polish Academy of Sciences, the Academy of the Socialist Republic of Rumania, and Rumania’s Academy of Social and Political Sciences. In 1976 an agreement on a five-year cooperation plan was signed with the Council of the Academies of Sciences and Arts of Yugoslavia.

The implementation of the five-year plans, which include joint research on 200 problems covering more than 500 subjects in the natural and social sciences, will make it possible to accelerate scientific and technological progress. Scientific personnel are being exchanged to conduct joint research, to give lectures, and to hold consultations, scientific symposia, and conferences. In 1975 the AN SSSR sent about 4,500 Soviet scientists to socialist countries and received more than 4,900 scientists.

The AN SSSR attaches great importance to the development and strengthening of scientific ties with the capitalist countries and the developing countries.

A major trend in the scientific ties of the AN SSSR is the establishment of bilateral contacts with the national scientific organizations, scientific institutions, and scientists of, for example, the USA, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Sweden, and Japan. The academy also maintains multilateral contacts with the capitalist countries through international scientific organizations and programs and arranges the reception of foreign scientists. The academy’s scientific ties with the capitalist and developing countries have continuously increased, especially in the 1970’s. The number of countries with which various scientific ties are maintained rose from 49 in 1970 to 97 in 1975.

The AN SSSR takes part in the implementation of 83 intergovernmental agreements, programs, and protocols on scientific, technological, and cultural cooperation. The number of agreements on scientific cooperation and the exchange of scientists with national scientific organizations increased from 13 in 1971 to 30 in 1975. In the first half of the 1970’s, the academy sent about 12,000 scientists to the capitalist and developing countries and received approximately 22,000 scientists. About half the Soviet scientists were sent to the USA, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Great Britain, Italy, and Japan.

The scientific ties of the AN SSSR have been characterized by a transition from individual contacts to systematic cooperation on a long-term basis. Promising long-term programs, both between governments and between academies, have been developed. Joint scientific work and cooperation in research have been used to an increasing extent. For example, the academy began cooperating with American scientists in space research, power engineering, catalysis, ocean research, environmental protection, and nuclear physics. The cooperation in space research culminated in the Apollo-Soyuz flight in 1975.

The AN SSSR takes part in the activities of international organizations and in research on various scientific problems of a global or regional nature. The development of such cooperation has been especially rapid since the early 1950’s. The scientific institutions of the academy or individual scientists were members of three nongovernmental international organizations in 1950, of 89 such organizations in 1965, and of 155 organizations in 1976.

The scientists of the AN SSSR also take part in the activities of the UN’s intergovernmental international organizations, such as UNESCO, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the World Health Organization, the International Labor Organization, and the UN Industrial Development Organization. The academy plays an important role in the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), which is the largest nongovernmental international organization. The ICSU unites 17 international scientific unions in the natural and social sciences, as well as the academies of sciences and the national scientific organizations of more than 60 countries.

The recognition of the universal achievements of Soviet science is evidenced by the election of scientists from the Soviet Union to leading posts in international organizations. In 1965 three Soviet scientists were presidents of international scientific organizations and 24 were vice-presidents. In 1975 leading posts were held by 139 Soviet scientists, of whom 55 were presidents or vice-presidents. Since 1971 the following Soviet scientists were or have been presidents or vice-presidents of international scientific organizations: V. A. Ambartsumian, I. I. Artobolevskii, N. V. Belov, G. K. Boreskov, P. N. Fedoseev, B. G. Gafurov, V. N. Kondrat’ev, F. V. Konstantinov, P. G. Kostiuk, A. A. Markov, A. A. Mikhailov, A. I. Oparin, B. N. Petrov, L. S. Pontriagin, L. I. Sedov, V. I. Smirnov, B. S. Sokolov, M. A. Styrikovich, B. M. Vul, and E. M. Zhukov.

The membership of the AN SSSR in international organizations makes it possible for Soviet scientists to take part in the work of international congresses and conferences and in events held in various countries. In 1960, 263 Soviet scientists participated in 86 events; in 1975, 935 Soviet scientists took part in 196 events. International congresses, conferences, and symposia have been held in the USSR, as have been meetings of the leading bodies of international scientific organizations. In 1975 there were 16 such events, attended by more than 3,000 foreign scientists.

Global scientific research programs are being carried out to an ever-increasing extent. In 1932 and 1933 there was only one such program, the second International Polar Year. Five major long-term programs were conducted between 1960 and 1962. In 1975 there were more than 30 such programs, including studies of the oceans and the environment, space research, the International Geological Correlation Program, the Global Atmospheric Research Program, the International Magnetospheric Study, and the International Geodynamic Project.

Global research programs in the social sciences have included the International Project for the Development of Social Sciences in the World, the International Project for the Study of Slavic Cultures, and the International Project on Automation and the Working Class.

The global research programs satisfy the requirements of uniting the efforts of scientists on a worldwide scale and accelerate the development of world science. They are supported by the governments of various countries, by international organizations, and by international and private funds. Within the AN SSSR, more than 70 scientific committees have been established to coordinate activity in international organizations.

The traditional form of international scientific ties between academies of sciences has been the election of prominent foreign scientists as foreign members of the AN SSSR and the election of Soviet scientists as foreign members of the academies of sciences or the national scientific organizations of other countries. The first foreign honorary members of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences were elected in 1725. Later, prominent scientists, scholars, and intellectuals were elected, including C. Darwin, H. Davy, D. Diderot, M. Faraday, J. L. Gay-Lussac, J. W. von Goethe, I. Kant, P. S. Laplace, J. von Liebig, L. Pasteur, R. A. de Réamur, and Voltaire. In the Soviet period, H. Barbusse, N. Bohr, A. Einstein, P. Langevin, E. Rutherford, and many others were foreign honorary members or corresponding members of the AN SSSR. In 1957 the single rank of foreign member was introduced in the AN SSSR.

In all, over the last 250 years, 1,250 foreign scientists or scholars, including 347 in the Soviet period, were elected; as of Jan. 1, 1981, the AN SSSR had 80 foreign members. As of 1980, more than 500 Soviet scientists were members of more than 200 academies and other national scientific organizations in foreign countries.

As of 1980, 81 scientists of the AN SSSR received prizes from foreign scientific institutions or international organizations. The prizes include Nobel Prizes, the J. Nehru Prize, UNESCO prizes, the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim International Astronautics Award, and the M. Panetti Prize.

Scientists of the AN SSSR participate in the work of many editorial boards and councils of foreign journals. In 1975, 176 Soviet scientists worked on 140 foreign journals.

The AN SSSR mounts expositions of Soviet scientific achievements in many countries of the world and is engaged in the international exhange of books on science.

The academies of sciences of the Union republics and other scientific centers in the USSR play a substantial role in international scientific cooperation.

International scientific cooperation contributes to increases in the efficiency of science and makes it possible both to reduce expenditures of efforts and funds and to accelerate the acquisition of results on pressing scientific problems in the interests of all countries. Scientific exchange makes it possible to become acquainted with national cultural values and daily life and contributes to mutual understanding and friendship among peoples.

A. A. KULAKOV

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Mathematics. Mathematical research in Russia began in the 18th century, when L. Euler, D. Bernoulli, and other Western European mathematicians became members of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Peter I, who established the academy, wanted the foreign academicians to have Russian students. Euler did in fact succeed in founding a Russian school of mathematics.

In the 19th century Russia gave world science N. I. Lobachevskii, the inventor of non-Euclidean geometry. Although Lobachevskii’s works long were not appreciated, they eventually came to have an enormous influence on the development of mathematics and allied sciences. Among the members of the Academy of Sciences in the 19th century were the outstanding mathematicians M. V. Ostrogradskii, V. Ia. Buniakovskii, and P. L. Chebyshev.

Chebyshev established in St. Petersburg a remarkable mathematical school, whose members included the academicians A. M. Liapunov, A. A. Markov (the elder), and V. A. Steklov. Practical problems were of particular interest to Chebyshev, who stressed the contributions of mathematics to the development of related sciences. His research in the theory of mechanisms led him to formulate a theory of best approximations of functions.

Russian mathematicians made major contributions to the solution of engineering problems. S. A. Chaplygin and N. E. Zhukovskii did seminal work in the theory of flight and played key roles in the development of aviation. Of similar importance were the contributions of A. N. Krylov to the theory of ships and to the development of shipbuilding.

The achievements of prerevolutionary Russian mathematics were due to the research of individual mathematicians and had a very narrow basis. The principal centers of mathematical research were the universities of St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kazan, Kiev, and Kharkov. Nearly all mathematicians named members of the Academy of Sciences were associated with the University of St. Petersburg. The main achievements of the other mathematical centers were also connected with the work of the Chebyshev school.

Since the October Revolution of 1917 all the principal branches of mathematics have undergone development in the USSR; considerable work has been done on applications. A leading role is played by the V. A. Steklov Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Founded in Moscow in 1934, it has given rise to several scientific research institutions, which have been formed from its departments; for example, the Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was established in Moscow in 1963. Extensive research in mathematics and its applications is also carried on at the Computer Center of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1955, Moscow); the Institute of Mathematics of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1957, Novosibirsk); the mathematics subdepartments of Moscow State University, Leningrad State University, and other universities; the Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of the Urals Scientific Center of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1971, Sverdlovsk); and institutes of republic academies of sciences. Noteworthy schools of mathematicians have developed in the Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Uzbekistan, and Lithuania.

An important contribution to number theory was I. M. Vinogradov’s method of trigonometric sums, which made possible notable advances in the problem of the distribution of fractional parts of functions, in additive problems, and in the problem of the distribution of prime numbers among the natural numbers. The problem of the distribution of primes is closely connected with that of the distribution of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function—one of the most difficult problems in the theory of functions of a complex variable. Vinogradov also derived asymptotic formulas from which it followed as a special case that any odd number can be represented as the sum of three prime numbers. The Goldbach problem regarding odd numbers was thus solved.

The method of trigonometric sums plays an important role in other branches of mathematics as well. Iu. V. Linnik made a substantial contribution to the development of the method and its applications. Noteworthy results were obtained in the theory of transcendental numbers by A. O. Gel’fond. Other leading mathematicians dealing with number theory include I. I. Ivanov, R. O. Kuz’min, K. K. Mardzhanishvili, and L. G. Shnirel’man.

Mathematical logic has played an important role in much research in algebra. For example, by using methods of mathematical logic P. S. Novikov refuted the hypothesis advanced early in the 20th century that any periodic group with a finite number of generators is finite (similar conjectures have been advanced with respect to other algebraic systems). A. I. Mal’tsev used methods of mathematical logic to prove, among other things, the unsolv-ability of the elementary theory of finite groups. Mal’tsev and A. A. Markov (the younger) did seminal work in the theory of algorithms. V. M. Glushkov helped develop the abstract theory of automata, which has found important applications. Others making noteworthy contributions to algebra include N. G. Chebotarev, B. N. Delone, A. P. Ershov, D. K. Faddeev, D. A. Grave, M. I. Kargapolov, A. I. Kostrikin, A. I. Shirshov, and O. Iu. Shmidt. Among the leading contributors to mathematical logic are Iu. L. Ershov, S. V. Iablonskii, A. A. Liapunov, and O. B. Lupanov.

The theory of control systems has undergone development. L. S. Pontriagin and E. F. Mishchenko have formulated a general mathematical theory of optimal processes, at whose foundation lies Pontriagin’s maximum principle. Much work has been done on the qualitative theory of ordinary differential equations with reference to the theory of nonlinear oscillations. Of great importance in this regard is the introduction by A. A. Andronov and Pontriagin of vague systems of equations, that is, systems whose trajectories do not exhibit changes in general behavior upon small changes in the right-hand side of the equations. Others contributing to the theory of ordinary differential equations include N. M. Krylov, I. A. Lappo-Danilevskii, and V. V. Stepanov.

In the course of investigating asymptotic methods of the theory of oscillations, N. N. Bogoliubov found asymptotic series that give good approximations over large time intervals. He proved, under extremely general assumptions, the convergence of asymptotic expansions; the behavior of asymptotic expansions over an infinite time interval was investigated by the method of invariant manifolds. These studies have found numerous applications, both theoretical and practical.

As A. M. Liapunov showed, the problem of the stability of a specific system can be reduced to the construction of some function and the determination of the sign of its derivative. N. N. Krasovskii established a criterion for the existence of Liapunov functions for a broad class of autonomous, that is, time-independent, systems.

N. N. Luzin conducted important studies in the theory of functions of a real variable. In particular, he proved the existence of a continuous primitive function for every measurable function that is finite almost everywhere. This achievement made it possible to solve the Dirichlet problem in the class of measurable functions. The Moscow mathematical school, founded by Luzin and D. F. Egorov, was the source of a number of new areas of study in Soviet mathematics.

Considerable work in the theory of trigonometric series has been done by such mathematicians as A. N. Kolmogorov, D. E. Men’shov, and V. Ia. Kozlov. A number of new problems in the theory of differentiable functions of many variables have been studied in connection with the development of functional and variational methods of solving boundary value problems of mathematical physics. S. L. Sobolev and S. M. Nikol’skii established imbedding theorems for various classes of functions. Nikol’skii and others have dealt with problems of the theory of approximation of functions in the real domain.

Many Soviet mathematicians have carried out research on the theory of functions of a complex variable and its applications. Important applications of the theory of analytic functions to aeromechanics were developed by Zhukovskii and Chaplygin. M. V. Keldysh made a major contribution to aeromechanics. The findings of N. I. Muskhelishvili and I. N. Vekua on boundary value problems of the theory of analytic functions, which V. V. Golubev and I. I. Privalov also studied, have found application in the theory of elasticity, the theory of shells, and continuum mechanics. Generalizations of the theory of analytic functions have been developed with reference to a number of applied problems. M. A. Lavrent’ev formulated a theory of quasi-conformal mappings, which he applied to the study of the jet flow of a fluid. Vekua constructed a theory of generalized analytic functions.

Keldysh and M. A. Lavrent’ev conducted fundamental research in the theory of the uniform approximation of functions of a complex variable by polynomials. Their work was continued by such mathematicians as A. A. Gonchar, S. N. Mergelian, and A. G. Vitushkin. The approximation of functions of a complex variable by rational functions has been studied. A. F. Leont’ev has investigated the interpolation of functions in the complex domain.

Work in the theory of functions of a real variable showed Soviet mathematicians the need for further development of set theory and contributed to the rise of set-theoretic topology. P. S. Aleksandrov did pioneering research. In particular, he introduced the fundamental concept of the nerve of a family of sets and created the topological theory of nonclosed sets, which plays a major role in topology.

Pontriagin is the founder of the school of algebraic topology. Modern topology embraces the branches of mathematics that study global problems of geometry, analysis, and the theory of differential equations. It also encompasses part of algebra. After Pontriagin’s investigations in the theory of duality, topology developed under the influence of his ideas and methods. A. N. Tikhonov and S. P. Novikov have also made noteworthy contributions to topology.

In geometry, A. D. Aleksandrov formulated a general theory of convex polyhedrons and, along with A. V. Pogorelov and other geometers, investigated differential geometric configurations in the large.

The theory of partial differential equations has been the subject of extensive research. V. I. Smirnov and Sobolev developed a method of solving equations of the hyperbolic type. Kolmogorov studied equations of the parabolic type. I. G. Petrovskii identified and studied broad classes of elliptic, hyperbolic, and parabolic systems that basically preserve the properties of the corresponding second-order equations. He also gave a solution of the Cauchy problem for hyperbolic systems and investigated the analyticity of solutions of elliptic systems. Although the analyticity of such solutions had been considered previously for special cases, Petrovskii dealt with the problem in its most general form.

Vekua investigated general boundary value problems for higher-order elliptic equations with two independent variables, using his method of integral representations of solutions; his research was continued by many mathematicians. Equations of mixed type have been studied by M. A. Lavrent’ev and A. V. Bitsadze. N. M. Krylov, Bogoliubov, and Petrovskii worked out direct methods of solving variational problems, and qualitative methods of investigating variational problems were developed by such mathematicians as L. A. Liusternik and Shnirel’man.

Sobolev’s work in mathematical physics necessitated the study of new classes of equations. He introduced new methods, drawing on functional analysis, of investigating the problems of mathematical physics. Noteworthy contributions to mathematical physics were also made by N. M. Giunter and N. S. Koshliakov.

Keldysh laid the foundations of the theory of non-self-adjoint operators, which has been used in the research of many mathematicians. Muskhelishvili and his students achieved notable results in the theory of singular integral operators. Important work has been carried out on the spectral theory of operators. Many results have been obtained in the study of boundary value problems of mixed type and in the theory of quasi-linear systems. I. M. Gel’fand did extensive work in functional analysis, particularly the theory of normed rings, representations of groups, and generalized functions. L. V. Kantorovich formulated a theory of semiordered spaces. L. I. Sedov proposed generalized variational principles of mechanics that make it possible to describe irreversible processes.

In theoretical physics Bogoliubov and V. S. Vladimirov applied the methods of the theory of analytic functions of many complex variables and the theory of generalized functions to problems of quantum field theory. Bogoliubov constructed a theory of superfluidity and established the fundamental principle that superconductivity may be considered the superfluidity of an electron gas. He proposed a system of axioms for quantum field theory that made possible a rigorous proof of dispersion relations. The study of problems in quantum field theory led Bogoliubov and Vladimirov to important results in the theory of functions of many complex variables, such as the theorem of the point of a wedge, the theorem of the C-convex hull, and the theorem of finite invariance. L. D. Faddeev has also made important findings in theoretical physics.

Considerable work has been done in probability theory and mathematical statistics since the time of Chebyshev and his students A. M. Liapunov and A. A. Markov (the elder). S. N. Bernshtein studied limit theorems of the Laplace and Liapunov types, which lead to a normal distribution, and investigated the conditions of applicability of the central limit theorem to dependent variables. Important, results in probability theory were obtained by A. Ia. Khinchin. Kolmogorov formulated the now generally accepted measure-theoretic system of axioms for probability theory. The theory of stochastic processes underwent extensive development by Kolmogorov and his school. A number of limit theorems of probability theory were proved by Iu. V. Prokhorov and his students, including theorems on the convergence of distributions associated with the sums of independent random variables toward the distributions of some stochastic processes. A. A. Borovkov has also made substantial contributions to probability theory. Noteworthy as well is the research in mathematical statistics by N. V. Smirnov, who investigated non-parametric problems, and by L. N. Bol’shev. Linnik introduced new analytic methods, which he and his students applied to limit problems and to problems of parametric statistics. A number of mathematicians have carried out studies in reliability theory and queuing theory.

Notable contributions have been made to applied mathematics by Bogoliubov, A. A. Dorodnitsyn, Glushkov, Keldysh, N. E. Kochin, M. A. Lavrent’ev, and Tikhonov. Dorodnitsyn and co-workers developed methods for solving problems of flow around bodies, in a complete nonlinear formulation, at sonic, supersonic, and hypersonic velocities. Kochin studied problems of the motion of a viscous fluid. The areas of application of mathematics are expanding. Alongside such traditional areas as mechanics, physics, and astronomy, new areas, for example, economics and biology, have appeared. Kantorovich has dealt with many applications of mathematics to economics.

A. N. Krylov did noteworthy work in the theory of approximate calculations. Modern computer mathematics developed through the use of both classical mathematics and electronic computers to solve new engineering problems. Among the problems dealt with in this way are those involved in the mastery of atomic energy and the theory of space flight. The development of electronic computers required that mathematics concern itself with, for example, the study of various algorithms. In this connection, algorithms for a broad range of problems have been subjected to comparative study, and attention has been paid to the construction of optimal or nearly optimal algorithms that belong to a given class with various optimality criteria being specified. Of great importance for computer mathematics is the theory of algorithmic languages, which permits standardization and simplification of computer programming.

Tikhonov and co-workers have studied the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations with discontinuous coefficients and have developed for many incorrect, or mal-posed, problems of mathematical physics algorithms for finding a regularized solution that are convenient for machine implementation. Others contributing to this area include V. K. Ivanov and M. M. Lavrent’ev. Extensive work on the use of the computer to solve various classes of mathematical problems has been done by Dorodnitsyn, Glushkov, and A. A. Samarskii, as well as by N. P. Buslenko, S. K. Godunov, N. N. Govorun, V. A. Melnikov, N. N. Moiseev, V. V. Rusanov, and E. V. Zolotov.

Among the scientific institutions dealing with aspects of computer technology are the Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Technology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1948, Moscow), the Computer Center of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1955), and the Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (1962, Kiev).

The Soviet Union has been a member of the International Mathematical Union since 1957, and Soviet mathematicians have taken part in the international congresses of mathematicians since 1928.

PERIODICALS. The leading mathematical journals published in the USSR are Matematicheskii sbornik (Mathematical Collection; since 1866), Trudy Matematicheskogo instituta im. V. A. Steklova AN SSSR (Transactions of the V. A. Steklov Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR; since 1931), Izvestiia AN SSSR: Seriia matematicheskaia (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Mathematics Series; since 1937), Uspekhi matematicheskikh nauk (Advances in Mathematical Sciences; since 1936), Teoriia veroiatnostei i ee primeneniia (Probability Theory and Its Applications; since 1956), Zhurnal vychislitel’noi matematiki i matematicheskoi fiziki (Journal of Computer Mathematics and Mathematical Physics; since 1961), Matematicheskie zametki (Mathematical Notes; since 1967), Funktsional’nyi analiz i ego prilozheniia (Functional Analysis and Its Applications; since 1967), Teoreticheskaia i matematicheskaia fizika (Theoretical and Mathematical Physics; since 1969), Ukrainskii matematicheskii zhurnal (Ukrainian Journal of Mathematics; since 1949), Sibirskii matematicheskii zhurnal (Siberian Journal of Mathematics; since 1960), and Differentsial’nye uravneniia (Differential Equations; since 1965).

K. K. MARDZHANISHVILI

Bibliography

Istoriia otechestvennoi matematiki, vols. 1–4. Kiev, 1966–70.
Gnedenko, B. V. Ocherki po istorii matematiki v Rossii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1946.
Iushkevich, A. P. Istoriia matematiki v Rossii. Moscow, 1968.
Liudi-russkoi nauki, 2nd ed. [vol. 1]. Moscow, 1961.
Istoriko-matematicheskie issledovaniia, fascs. 1–21. Moscow, 1948–76.
Matematika v SSSR za tridtsat’ let, 1917–1947: Sb. St. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Matematika v SSSR za sorok let, 1917–1957: Sb. St., vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1959.
Vinogradov, I. M. “Matematika i nauchnyi progress.” In the collection Lenin i sovremennaia nauka, vol. 2. Moscow, 1970.
Mardzhanishvili, K. K. “Matematika v Akademii nauk SSSR.” Vestn. AN SSSR, 1974, no. 6.
Astronomy. Many cultural remains have been found in various parts of the USSR attesting to man’s interest in astronomical observations in the remote past. Such, in particular, are the cave paintings alluding to astronomical phenomena that have been preserved in the southwestern part of the European part of the USSR and in Middle Asia. This interest is also confirmed by the well-developed lunisolar calendar used by the Slavic peoples since ancient times. In the tenth to 13th centuries books containing information on the organization of the universe, on the causes of solar and lunar eclipses, and on many other phenomena were widely known in Rus’. Russian chronicles of the 11th to 13th centuries contain many entries of an astronomical nature, such as those about the occurrences of sunspots, solar prominences, and solar and lunar eclipses and the appearances of comets. The treatise on cosmography by the Armenian scholar Ananiia Shirakatsi, containing various astronomical data known at the time, appeared as far back as the seventh century. Much work was done in astronomy in the tenth to 15th centuries by the peoples of Middle Asia living in areas that are now part of the USSR; for example, al-Biruni of Khwarazm wrote a treatise on the systems of chronology used by various peoples of the world, and a number of studies were carried out at Ulug Beg’s observatory in Samarkand, among which the compilation of a catalog of the position of 1,019 stars is of particular importance.
In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the first astronomical observatories appeared in Russia. Ia. V. Brius conducted observations at the observatory founded in 1701 at the School of Mathematical and Navigational Sciences in Moscow. From its inception, the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences had an astronomical observatory in St. Petersburg. J. Delisle, the observatory’s first director, N. I. Popov, and others conducted research at the observatory that was not only of scientific but also of practical value. The observatory at the University of Wilno (Vilnius) was founded in 1753. A number of expeditions in which the leading astronomers of the Academy of Sciences took part, including J. Delisle, A. D. Krasil’nikov, A. J. Lexell, N. I. Popov, and S. Ia. Rumovskii, were organized in the second half of the 18th century to determine the solar parallax and the longitudes of various Russian cities. In 1761, during the transit of Venus across the solar disk, M. V. Lomonosov detected Venus’ atmosphere.
The first half of the 19th century was marked by the founding of astronomical observatories at a number of universities, including those of Kharkov, Dorpat (later Iur’ev and still later Tartu), Kazan, Moscow, Kiev, and St. Petersburg. In 1839 the Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, which in the early years of its existence was one of the best-equipped observatories and one of the world’s leading observatories with respect to the importance of the projects carried out, was founded near St. Petersburg by V. Ia. Struve, who was also its first director. The Pulkovo astrometric school won world recognition; research was carried out on the structure of stellar systems and the regularities of the motion of stars within such systems (V. Ia. Struve, M. A. Koval’skii, and others). The first astrophysical studies in Russia were carried out by F. A. Bredikhin and A. A. Belopol’skii. Thus, there were a considerable number of astronomical observatories in prerevolutionary Russia (by the second half of the 19th century new observatories had been founded in Odessa, Tashkent, Simeiz, and elsewhere), where a number of major discoveries were made in various branches of astronomy, especially astrometry and stellar astronomy.
The new institutes and observatories established in the USSR were of great importance to the development of Soviet astronomy. They included the Leningrad Institute of Astronomy (founded 1919; now the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR), the P. K. Shternberg State Institute of Astronomy of Moscow University (1931), the Abastumani Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR (1932), the Biurakan Astrophysical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR (1946), the Shemakha Astrophysical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR (1956), the Astrophysics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Tadzhik SSR (1932), the Astro-physical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR (1950), the Mountain Astronomical Station of the Pulkovo Observatory near Kislovodsk (1948), the V. Struve Tartu Astrophysical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR (1964), the Radio Astrophysical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR (1967), and the latitudinal station in Kitab (1930).
During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), the fascist occupiers destroyed the Pulkovo Observatory and plundered and burned one of its branches—the Simeiz Astrophysical Observatory in the Crimea. These have been rebuilt and expanded in the postwar period, and the largest astrophysical observatory in the USSR—the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR—was built near Bakhchisarai in the Crimea in the 1940’s.
The observatories were equipped with new astronomical instruments: reflectors with a primary mirror with a diameter of 2.6 m in the Crimea and at Biurakan, 2.0 m at Shemakha, 1.5 m in Estonia, and 1.25 m at Abastumani and the Crimean Station of the P. K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute, and Schmidt telescopes with a diameter of 1 m at Biurakan and 0.8 m in Latvia and elsewhere. The construction of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in the Northern Caucasus, which has the largest reflector in the world (the BTA), with a 6-m mirror, was completed in 1975.
Over the years, research in the USSR has been conducted in all branches of astronomy. The most important results have been achieved in the study of nonsteady-state processes on the stars and the sun, the investigation of the activity of galactic nuclei, the study of the formation of stars, fundamental astrometry, solar physics, and the study of magnetism in space.
In astrometry a program for creating a fundamental reference system of faint stars to be used for constructing an inertial coordinate system in space was worked out in the 1930’s and is now being used (M. S. Zverev and others). The introduction of atomic clocks in the time service made it possible in the 1960’s to obtain new data on the subtle effects of the earth’s rotation. Projects directed at studying changes in latitudes have been undertaken (A. Ia. Orlov, E. P. Fedorov, V. P. Shcheglov, and others).
Major advances have been made in astrophysics and stellar astronomy. The various components of the stellar population of our galaxy have been investigated in detail (B. V. Kukarkin), and the continuous process of star formation in stellar systems has been confirmed by the discovery of stellar associations (V. A. Ambartsumian). Important results have been obtained in the development of the physical theory of gas nebulas (V. A. Ambartsumian, A. Ia. Kipper, V. V. Sobolev). The rotation of stars has been measured (a joint paper by G. A. Shain and the American astronomer O. Struve was published in 1929), and studies of the internal structure and development of various-type stars have been conducted since the 1950’s (A. G. Masevich and others). Research on close binary stars has been carried out (D. Ia. Martynov and others). Novas and supernovas have been studied extensively (E. R. Mustel’), and the theory of moving stellar atmospheres has been developed (1947; V. V. Sobolev). Important observational results have been obtained in the study of nonstationary stars (A. A. Boiarchuk, R. E. Gershberg, L. V. Mirzoian). Weak stellar magnetic fields were detected for the first time and were subsequently studied (A. B. Severnyi). Photometric measurements and the spectral classification of tens of thousands of stars in the Milky Way have been carried out at the Crimean and Abastumani observatories (E. K. Kharadze, P. F. Shain, and others). A large number of hydrogen nebulas have been detected and studied near the galactic plane, as well as diffuse nebulas in the Milky Way and other galaxies (1950–55, G. A. Shain). The nucleus of the Milky Way galaxy was detected for the first time using an image converter (A. A. Kaliniak, V. I. Krasovskii, and V. B. Nikonov). Catalogs of variable stars have been compiled and published since 1958 (the Astronomical Council of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the P. K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute).
Radio astronomy is also developing successfully in the USSR. A large radio telescope (RATAN-600) was installed in 1975 at the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. There are also radio telescopes at the Crimean Observatory, the Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Institute of Radio Electronics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR near Kharkov, and the observatory of the University of Gorky. These instruments provide observational data that are used in the study of the structure of the Milky Way Galaxy, quasars, pulsars, the planets, and other celestial objects. A theory explaining the origin of the background of cosmic radio-frequency radiation and the radio emission of supernova remnants was worked out in the 1950’s (V. L. Ginzburg, Ia. B. Zel’dovich, S. B. Pikel’ner, I. S. Shklovskii, and others). The research of A. A. Fridman (1920’s) was of major importance to the development of cosmology. The supercorona of the sun was discovered and was subsequently investigated (1951; V. V. Vitkevich). Radar studies of the moon, Venus, Mercury, Mars, and Jupiter have made it possible to refine the value of the astronomical unit and to obtain data on the rotation of Venus (1960’s; V. A. Kotel’nikov and others).
In extragalactic astronomy, important studies have been conducted at Biurakan and the P. K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute. In the 1960’s a theory was worked out according to which the processes that occur in galactic nuclei play an important role in the formation of galaxies (V. A. Ambartsumian). A detailed morphological study of galaxies has been carried out (1960’s; B. A. Vorontsov-Vel’iaminov and others). Numerous new types of nonstationary extragalactic objects have been detected and investigated (B. E. Markarian and others).
The achievements in the study of the sun and the relationship between solar and geophysical phenomena have been considerable. A vast solar survey network has been established, and catalogs of the phenomena of solar activity are published systematically. The fine structure of the sun’s photosphere and chromosphere has been studied, in particular using telescopes carried by balloons to altitudes of 20–30 km above the earth (1960’s and 1970’s; V. A. Krat and others). It has become possible to measure the transverse component of the magnetic fields on the sun (A. B. Severnyi, V. E. Stepanov). Chromospheric flares have been studied, and a number of problems in the theory of chromospheric flares have been studied. Research is being conducted at the Crimean Observatory on ways of predicting chromospheric flares. Observations of solar eclipses (forecasts of which were made by A. A. Mikhailov beginning in 1914) have yielded valuable results on the motion of matter in the corona, the Einstein effect, photometric spectroscopy, and polarimetric studies of the solar corona and radio-frequency radiation.
Research has been carried out on the physics of the planets (N. P. Barabashev, N. A. Kozyrev, G. A. Tikhov, and others), the physics of comets (S. K. Vsekhsviatskii, O. V. Dobrovol’skii, S. V. Orlov, and others), the study of interplanetary matter, and the development of the theory of the zodiacal light (1944–48; V. G. Fesenkov). Research is under way on the study of the origin of the earth and the planets of the solar system, and a number of new hypotheses have been proposed (V. G. Fesenkov, O. Iu. Shmidt, and others). Under the auspices of the International Astronomical Union, the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy has been publishing the annual Ephemerides of Minor Planets since 1947. New methods of studying the moon, Venus, and Mars have emerged in the space age, in the aftermath of the launching of the first Soviet artificial earth satellite in 1957. The far side of the moon was photographed for the first time by a Soviet artificial earth satellite, and the first large-scale photographs of the spectra of faint stars in the far ultraviolet region were obtained.
Advances have also been made in the study of various problems of celestial mechanics (B. V. Numerov, M. F. Subbotin, G. A. Chebotarev, and others in Leningrad; G. N. Duboshin, N. D. Moiseev, and others in Moscow). Extensive use has been made of the Soviet astronomical yearbooks compiled by the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The development of new types of astronomical instruments and devices was particularly extensive from the 1950’s to 1970’s (D. D. Maksutov, B. K. Ioannisiani).
Optical observations by artificial earth satellites constitute a new branch of astronomy, which emerged in 1957. The network of stations established by the Astronomical Council of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR conducts systematic visual, photographic, and laser range-finding observations. The experiments in satellite geodesy begun in 1961 by the Astronomical Council of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Pulkovo Observatory made it possible to embark on practical projects in the mid-1960’s with the extensive cooperation of the astronomical and geodetic institutions of European, African, Asian, and American countries. Studies of the earth’s gravitational field and processes in the upper atmosphere are also conducted by means of the analysis of satellite observations.
Soviet astronomers have taken part in the work of the International Astronomical Union since 1935. Many observational and theoretical projects are conducted by the astronomical institutions in conjunction with foreign observatories in the spirit of international cooperation.
Astronomical research in the USSR is coordinated by the Astronomical Council of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
PERIODICALS. Publications in astronomy include Astronomicheskii zhurnal (Astronomical Journal, since 1924), Pis’ma v “Astronomicheskii zhurnal” (Letters to the Astronomical Journal, since 1975), Astrofizika (Astrophysics, since 1965), Astronomicheskii vestnik (Astronomical Bulletin, since 1967), and Zemlia i Vselennaia (The Earth and the Universe, since 1965), a popular scientific magazine.
The results of astronomical studies are published in periodicals and continuing publications; a number of astronomical institutions issue such types of publications as transactions, proceedings, bulletins, and scientific reports.
E. R. MUSTEL’ and N. P. ERPYLEV

Bibliography

Vorontsov-Vel’iaminov, B. A. Ocherki istorii astronomii v Rossii. Moscow, 1956.
Sviatskii, D. Astronomicheskie iavleniia v russkikh letopisiakh s nauchno-kriticheskoi tochki zrem’w. Petrograd, 1915.
Fesenkov, V. G. “Ocherk istorii astronomii v Rossii v XVII i XVIII stoletiiakh.” In Trudy Instituta istorii estestvoznaniia, vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Chenakal, V. L. Ocherki po istorii russkoi astronomii. Nabliudatel’naia astronomiia v Rossii XVII i nachala XVIII v. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
Raikov, B. E. Ocherki po istorii geliotsentricheskogo mirovozzreniia v Rossii, 2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1947.
Mamedbeili, G. D. Osnovatel’ Maraginskoi observatorii Mukhammed Nasireddin Tusi. Baku, 1961.
Iz istorii epokhi Ulugbeka. [Collection of articles.] Tashkent, 1965.
Blazhko, S. N., P. P. Parenago, and S. V. Orlov. “Astronomiia v Moskovskom universitete.” Uch. zap. MGU: Iubileinaia seriia, 1940, issue 58.
Dobronravin, P. P. and N. V. Steshenko. Krymskaia astrofizicheskaia observatoriia Akademii nauk SSSR. Simferopol’, 1965.
Pulkovskoi observatorii 125 let. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966.
Liudi russkoi nauki, 2nd ed., vol. 1. Moscow, 1961.
Istoriko-astronomicheskie issledovaniia, fascs. 1–12. Moscow, 1955–75.
Vorontsov-Vel’iaminov, B. A. Ocherki istorii astronomii v SSSR. Moscow, 1960.
Astronomiia v SSSR za 30 let. [Collection of articles.] Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Astronomiia v SSSR za 40 let. [Collection of articles.] Moscow, 1960.
Razvitie astronomii v SSSR. [Collection of articles.] Moscow, 1967.
Physical sciences. In Russia, scientific research in physics was first conducted after the founding of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1725. The research was associated with foreign scientists invited to the academy by Peter I; it included research in hydrodynamics by D. Bernoulli and some studies by L. Euler. M. V. Lomonosov, who wrote fundamental works on the atomic-molecular theory of heat, was the first Russian scientist of world renown. In the mid-18th century, new results in the study of optical, electric, and magnetic phenomena were obtained by Lomonosov, G. V. Rikhman, and other Russian academicians. In the late 18th century, physics was introduced into the curricula of Gymnasiums and six physics textbooks were published.
Russia’s late start on the path of capitalist development had a greater effect on the development of physics than on the development of the other natural sciences. The absence of production requirements delayed both the organization of systematic research and the creation of a firm material basis for such research.
In the first half of the 19th century, important discoveries in electricity and electromagnetism were made by Russian physicists. In 1802, V. V. Petrov produced a stable electric arc. In the Physics Office of the Academy of Sciences, H. Lenz (E. Kh. Lents) established both Lenz’s law for determining the direction of induced currents and the reversibility of electric machines. By exact experiments, Lenz substantiated Joule’s law, that is, the law of the heating effect of an electric current (Joule’s-Lenz’s law).
Beginning in the 1860’s, physics research was carried out mainly at higher educational institutions. An event of great importance was the founding of the Russian Physics Society at the University of St. Petersburg in 1872. The society, which published its own journal, was reorganized as the Russian Physical Chemistry Society in 1878.
At Moscow University in 1888, A. G. Stoletov began empirical studies of the regularities of photoemission and discovered the first law of photoelectric effects. Stoletov’s determination of the ratio of electrostatic and electromagnetic units and the work of his students N. N. Shiller and P. A. Zilov (1874–77) in experimentally establishing the relationship between the refractive index and the dielectric constant of a medium, a relationship that had been obtained theoretically by J. Maxwell, confirmed the electromagnetic theory of light.
In 1874, N. A. Umov introduced the concept of the vector of the flux density of energy, which is called the Umov vector. At the University of Kiev, M. P. Avenarius and his students made extensive measurements of the critical parameters of various substances. In Iur’ev (now Tartu) in 1898, A. I. Sadovskii predicted the appearance of a mechanical torque under the action of polarized light; the phenomenon is known as the Sadovskii effect.
In Odessa in 1889, F. N. Shvedov laid the foundations for the rheology of disperse systems. In 1894, V. A. Mikhel’son published fundamental studies on the theory of combustion.
Between 1885 and 1890, E. S. Fedorov wrote a series of papers on the symmetry and structure of crystals. The papers formed the basis for theoretical structural crystallography. Fedorov’s ideas were completely confirmed by experiments after the development of X-ray diffraction analysis, of which G. V. Vul’f was a founder. Fedorov’s and Vul’f’s students became the first representatives of the Soviet school of crystallography.
In 1904, A. A. Eikhenval’d performed experiments to measure displacement currents and convection currents. In the Physics Office of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, B. B. Golitsyn carried out a number of exact optical experiments; he laid the foundations for seismology and seismometry. S. A. Boguslavskii wrote theoretical works on pyroelectricity and on electron motion in magnetic fields.
In the late 19th century and the early 20th century, physics institutes were established at Moscow University, the University of St. Petersburg, and Novorossiia University (now the University of Odessa). In Moscow, a laboratory at the physics institute was headed by P. N. Lebedev, who wrote works of universal importance dealing with the determination of the pressure of light on solids (1899) and on gases (1907). Lebedev founded the first Russian school of physics. His approximately 30 students worked in accordance with a single plan.
By 1917 young opticists at the University of Petrograd had grouped around D. S. Rozhdestvenskii, who had made a fundamental study of anomalous dispersion in metal vapors. In the same period, A. F. Ioffe also established a scientific school in Petrograd; in the 1910’s, Ioffe investigated photoelectric effects and the electrical properties of crystals. P. Ehrenfest, who had done research in St. Petersburg from 1904 to 1912, organized a seminar at the university there. Later, the Russian school of theoretical physics was founded by participants in the seminar.
In early 1917 the Institute of Physics was opened in Moscow. A considerable undertaking for its time, the institute was the first major scientific research institution in Russia. P. P. Lazarev became the institute’s director and Lebedev’s students became his co-workers. The groups organized by Ioffe, Rozhdestvenskii, and Lazarev formed centers around which the major Soviet physics institutes arose and developed. In 1918 in Petrograd, the State Optics Institute was founded under the direction of Rozhdestvenskii and the Physicotechnical Institute was established under the direction of Ioffe. In Moscow, the Institute of Physics and Biophysics was founded by Lazarev.
Research in radio developed considerably in Russia in the second decade of the 20th century. The research laid the foundations for the development of Soviet radio physics and radio engineering. In 1918, under the direction of M. A. Bonch-Bruevich, productive work on the development of high-power vacuum radio tubes, the designing of radio sets, and other activities were begun at the Nizhny Novgorod Radio Laboratory.
The rapid development of scientific research institutes resulted from the Soviet government’s policy of linking science and production, a policy that was steadfastly implemented. In the late 1920’s and in the 1930’s, the organization of physics institutes became especially broad in scope. On Ioffe’s initiative and with his participation, such institutes as the Ukrainian Physicotechnical Institute in Kharkov, the Institute of the Physics of Metals in Sverdlovsk, and the Siberian Physicotechnical Institute in Tomsk were founded on the basis of the Physicotechnical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Much attention was given to the training of scientific personnel. In 1918, on the initiative of Ioffe, the physicotechnical department at the Polytechnic Institute in Petrograd was established. Many well-known Soviet physicists who later founded schools of scientific thought or originated new areas in physics studied in the department. Some young Soviet physicists were sent abroad for advanced training.
Under the direction of S. I. Vavilov, the Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, which was transferred to Moscow in 1934, became a highly productive scientific center. Various aspects of physics were developed at the institute. In 1934 the Institute of Physical Problems of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was founded by P. L. Kapitsa. Research at the institute focused mainly on low-temperature physics and theoretical physics. Later, the following institutes were established within the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: the Institute of Crystallography (Moscow, 1943), the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Moscow, 1953), the Acoustic Institute (Moscow, 1953), the Institute of High-pressure Physics (Moscow Oblast, 1958), the Institute of Solid-state Physics (Moscow Oblast, 1963), the Institute of Theoretical Physics (Moscow Oblast, 1965), the Institute of Spectroscopy (Moscow Oblast, 1968), the Institute for Nuclear Research (Moscow, 1970), and the Leningrad Institute of Nuclear Physics (Leningrad Oblast, 1971). Physics institutes were founded within the academies of sciences of the Union republics and in the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
The organization of research in nuclear physics and particle physics was of great importance. Research in the two fields is conducted at the Institute of Atomic Energy (Moscow, 1943), the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, 1956), the Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, and the Institute of High-energy Physics. The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research is the nuclear physics center for the socialist countries; the Institute of High-energy Physics was founded on the basis of the Serpukhov proton accelerator, which was started up in 1967.
The international prestige of Soviet physics is exceptionally high. Soviet scientists have made many important discoveries; research is being conducted in all areas of physics. Six Soviet physicists have received Nobel Prizes. The Division of General Physics and Astronomy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR is one of the most impressive members of the European Physical Society. Soviet physicists are members of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, the International Union of Crystallography, and other international physics organizations; they participate in all international conferences and symposia.
In laboratories in the USSR and at several foreign scientific centers, Soviet scientists are conducting joint experiments with scientists from other countries. For example, in collaboration with the Institute of High-energy Physics, French scientists built the Mirabel liquid-hydrogen bubble chamber and have begun joint Soviet-French experiments. At the USA’s National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Ill., joint Soviet-American research in particle physics is being conducted.
Preprints containing reports on the achievements of Soviet scientists are sent to many scientific centers throughout the world. Journals of physics published by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR are reissued in English translation in the USA and Great Britain.
CRYSTALS AND LIQUIDS. The earliest achievements of Soviet physics were associated with A. F. Ioffe’s research in crystal physics. The research of Ioffe and his co-workers—A. P. Aleksandrov, N. N. Davidenkov, Ia. I. Frenkel’, G. V. Kurdiumov, I. V. Obreimov, A. V. Stepanov, F. F. Vitman, and S. N. Zhurkov—laid the foundations for the modern physics of real crystals and the study of complicated problems of great practical importance pertaining to such crystals. The problems include the strength of real crystals, structural imperfections, dislocations, and techniques for investigating real crystals. The work of Ioffe and his colleagues provided the basis for the development of processes for growing ideal, almost perfect crystals whose strength and other characteristics approach the theoretical values.
Problems associated with the synthesis of almost perfect crystals are studied at the Institute of Crystallography of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. At the institute, research in such problems was begun in the 1940’s by A. V. Shubnikov and was conducted under his direction for many years. Various areas in crystallography that were developed by Shubnikov’s students are associated with him.
L. F. Vereshchagin and his co-workers achieved outstanding results in the study of the behavior of solids at ultrahigh pressures. In particular, in 1960 they proposed and introduced into industry a method of synthesizing diamonds. Polycrystalline diamonds of the carbonado type that were synthesized at the Institute of Crystallography were used in the construction of an ultra-high-pressure (megabar) chamber for the study of metal-dielectric phase transitions. In 1975 the transition of hydrogen to the metallic state was brought about in the chamber by Vereshchagin, E. N. Iakovlev, and Iu. A. Timofeev.
At the Physicotechnical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Zhurkov developed a kinetic approach to problems of the strength of crystalline materials. He showed that, in essence, the ultimate strength of a specimen is related to the time during which the specimen is subjected to a given load.
A number of important results were obtained by Shubnikov and N. V. Belov in structural crystallography and symmetry theory. The results of their studies of the electrical properties of crystals have been used for practical purposes. Such results include Shubnikov’s discovery in 1946 of a new form of piezoelectric materials, namely, polycrystalline piezoelectric structures. Diffraction analysis of crystals is widely used, as is crystal chemistry, which is based on data obtained by diffraction analysis. Belov developed a theory of close packing and coordination polyhedrons that explains the nature and physicochemical properties of such polyhedrons and other inorganic structures.
B. K. Vainshtein conducted research in deciphering protein structures. Vainshtein and Z. G. Pinsker developed a method of electron diffraction analysis.
V. Z. Bugakov and V. I. Arkharov devised a technique for the study of diffusion in solids. B. G. Lazarev developed a method of investigating defects in real crystals. N. N. Davidenkov was among the first to explain the mechanism by which defects affect the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Iu. A. Osip’ian explained the mechanism by which dislocations affect the electrical properties of metals and alloys.
Frenkel’ developed a new approach to the formulation of the kinetic theory of liquids. Aleksandrov and P. P. Kobeko conducted research dealing with the amorphous state and the mechanical properties of amorphous solids.
METALS, DIELECTRICS, AND SEMICONDUCTORS. The earliest achievements in the theory of metals were associated with the research of Ia. I. Frenkel’. Frenkel’ used Bohr’s quantum theory to explain why an electron gas makes no contribution to the specific heat of metals, that is, to resolve the “specific-heat catastrophe.” In 1927 he used quantum theory to apply the concept of de Broglie waves to the motion of free electrons in metals and to explain both the dependence of electrical conductivity on temperature and the effect of impurities on conductivity. In developing his new, quantum theory of metals, Frenkel’ retained the positive aspects of the classical theory of Drude and Lorentz, for example, the derivation of the Wiedemann-Franz law.
The quantum theory of the photoelectric effect in metals was developed in 1931 by I. E. Tamm and S. P. Shubin.
In the 1930’s, G. V. Kurdiumov conducted important research in the physics of metals and alloys, in phase transitions, and in the structure of martensite. The first years after World War II were marked by achievements in powder metallurgy; the foundations for the physics of sintering were laid in the works of such Soviet scientists as M. Iu. Bal’shin, Ia. E. Geguzin, and B. Ia. Pines.
In 1934, Shubin and S. V. Vonsovskii proposed the polar model of metal and semiconductor crystals. In 1949 the model was further developed in the works of N. N. Bogoliubov and S. V. Tiablikov.
In the 1950’s and 1960’s, I. M. Lifshits and co-workers showed that knowledge of both the dynamic properties of conduction electrons and the electronic properties of a metal—that is, the metal’s galvanomagnetic, high-frequency, and resonance properties—makes it possible to determine the metal’s conduction-electron spectrum and, in particular, the Fermi surface for the metal. The Fermi surface is an important characteristic of a metal’s conduction-electron spectrum. The study of Fermi surface shapes makes it possible to draw conclusions about the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of metals. Such studies are closely associated with the fruitful experimental investigations of, for example, N. E. Alekseevskii, B. G. Lazarev, and V. I. Verkin.
A. F. Ioffe and his school achieved considerable results in the physics of dielectrics. Between 1916 and 1923, Ioffe and M. V. Kirpicheva determined experimentally that the current flowing through an ionic crystal is carried by interstitial ions. Ionic conduction was studied in the 1920’s by K. D. Sinel’nikov. The dielectric properties of amorphous and crystalline solids were investigated by, for example, A. P. Aleksandrov, P. P. Kobeko, G. I. Skanavi, and A. F. Val’ter.
In the late 1920’s, Kobeko and I. V. Kurchatov investigated Seignette salt and its isomorphs, thus beginning the study of ferroelectrics. In 1944, B. M. Vul discovered the pronounced ferroelectric properties of barium titanate. It was established that ferroelectrics are a broad class of compounds. Other work on ferroelectricity includes the research of G. A. Smolenskii and co-workers. Between 1960 and 1964, they studied ferroelectric-ferromagnetic materials, a new class of nonmetallic ferromagnetic materials having both electric and magnetic ordering.
The first studies of semiconductors in the USSR were conducted by O. V. Losev in 1921. Systematic research in semiconductors was begun in the early 1930’s at the Physicotechnical Institute in Leningrad and at other scientific centers on the initiative of Ioffe. Research in semiconductor physics in the USSR and abroad led to the development of semiconductor electronics.
In 1932, Tamm showed theoretically that special energy states, now called Tamm levels, should exist on an ideal semiconductor surface. Soviet scientists later carried out extensive studies of surface effects on semiconductors.
Also in 1932, in accordance with the theory that describes the energy band structure of real semiconductors, V. P. Zhuze and B. V. Kurchatov proved by experiment the existence of intrinsic and extrinsic conductivity in semiconductors. In 1933, I. K. Kikoin and M. M. Noskov discovered the generation of an electromotive force when a semiconductor is illuminated in a transverse magnetic field. The effect is now called the Kikoin-Noskov effect and is widely used to study electronic phenomena in semiconductors.
Soviet scientists have devoted a great deal of attention to the problem of current rectification. Ioffe established the main regularities of rectification. In 1932, Ioffe and Frenkel’ explained rectification at a metal-semiconductor contact on the basis of the tunnel effect. In 1938, B. I. Davydov worked out the diffusion theory of rectification at ap-n junction. L. V. Keldysh developed a rigorous theory of the tunnel effect in semiconductors with a complex band structure; it included a theory of tunneling with the assistance of phonons. Keldysh also examined the effect of a strong electric field on the optical properties of semiconductors. The phenomenon is known as the Franz-Keldysh effect.
Soviet scientists made a fundamental contribution to the development of concepts of elementary excitations, or quasiparticles, in solids. The first quasiparticle—the phonon—was introduced into theory by Tamm in 1929 in his work on the Raman effect. Today, the thermal and electrical properties of solids are described in terms of phonons.
In 1931, Frenkel’ introduced a new quasiparticle—the exciton—to describe phenomena in which light is absorbed but no current is generated. The concept of excitons formed the basis for A. S. Davydov’s theory of the absorption of light by molecular crystals.
In 1933, L. D. Landau advanced a hypothesis concerning the effect of the polarization of the surrounding medium on the properties of electrons moving in a crystal. In ionic crystals, an electron and the polarization field it produces form a quasiparticle. Such quasiparticles were studied by S. I. Pekar, who called them polarons.
In the 1970’s, Iu. M. Kagan and E. G. Brovman worked out the many-body theory of metals. The theory permits many properties of metals to be analyzed.
The experimental study of excitons was begun after a 20-year delay. Direct proof of the existence of excitons was obtained in 1951 by E. F. Gross, B. P. Zakharchenia, and their co-workers. Important research in the physics of excitons was conducted by A. F. Prikhot’ko and her co-workers. In 1968, Keldysh advanced a hypothesis according to which the interaction between excitons at a sufficiently high exciton density results in the formation of exciton droplets. Such droplets were soon discovered experimentally by various scientists, notably Ia. E. Pokrovskii and V. S. Bagaev.
The first laboratory specimens of germanium diodes and triodes in the USSR were produced in the early 1950’s by Vul, V. S. Vavilov, and A. V. Rzhanov at the Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, by V. M. Tuchkevich and D. N. Nasledov at the academy’s Physicotechnical Institute, and by S. G. Kalashnikov and N. A. Penin at the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics. The work of these groups contributed to the development of the Soviet semiconductor industry.
While studying the electrical properties of doped silicon single crystals, Tuchkevich and his co-workers investigated multilayer structures with several p-n junctions. Their work resulted in the development of controlled rectifiers with unique properties, called thyristors, and the rise of power semiconductor technology.
Zh. I. Alferov made a contribution to basic research in the physics of semiconductor heterojunctions. As a result of such research, a major class of semiconductor and quantum-electronic devices—in particular, unique heterojunction lasers—was developed.
In 1951, Ia. G. Dorfman predicted cyclotron resonance in semiconductors. Penin used electron paramagnetic resonance to investigate interactions of impurity centers in semiconductors. Radiation damage in semiconductors was studied by various scientists, notably Vavilov and co-workers.
In 1932, Ioffe first pointed out the possibility of using semiconductors for the direct conversion of heat into electricity and for the fabrication of coolers. A group directed by Ioffe built the world’s first thermoelectric power generator. In 1950 a semiconductor thermoelectric cooler was fabricated.
MAGNETISM. Soviet physicists made much progress in the study of magnetism. The first quantum-mechanical theory of ferromagnetism was constructed by Ia. I. Frenkel’ in 1928. The domain structure of ferromagnetic materials was explained in works by Ia. G. Dorfman, L. D. Landau, and E. M. Lifshits. In 1930, Landau carried out a classic study of the diamagnetism of free electrons. In 1933 he predicted antiferromagnetism. A. S. Borovik-Romanov made a substantial contribution to the experimental observation and investigation of antiferromagnetism; in 1959 he discovered piezomagnetism. The theory of weak ferromagnetism, which was developed by I. E. Dzialoshinskii in 1957, has become well known.
The work of S. P. Shubin, S. V. Vonsovskii, and their co-workers on the s-d exchange model (1935–46) was of great importance for the theory of ferromagnetic phenomena. Such scientists as N. S. Akulov, K. P. Belov, R. I. Ianus, L. V. Kirenskii, E. I. Kondorskii, Ia. S. Shur, and Vonsovskii conducted research in the theory and experimental study of the magnetization curves of soft and hard ferromagnetic materials.
The nuclear paramagnetism of solid hydrogen, which was detected in 1937 by B. G. Lazarev and L. V. Shubnikov at the Ukrainian Physicotechnical Institute, is an important experimental discovery. Electron paramagnetic resonance, which is widely used in physics and chemistry, is of great value; it was discovered by E. K. Zavoiskii in 1944. Important research in electron paramagnetic resonance was carried out by S. A. Al’tshuler and B. M. Kozyrev.
Paramagnetic resonance had been predicted in 1923 by Dorfman. Ferromagnetic resonance, a similar phenomenon, was observed in ferromagnetic objects by Zavoiskii in 1947. The theory of ferromagnetic resonance was originated by Landau and Lifshits in 1935. Such resonance had been observed in 1913 by V. K. Arkad’ev in the form of “magnetic spectra.”
THEORETICAL PHYSICS. The main results obtained by Soviet theorists deal with the application of general quantum-mechanical relationships to various areas in the electron theory of solids, the electron theory of quantum fluids, and nuclear physics.
The work of L. I. Mandel’shtam and M. A. Leontovich in 1928 on the uncertainty relation for energy and time was of great importance. Their work opened the way for the explanation of a number of microphysical processes in the framework of concepts of the tunnel effect.
In 1926, V. A. Fok (Fock) carried out a relativistic generalization of the Schrödinger equation; the generalization is sometimes called the Klein-Gordon-Fock equation. In 1932, Fok conducted classic research in second quantization. In 1930 he developed a general technique for solving the quantum-mechanical many-body problem (the Hartree-Fock method).
In the 1940’s, I. E. Tamm developed a method of investigating particle interaction processes. The technique, called the Tamm-Dancoff method, falls outside the scope of the usual perturbation theory. It has become well known.
In the 1950’s and 1960’s, Soviet physicists made a fundamental contribution to the development of quantum field theory. The physicists included Fok, N. N. Bogoliubov, L. D. Landau, I. Ia. Pomeranchuk, Tamm, and their students.
The research of Bogoliubov and Leontovich in the theory of nonequilibrium processes (1944–46) was of great importance for progress in modern statistical mechanics. Landau made considerable advances in the problem of phase transitions, which has already occupied a key position in statistical mechanics for more than a century.
Between 1922 and 1924, A. A. Fridman (Friedmann) conducted classic research in the general theory of relativity. He showed that the gravitational equations have a solution that predicts the recession of galaxies. Fok derived approximate equations of motion for a system of bodies in the framework of Einstein’s theory of gravitation.
OPTICS. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS, AND SPECTROSCOPY. Important research in physical and applied optics was carried out at the State Optics Institute, which was directed by D. S. Rozhdestvenskii until 1932. The research laid the foundation for the development of the opticomechanical industry and for the total independence of many branches of industry from foreign suppliers.
I. V. Grebenshchikov, N. N. Kachalov, A. A. Lebedev, and their co-workers created a domestic technology for the production and treatment of optical glass. The technology provided the basis for the development of the optical glass industry in the USSR.
The founding of the Soviet school of computational optics was especially important for the development of applied optics. The school included A. I. Tudorovskii and G. G. Sliusarev.
In 1941, D. D. Maksutov used a mirror-meniscus system to invent a new type of astronomical telescope. E. M. Brumberg devised the ultraviolet microscope. Methods and instruments for the control of optical systems were developed under the direction of V. P. Linnik. Linnik and Lebedev designed original optical and electron-optical instruments.
Rozhdestvenskii’s investigations in the second decade of the 20th century and A. N. Terenin’s studies of the photodissociation of molecules (1924) and of photochemistry constituted the first substantial research in physical optics. Fundamental results were obtained in the study of the molecular scattering of light.
In 1928, L. I. Mandel’shtam and G. S. Landsberg discovered the Raman effect in crystals. The Raman effect turned out to be important from the theoretical standpoint, since it is one of the earliest examples of nonlinear optical phenomena. The effect is widely used for the direct physical investigation of the properties of molecules and forms the basis for a method of molecular spectrum analysis. A finer effect—a shift of spectral lines upon scattering by elastic waves in crystals—was predicted by Mandel’shtam and was experimentally detected by E. F. Gross in 1938.
In 1934, P. A. Cherenkov (Čerenkov), who was on the staff of S. I. Vavilov’s laboratory, discovered an unusual glow in pure liquids exposed to radiation from radioactive substances. Vavilov immediately pointed out that the glow was not luminescence but was associated with the motion of free electrons (Cherenkov-Vavilov effect). A complete theory of the effect was provided in 1937 by I. E. Tamm and I. M. Frank. Of scientific interest, the effeet acquired practical value when it was used as the basis for Cherenkov counters.
In the 1930’s and 1940’s, Vavilov and his co-workers, who included V. L. Levshin and P. P. Feofilov, investigated luminescence in condensed media, that is, in solutions and crystal phosphors. Vavilov determined for the first time the quantum yield of photoluminescence in solutions containing crystals. He showed that the yield is greater than 70 percent (in a number of cases, nearly 100 percent).
The theoretical and experimental study of the luminescence of crystal phosphors by such scientists as Vavilov and V. V. Antonov-Romanovskii made it possible to develop production processes for fluorescent lamps and to convert to the mass production of such lamps. Important research in the luminescence of molecules and crystal phosphors was conducted under the direction of K. Rebane at the Laboratory for Crystal Phosphors of the Institute of Physics and Astronomy of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR and under the direction of B. I. Stepanov at the Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Byelorussian SSR.
In atomic spectroscopy, the work of Rozhdestvenskii and his students in the 1920’s was of outstanding importance. They extended Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom to the case of more complicated atoms. In 1928, Terenin and L. N. Dobretsov discovered hyperfine structure in sodium lines; in 1930, Terenin and Gross discovered hyperfine structure in mercury lines. S. E. Frish investigated hyperfine structure in the spectral lines of many elements and determined empirical regularities for the lines.
The Soviet physicists N. A. Borisevich, M. A. El’iashevich, V. N. Kondrat’ev, B. S. Neporent, and B. I. Stepanov took part in the development of molecular spectroscopy. The study and interpretation of the optical properties of complex molecules in organic compounds were developed especially rapidly in the 1950’s and 1960’s by I. V. Obreimov, A. F. Prikhot’ko, and E. V. Shpol’skii. In 1952, Shpol’skii discovered quasi-line spectra of individual complex organic compounds (the Shpol’skii effect).
Exciton spectroscopy of semiconductors and molecular crystals originated after the experimental detection of excitons. It has become a powerful tool in the study of the properties of such substances.
After the invention of lasers (see below: Quantum electronics), a new field of optics—holography—developed rapidly. A substantial contribution to holography was made by Iu. N. Denisiuk, who proposed in 1962 that three-dimensional media be used to record holograms and who implemented the idea. Holography is used in various fields of science and engineering. Examples include plasma holography and the holographic analysis of strain or vibration.
With the advent of lasers, nonlinear optics—that is, the optics of intense light beams—also developed rapidly. The foundations of nonlinear optics were laid by R. V. Khokhlov and S. A. Akhmanov. After the development of tunable lasers, the Institute of Spectroscopy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR began to devise methods of laser spectroscopy.
THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS, ELEMENTARY PARTICLES, AND COSMIC RAYS. In the USSR, research in nuclear physics was begun in the early 1930’s. The first advances in nuclear physics were associated with theoretical work. D. D. Ivanenko proposed the proton-neutron model of the nucleus. A theory of exchange forces was constructed by I. E. Tamm and Ivanenko. The Bohr-Frenkel’ liquid-drop model of the nucleus was developed, as was the Bohr-Frenkel’ electrocapillary theory of fission. In 1939 and 1940, Ia. B. Zel’dovich and Iu. B. Khariton worked out a chain-reaction theory for the fission of a natural mixture of uranium isotopes enriched in the isotope U-235. Beginning in 1958, substantial results in the development of nuclear theory were obtained, using concepts of superfluidity, by N. N. Bogoliubov, S. T. Beliaev, A. B. Migdal, and V. G. Solov’ev.
In 1935, L. V. Mysovskii, I. V. Kurchatov, and their co-workers, including L. I. Rusinov, discovered the nuclear isomerism of radioactive elements. In Kurchatov’s laboratory in 1940, G. N. Flerov and K. A. Petrzhak discovered the spontaneous fission of uranium. In the 1960’s and 1970’s, Flerov and his co-workers obtained theoretical results and made important discoveries relating to the synthesis of transuranium elements.
Kurchatov and a large group of scientists and engineers headed by him solved the uranium problem and problems of nuclear power engineering and also developed new weapons. Contributions to these undertakings were made by A. P. Aleksandrov, A. I. Alikhanov, L. A. Artsimovich, Khariton, I. K. Kikoin, A. I. Leipunskii, and Zel’dovich.
Advances in nuclear physics and particle physics depend on progress in accelerator physics and technology. In the USSR, such progress is associated primarily with the activity of V. I. Veksler. The principle of phase stability, which Veksler proposed in 1944, had a revolutionary effect on the development of accelerator technology. In 1957, Veksler, A. L. Mints, and co-workers started up what was then the world’s largest proton synchrotron at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. The synchrotron, which accelerates protons to an energy of 10 gigaelectron volts (GeV), was used to investigate many nuclear reactions. In particular, a new elementary particle, the antisigma-minus hyperon, was discovered in 1960.
In 1967 a 6-GeV electron accelerator, one of the largest in the world, was put into operation at the Institute of Physics in Yerevan by A. I. Alikhan’ian and co-workers. In the same year a 76-GeV proton accelerator, which was built by V. V. Vladimirskii, A. A. Logunov, and co-workers and was then the largest in the world, went into operation near Serpukhov.
Unique results have been obtained with the Serpukhov proton accelerator. In particular, Logunov and co-workers proposed and developed a new approach to the study of multiple particle-production processes, or inclusion processes. In 1970, Iu. D. Prokoshkin detected antihelium nuclei for the first time. In 1975 a new elementary particle with a spin of 4 and a mass equal to the mass of two nucléons (the h meson) was discovered. At Serpukhov it was shown for the first time that, at high energies, the total cross sections for hadron interactions stop decreasing and begin to increase; the phenomenon has come to be called the Serpukhov effect. The Serpukhov accelerator is used by groups of scientists from various institutes in the USSR, as well as by scientists from other countries.
Major achievements in research with colliding-beam accelerators have been made in Novosibirsk by such scientists as G. I. Budker, A. A. Naumov, and A. N. Skrinskii.
Research in the physics of cosmic rays, which was begun in the 1920’s, is closely associated with work in nuclear physics. In 1929, D. V. Skobel’tsyn observed cosmic-ray showers in a cloud chamber placed in a magnetic field. The technique of using a cloud chamber placed in a magnetic field was first developed by P. L. Kapitsa in 1923 to investigate the deflection of alpha particles in such a field. Extensive studies of effects that occur during the interaction of primary cosmic rays with atomic nuclei were carried out by Skobel’tsyn, Veksler, S. N. Vernov, N. A. Dobrotin, and G. T. Zatsepin.
Extensive research has been conducted in high-energy physics. In 1956, L. D. Landau introduced the concept of combined parity, which is conserved. In 1958, 1. Ia. Pomeranchuk formulated a theorem asserting that the interaction cross sections of a particle and an antiparticle with the same target are equal. B. Pontecorvo carried out research in neutrino physics, and M. A. Markov suggested that neutrino experiments be conducted underground and in accelerators. In 1961, V. N. Gribov worked out a theory of complex angular momenta. Beginning in 1957, L. B. Okun’ developed a composite model of elementary particles and investigated the symmetry properties of weak interactions. Research in neutron physics has been carried out by I. M. Frank, F. L. Shapiro, I. I. Gurevich, and P. E. Spivak.
Important experiments that confirmed the existence of the weak nucléon-nucléon interaction were conducted by Iu. G. Abov, V. M. Lobashev, and their co-workers. In Yerevan, Tbilisi, and Moscow, spark chambers in which events are detected with high precision were built by Alikhan’ian, T. L. Asatiani, G. E. Chikovani, V. N. Roinishvili, B. A. Dolgoshein, and B. I. Luchkov.
LOW- AND ULTRALOW-TEMPERATURE PHYSICS. The first cryogenic laboratory in the USSR was established in 1931 at the Ukrainian Physicotechnical Institute in Kharkov. L. V. Shubnikov became the laboratory’s first scientific director. While on assignment at the Cryogenic Laboratory in Leiden (1926–30), Shubnikov, together with W. de Haas, discovered the oscillating dependence of electrical resistivity on magnetic field strength at low temperatures. The phenomenon, which was discovered in 1930, is known as the Shubnikov-de Haas effect.
P. L. Kapitsa made a large contribution to both Soviet and world technology for the liquefaction of gases. In 1934 he built the world’s first helium liquéfier with a piston-driven expander operated with a gaseous lubricant. In 1939 he proposed a method of liquefying gases by using a low-pressure cycle in a high-efficiency expansion turbine. Kapitsa’s methods lie at the basis of all modern large-scale liquefiers.
In 1938, Kapitsa discovered the superfluidity of helium II (He II), a quantum phenomenon. A theoretical explanation of the superfluidity of He II was provided in 1941 by L. D. Landau, who developed the hydrodynamics of quantum fluids and predicted a number of paradoxical effects on the basis of his theory. The effects, which were confirmed by experiment, include the existence of two sound wave propagation velocities in liquid helium.
Important experiments in superfluidity were conducted by V. P. Peshkov, E. L. Andronikashvili, and B. G. Lazarev. In particular, Peshkov discovered second sound in He II. Fruitful work on the mechanism by which superfluidity disappears has been carried out by a group of physicists under the direction of Andronikashvili at the Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR.
The effect of heat absorption upon the solidification of3 He, which was discovered by I. Ia. Pomeranchuk in 1950, played a major role in the development of methods for obtaining ultralow temperatures. In the 1970’s, Pomeranchuk’s method was used at the Institute of Physical Problems of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR to obtain temperatures of ~0.001°K.
Soviet physicists have investigated superconductivity. Theoretical work on superconductivity was carried out by Landau and V. L. Ginzburg; experimental research was performed by Shubnikov, A. I. Shal’nikov, N. E. Alekseevskii, and Iu. V. Sharvin. Ginzburg and Landau worked out a general phenomenological theory of superconductivity. On the basis of the Ginzburg-Landau theory, A. A. Abrikosov, L. P. Gor’kov, and Ginzburg developed a theory of superconducting alloys and of the properties of superconductors in strong magnetic fields. Their theory was the basis for the prediction of the existence of alloys whose superconducting state is not destroyed at a magnetic field strength of up to hundreds of thousands of oersteds. The discovery of such alloys led to the creation of superconducting magnets.
The development of a new method in quantum field theory and statistical mechanics by N. N. Bogoliubov was an important event in physics. The method resulted in the substantiation of the theories of superfluidity and superconductivity.
OSCILLATION THEORY, RADIO PHYSICS, AND EMISSION ELECTRONICS. The foundations of Soviet radio physics and radio engineering and of oscillation theory were laid by such scientists as M. A. Bonch-Bruevich, V. P. Vologdin, and A. F. Shorin at the Nizhny Novgorod Radio Laboratory, by M. V. Shuleikin in Moscow, by L. I. Mandel’shtam and N. D. Papaleksi in Odessa, and by A. A. Chernyshev, D. A. Rozhanskii, and their co-workers in Leningrad.
The school’founded by Mandel’shtam and Papaleksi made a major contribution to the development of oscillation theory. It included A. A. Andronov, G. S. Gorelik, S. E. Khaikin, M. A. Leontovich, V. V. Migulin, S. M. Rytov, and A. A. Vitt. The scientists of Mandel’shtam and Papaleksi’s school created the new field of the physics of nonlinear oscillations, which is important for radio physics and control theory. The school also investigated the measurement of the propagation velocity of electromagnetic waves along the earth’s surface. In 1930, Mandel’shtam and Papaleksi proposed an interference method for such measurement. The development and use of the method, which is widely employed in practice, made it possible to determine the phase structure and velocity of radio waves. The mathematical methods of nonlinear oscillation theory were devised by such scientists as N. M. Krylov and N. N. Bogoliubov.
In 1923, A. A. Glagoleva-Arkad’eva and—independently—M. A. Levitskaia obtained electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of 5 cm to 82 micrometers. The radiation filled the gap between the infrared and radio regions in the electromagnetic-wave spectrum.
The development of qualitatively new principles for the amplification and generation of high-frequency oscillations made it possible to advance into the region of higher frequencies. Rozhanskii proposed the use of electron velocity modulation. The first practical steps toward the implementation of velocity modulation were made by members of Chernyshev’s school of electro-physics, including N. D. Deviatkov, N. F. Alekseev, and L. B. Maliarov. The theory and design of microwave devices were developed by G. A. Grinberg.
Important research in emission electronics was conducted by P. I. Lukirskii, S. A. Vekshinskii, and their schools. The research was intimately associated with the vacuum-tube industry and was carried out in the late 1920’s and early 1930’s at the Svetlana Plant in Leningrad. Investigations of photoemission yielded direct results in industry. Progress in the domestic production of cesium oxide and cesium antimonide phototubes is associated with N. D. Morgulis, A. A. Lebedev, S. Iu. Luk’ianov, P. V. Timofeev, and N. S. Khlebnikov.
The work of L. N. Dobretsov was of great importance for the understanding of the effects involved in a range of problems in emission electronics. In the early 1930’s, L. A. Kubetskii discovered the principle of secondary electron multiplication and built the first multiplier phototube.
In the 1940’s and 1950’s, important contributions to the development of research in radio-wave propagation were made by V. A. Fok, B. A. Vvedenskii, Leontovich, V. L. Ginzburg, E. L. Feinberg, and Grinberg. As early as the late 1930’s, Leningrad physicists under the direction of Rozhanskii and Iu. B. Kobzarev developed the principles of pulse radar and built radar sets.
The idea of using radio in astronomy, especially for lunar range-finding, was proposed in the 1940’s by Mandel’shtam and Papaleksi. In the 1960’s, V. A. Kotel’nikov and a group of his co-workers carried out radar investigations of the planets.
QUANTUM ELECTRONICS. The development of quantum electronics was a major event in physics and technology. The high level of the research in radio physics conducted at the Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was largely responsible for the fact that basic research in quantum electronics was begun at the institute in 1951 on the initiative of A. M. Prokhorov.
Between 1952 and 1955, Prokhorov, together with N. G. Basov, proved the possibility of developing amplifiers and oscillators of a fundamentally new type and solved the main problems in implementing the development of such devices. In 1955 the first molecular maser, which operated in the centimeter-wavelength range, was built by Prokhorov and Basov and—independently—by C. Townes in the USA. In the same year, Prokhorov and Basov obtained population inversion in an optically pumped three-level system. In 1957 and 1958, Prokhorov proposed that ruby be used as a working substance for lasers, advanced the idea of open resonators, and devised methods for the fabrication of paramagnetic amplifiers.
After the invention of masers, the development of lasers, or optical quantum generators, was the most important achievement in quantum electronics. It turned out that laser action could be obtained in a broad class of substances, that is, in semiconductors, gases, liquids, glasses, and solutions. Basov was the first to point out the possibility of using semiconductors in quantum electronics. Between 1957 and 1961, Basov and his co-workers developed methods for the fabrication of semiconductor lasers. The first gallium arsenide semiconductor laser in the USSR was built in a laboratory directed by B. M. Vul. In 1963, Zh. I. Alferov proposed that heterostructures be used for semiconductor lasers. The CO2 gas dynamic laser is especially promising; it was proposed by Prokhorov and V. K. Koniukhov in 1967 and was built in 1970.
Quantum electronics had a great effect on the development of physics as a whole, having given rise to, for example, laser spectroscopy, laser sounding of the atmosphere, and laser plasma diagnostics. Lasers are used for range-finding and space communications and in computer technology and medicine.
HIGH-TEMPERATURE PLASMA AND PROBLEMS OF CONTROLLED THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS. Research in plasma theory was begun in the 1930’s. In 1936, L. D. Landau proposed the kinetic equation for an electron plasma. In 1938, A. A. Vlasov formulated an equation for the oscillations of a rarefied plasma in the plasma’s own self-consistent field. The theory of plasma oscillations, which is based on the Vlasov equation, was developed in 1946 by Landau, who showed that plasma oscillations are damped even in the absence of plasma particle collisions. Such damping is known as Landau damping.
Interest in the study of hot plasmas grew in connection with the problem of achieving controlled fusion. In 1950, I. E. Tamm and A. D. Sakharov proposed the principle of the magnetic confinement of a plasma. In the 1950’s, L. A. Artsimovich, M. A. Leontovich, and their co-workers achieved considerable results in the experimental study of high-power pulsed discharges in gases for the production of a high-temperature plasma and discovered plasma instability. Further studies of the various types of plasma instabilities, notably by R. Z. Sagdeev, led to the development of effective methods for the suppression of some of the instabilities. The methods were devised by such scientists as B. B. Kadomtsev and M. S. Ioffe. A. A. Vedenov, Kadomtsev, E. K. Zavoiskii, and their co-workers carried out research in the theories of plasma turbulence and of the turbulent heating of a plasma.
Work on the development of plasma diagnostic techniques contributed to the conduct of all the theoretical and experimental research in plasmas. Such work was performed by B. P. Konstantinov, N. V. Fedorenko, and V. E. Golant.
Especially great advances in obtaining effective plasma confinement were achieved with Tokamak-type toroidal magnetic systems. Research with Tokamak systems was begun in 1956 under the direction of Artsimovich. The construction of the largest such system—the Tokamak-10—was completed in 1975. The building of the Tokamak-10 was a substantial step on the road to achieving a controlled thermonuclear reaction. Based on the results obtained with Tokamaks, the development of fusion reactors has been begun by E. P. Velikhov and I. N. Golovin.
In 1969, P. L. Kapitsa obtained a stable plasma column with a temperature of the order of 105–106oK in a microwave discharge.
A promising area of thermonuclear research is being developed. It is associated with the use of high-power lasers for plasma heating (Prokhorov and Basov) and with the use of relativistic electron beams for the same purpose (Zavoiskii and P. I. Rudakov). Research is being conducted by G. I. Budker and Ioffe with open-ended magnetic traps and by Velikhov with systems in which the plasma is compressed by a magnetic field.
ACOUSTICS. The work of N. N. Andreev, who headed the school of Soviet acoustics, dealt with various divisions of acoustics ranging from the general theory of the acoustics of moving media to problems of architectural acoustics and practical methods of measuring acoustical quantities. L. M. Brekhovskikh studied the propagation of sound in inhomogeneous and stratified media. Between 1944 and 1946, D. I. Blokhintsev conducted research in the general theory of acoustical phenomena in inhomogeneous and moving media. From 1951 to 1958, L. A. Chernov investigated the propagation of sound in media containing random inhomogeneities. Between 1949 and 1955, L. D. Rozenberg studied the refraction and focusing of sound and ultrasound. L. A. Chistovich and M. A. Sapozhkov investigated the acoustics of speech.
In the 1930’s and 1940’s, research in musical acoustics was conducted by such scientists as A. V. Rimskii-Korsakov and L. S. Termen. Contributions to the study of architectural acoustics and electroacoustics were made by V. V. Furduev, Iu. M. Suhkarevskii, S. N. Rzhevkin, A. A. Kharkevich, and G. D. Maliuzhi-nets. Important results in nonlinear acoustics were obtained by B. P. Konstantinov, a pioneer in the field. Beginning in the 1950’s, the physics of ultrasound and hypersound was developed by such scientists as I. G. Mikhailov and S. Ia. Sokolov. The rapid development of ultrasonic flaw detection in the USSR was due to Sokolov’s pioneering work.
In the early 1960’s, I. A. Viktorov, Iu. A. Guliaev, V. L. Gurevich, and V. I. Pustovoit discovered the amplification of ultrasonic waves in semiconductors and in semiconductor-dielectric layered structures upon charge-carrier drift through such materials. The effect was the basis for the development of various acousto-electronic devices.
A. I. Akhiezer discovered magnetoacoustic resonance, which occurs when hypersonic waves and spin waves interact in ferromagnetic materials. Magnetoacoustic resonance provides the basis for hypersonic and ultrasonic generators and is a new tool for the study of magnetically ordered crystals.
PERIODICALS. Soviet periodicals that deal with the physical sciences include the following: Akusticheskii zhurnal (Acoustics Journal; since 1955), Atomnaia energiia (Atomic Energy; since 1956), Zhurnal teoreticheskoi fiziki (Journal of Technical Physics; since 1931), Zhurnal eksperimental’noi i tekhnicheskoi fiziki (Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics; since 1931), Izvestiia AN SSSR: Seriia fizicheskaia (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Physics Series; since 1936), Kristallografiia (Crystallography; since 1956), Optika i spektroskopiia (Optics and Spectroscopy; since 1956), Pribory i tekhnika eksperimenta (Instruments and Experimental Techniques; since 1956), Radiotekhnika i elektronika (Radio Engineering and Electronics; since 1956), Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk (Advances in Physical Sciences; since 1918), Fizika metallov i metallovedenie (Physics of Metals and Metal Science; since 1955), ladernaia fizika (Nuclear Physics; since 1965), Kvantovaia elektronika (Quantum Electronics; since 1971), and Fizika plazmy (Plasma Physics; since 1975).
E. V. SHPOL’SKII and V. IA. FRENKEL’

Bibliography

“Akademii nauk SSSR—250 let.” Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk, 1974, vol. 113, issue 1.
Vavilov, S. I. Fizicheskii kabinetFizicheskaia laboratoriiaFizicheskii institut AN SSSR za 220 let. Moscow-Leningrad, 1945.
Shpol’skii, E. V. Ocherki po istorii razvitiia sovetskoi fiziki, 1917–1967. Moscow, 1969.
Razvitie fiziki v SSSR, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1967.
Kudriavtsev, P. S. Istoriia fiziki, vols. 1–3. Moscow, 1956–71.
Razvitie fiziki v Rossii: Ocherki, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1970. (Contains bibliography.)
Mechanics. The beginning of work on mechanics in Russia dates to the first half of the 18th century and was associated with the founding of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1725 by a decree of Peter I. In 1722 the first Russian textbook on mechanics, The Science of Statics, or Mechanics by G. G. Skorniakov-Pisarev, was published. D. Bernoulli and L. Euler made a major contribution to the development of mechanics. In particular, they were the founders of the theoretical hydrodynamics of an ideal fluid. Bernoulli’s Hydrodynamica (1738) and Euler’s two-volume Mechanica (1736) were written in St. Petersburg.
In the 19th century, the center of activity for research in mechanics in Russia gradually shifted to the universities and technical higher educational institutions. In the mid-19th century, such scientists as M. V. Ostrogradskii and P. L. Chebyshev conducted research in St. Petersburg. In the second half of the 19th century, the Moscow school of mechanics was established; the school flourished in the early 20th century under the direction of N. E. Zhukovskii and S. A. Chaplygin. The combination of a mathematical approach and the study of applied problems was characteristic of the Moscow school.
At the turn of the 20th century, the St. Petersburg school of engineering was formed by I. G. Bubnov, V. L. Kirpichev, A. N. Krylov, I. V. Meshcherskii, and S. P. Timoshenko. The general theory of the stability of the motion of mechanical systems, which was created by A. M. Liapunov, was a fundamental contribution to the development of mechanics in the early 20th century.
After the October Revolution of 1917, research in mechanics was stepped up considerably. The Central Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Institute, which was founded in Moscow in 1918, became the most prominent institution closely associated with the development of mechanics. In 1921 the institute was named after Zhukovskii, its founder. In the 1930’s, the largest scientific center for theoretical and experimental research was established at the institute under the direction of Chaplygin. The center was in charge of research in fluid mechanics as applied to, for example, aviation, hydraulic machine building, shipbuilding, and industrial aerodynamics.
Research in mechanics is also conducted at the Institute of Problems in Mechanics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Moscow and the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of the academy’s Siberian Division in Novosibirsk, as well as at Moscow State University, Leningrad State University, the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, and other higher educational institutions. It is also carried out at scientific research institutes of the academies of sciences of the Union republics and at specialized institutes of various ministries and departments.
Continuum mechanics was the main area of research in the first half of the 20th century. Initially, substantial progress in continuum mechanics was associated with the application of the methods of the theory of functions of a complex variable to the solution of problems in such mechanics.
In the late 1960’s and the early 1970’s, scientists focused their efforts mainly on the refinement of the main fundamental concepts of mechanical processes and on the more thorough reflection of the physicochemical nature of the behavior and interaction of bodies under extreme conditions. Optimum conditions for technological processes and inertial systems are being studied. Research methods with the use of computers are being improved; in particular, standard programs are being developed for the solution of new problems in mechanics.
In the USSR, all-Union congresses on theoretical and applied mechanics have been held regularly since 1960. The international ties of Soviet scientists who specialize in mechanics have been extensively developed. Beginning with the first International Congress on Mechanics, which was held in the Netherlands in 1924, Soviet scientists have taken part in the work of such congresses. The 13th International Congress on Mechanics was held in Moscow in 1972. Soviet participation in international congresses and the organization of all-Union congresses are coordinated by the National Committee for Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of the USSR, which was established in 1956.
GENERAL MECHANICS. Stability theory and control theory were the main subdivisions of analytical mechanics that were developed in the 20th century. Stability theory is closely related to general qualitative methods of analyzing differential equations. Control theory has become an independent subdivision of mechanics.
A substantial contribution to Liapunov’s theory of stability was made by N. G. Chetaev, who proposed an efficient method for the construction of Liapunov functions and set forth a general theorem of the instability of motion. On the basis of his theorem, Chetaev obtained the converse of Lagrange’s theorem of the stability of equilibrium. Important results were obtained by N. N. Krasovskii and V. V. Rumiantsev in the development of the second Liapunov method and in the proof of existence theorems, by G. V. Kamenkov and I. G. Malkin in the study of stability in critical cases, and by N. P. Erugin in the development of the first Liapunov method.
In the classical subdivisions of analytical mechanics, a generalization of Gauss’ principle of least constraint was obtained. Chetaev and N. E. Kochin analyzed methods of removing constraints on systems. A. N. Kolmogorov and V. I. Arnol’d worked out perturbation theory and the theory of dynamic stability. V. V. Vagner developed the geometry of nonholonomic manifolds. The dynamics of nonholonomic systems and the dynamics of systems with nonideal constraints were developed by such scientists as Iu. I. Neimark and N. A. Fufaev.
The dynamics of gyroscopes and of gyroscopic systems and the related theory of inertial navigation were extensively developed, especially after the 1930’s and 1940’s. Research in gyroscope dynamics was conducted by such scientists as Krylov, B. V. Bulgakov, A. Iu. Ishlinskii, E. L. Nikolai, and Ia. N. Roitenberg; Ishlinskii contributed to the theory of inertial navigation. New problems in the dynamics of rigid bodies filled with liquid were considered by, for example, N. N. Moiseev and Rumiantsev. In connection with the study of the motion and attitude control of artificial satellites, research in the dynamics of space flight was carried out, notably by D. E. Okhotsimskii and T. M. Eneev.
The theory of vibrations constitutes a broad subdivision of general mechanics. The foundations for theoretical and experimental research in nonlinear vibrations were laid and developed in the late 1930’s and the early 1940’s by two major schools that achieved international distinction: the school founded by L. I. Mandel’shtam and N. D. Papaleksi and the school established by N. M. Krylov and N. N. Bogoliubov. The Mandel’shtam-Papaleksi school, which included A. A. Andronov, A. A. Vitt, and S. E. Khaikin, was characterized by the use of the topological methods of the qualitative theory of differential equations. In particular, Andronov conducted fundamental work on the theory of self-induced vibrations and the method of point mappings. The work of the Krylov-Bogoliubov school, which included Iu. A. Mitropol’skii, was based on the use of the theory of asymptotic expansions.
Control theory, which developed rapidly in the 1950’s and whose origins lie in automatic control theory, is closely associated with applications of mechanics in engineering and with problems of stability, vibration, and gyroscopic systems. The most important present-day problem in mechanics and allied disciplines is optimum control theory.
Research in the theory of machines and mechanisms is closely related to general mechanics (see Technical sciences: Machine science).
MECHANICS OF LIOUIDS AND GASES. In the 1920’s and 1930’s, research in the hydrodynamics of an incompressible fluid developed mainly in the spirit of the classical work of the Zhukovskii-Chaplygin school. In wing theory, flows past airfoil profiles and cascades were studied, thin-wing theory was developed, and a number of simple unsteady-state problems pertaining to vibrations of a wing of round planform were considered. Problems of the impact of a body on water and problems of hydroplaning were solved by various specialists, including V. V. Golubev, M. V. Keldysh, Kochin, M. A. Lavrent’ev, and L. I. Sedov. The vortex theory of propellers was worked out by V. P. Vetchinkin and N. N. Poliakhov.
In the postwar period and especially in the 1960’s and 1970’s, the further development of wing theory and—primarily—the introduction of high-speed computers made it possible to analyze complex unsteady-state problems of the flow past a wing by investigating the rollup of a vortex sheet. Such research was conducted by S. M. Belotserkovskii.
Substantial results were obtained in the hydrodynamics of flows with free surfaces. A rigorous theory of finite-amplitude surface waves was set forth in the 1920’s by A. I. Nekrasov. Much research in the linear theory of waves, including tide waves, and in wave drag was carried out in the 1930’s, notably by Keldysh, Kochin, and L. N. Sretenskii. Research in the nonlinear theory of waves was performed by such specialists as Kochin, Moiseev, Ia. E. Sekerzh-Zen’kovich, and Sretenskii. A. N. Krylov’s world-famous work on the theory of the pitching of ships was further developed in the works of M. D. Khaskind. Major advances were achieved in the theory of liquid jets; Nekrasov studied jet flow past curvilinear obstacles, and D. A. Efros investigated retrograde jet flow.
Lavrent’ev developed the theory of shaped charges. He also provided a series of rigorous mathematical results in the theory of solitary waves and the theory of jets.
Beginning in the late 1930’s, the methods of Chaplygin’s adiabatic approximation were used in subsonic aerodynamics. Sedov, S. A. Khristianovich, and I. M. Iur’ev provided an approximate method for calculating the flow past an airfoil profile and, later, rigorous solutions for the linear adiabatic approximation.
In 1924 and 1925, Kochin studied strong discontinuities in a compressible flow. In the 1930’s, F. I. Frankl’ developed a method of characteristics for supersonic flows. Work in the 1940’s was devoted mainly to the linear theory of steady and unsteady flows; it included E. A. Krasil’shchikov’s study of the problem of a wing of finite span. Later analytical work by such specialists as A. A. Nikol’skii, N. A. Stezkin, and Khristianovich dealt with the qualitative analysis of exact equations and the study of flows similar to well-known rigorous solutions.
In the 1950’s, much work was done on variational methods for determining the shapes of bodies having extremal characteristics. Substantial results in the theory of transonic flows were obtained by S. V. Fal’kovich and Frankl’. Investigations of flows with extremely high supersonic velocities, or hypersonic velocities, became an independent subdivision of gas dynamics. Contributions to the study of hypersonic flows were made by S. V. Vallander, V. V. Sychev, and G, G. Chernyi.
During the 1960’s and 1970’s, a new area of research was developed by such specialists as K. I. Babanko, O. M. Belotserkovskii, S. K. Godunov, and A. A. Dorodnitsyn. It is associated with the numerical solution, by means of high-speed computers, of problems of supersonic flows past bodies—including flows in which subsonic velocity regions are formed—and problems of flows in pipes or conduits. Dorodnitsyn’s method of integral relations was of great importance for the development of numerical calculations.
The theory of unsteady gas flows is an important subdivision of gas dynamics. In 1946, Sedov obtained a solution to the problem of a strong explosion. Such specialists as Ia. B. Zel’dovich, A. S. Kompaneets, lu. P. Raizer, and K. P. Staniukovich developed the theory of blast-wave propagation, investigated the propagation and structure of shock fronts, and studied the physics of Shockwaves.
The theory of turbulent jets and wakes, which was developed by such specialists as G. M. Abramovich and L. A. Vulis, is of practical importance. Flows in submerged subsonic and supersonic jets have been studied, as have been subsonic and supersonic coflowing streams. Single-phase and two-phase jets have been considered with the effects of nonequilibrium physical and chemical changes and the effects of the unsteady nature of the flow taken into account. In the late 1960’s and the early 1970’s, the theory of the flow in substantially nonideal coflowing supersonic jets was developed, notably by V. S. Avduevskii, E. A. Ashratov, E. N. Bondarev, I. P. Ginzburg, and M. Ia. Iudelovich.
Beginning in the late 1950’s, the aerodynamics of rarefied gases was rapidly developed by such specialists as Vallander and M. N. Kogan.
Considerable advances were achieved in the hydrodynamics of a viscous fluid. In connection with the study of the interaction of a liquid or gas flow with a body, research in boundary-layer theory was conducted, notably by Golubev, Dorodnitsyn, L. S. Leibenzon, L. G. Loitsianskii, and Slezkin. Efficient one-parameter and multiparameter methods for the approximate calculation of a laminar boundary layer were worked out, as were the theory of a turbulent boundary layer and the aerodynamics of a boundary layer in a supersonic flow.
The development of modern technology required studies of heat transfer between a gas and a body during motion at high supersonic velocities, calculations of physical and chemical processes in a boundary layer at extremely high temperatures, and the development of heat-insulation methods. The problem of heat transfer in a boundary-layer flow at a melting or evaporating surface, with nonequilibrium physical and chemical changes taken into account, was solved by such specialists as Avduevskii, N. K. Anfimov, G. I. Petrov, lu. V. Polezhaev, and G. A. Tirskii.
The work of L. V. Keller and A. A. Fridman in the 1920’s on the foundations of the statistical theory of turbulence was a contribution to turbulence theory; Fridman and Keller considered moments in time when characteristics of a turbulent flow are coupled. In 1941, Kolmogorov created the theory of locally isotropic turbulence. Major contributions to the development of turbulence theory were made by Loitsianskii, M. D. Millionshchikov, A. S. Monin, A. M. Obukhov, and A. M. Iaglom.
The use of techniques based on similarity theory and on dimensional analysis was essential for many subdivisions of the mechanics of liquids and gases. Techniques of these types were developed by Sedov.
A new subdivision of fluid dynamics, called magnetohydrodynamics, arose in the 1950’s. Magnetohydrodynamics deals with flows in electromagnetic fields and, in particular, the dynamics of a plasma. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics has been developed, along with applications to flight dynamics and to the design of various magnetohydrodynamic systems, for example, generators, separators, and engines.
In the subdivisions of fluid dynamics that deal with special problems, major advances were achieved in the theory of the motion of liquids and gases in porous media, which constitutes such a subdivision. In the 1920’s, N. N. Pavlovskii systematically introduced the methods of the theory of analytic functions into the hydrodynamics of groundwater. The most general methods for solving two-dimensional problems in the theory of groundwater movement were developed by P. Ia. Kochina and S. N. Numerov. Unsteady-state problems were studied, notably by G. I. Barenblatt and N. N. Verigin. The foundations of subterranean fluid dynamics as applied to the oil and gas industry were laid by Leibenzon and were developed by such specialists as B. B. Lapuk, V. N. Nikolaevskii, I. A. Charnyi, and V. N. Shchelkachev.
The dynamics of the atmosphere and ocean has become an independent discipline. It deals with the movement of air and water masses over large regions and takes into account heat transfer and the rotation of the earth (see below: Meteorology).
A broad group of problems in the mechanics of liquids and gases is associated with various aspects of the transport and movement of mixtures; in this case, the term “transport” refers to such phenomena as diffusion, mass transfer, and heat transmission. In this field, beginning in the 1960’s, important results were obtained in the theory of combustion and detonation by such specialists as Zel’dovich, L. D. Landau, N. N. Semenov, R. I. Soloukhin, and K. I. Shchelkin. The theory of combustion and detonation involves physics and chemistry as well as mechanics.
In connection with various practical problems, hydraulics has been rapidly developed since the 1920’s.
Industrial aerodynamics has been the subject of much research, notably by Abramovich, A. S. Ginevskii, Ginzburg, G. L. Grodzovskii, G. S. Samoilovich, G. Iu. Stepanov, and K. A. Ushakov.
MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE SOLIDS. In the 1930’s, research in the mechanics of deformable solids dealt mainly with the theory of elasticity and with structural mechanics. Methods for investigating the two-dimensional problem of elasticity theory and problems of the twisting and bending of rods by means of the theory of functions of a complex variable were developed by G. V. Kolosov and N. I. Muskhelishvili. Such methods had a tremendous influence on the subsequent development of many allied subdivisions of mechanics. Applications of methods based on integral equations by Muskhelishvili, S. G. Mikhlin, and D. I. Sherman were important for the solution of problems of a mixed nature and problems for multiply connected regions. Complex representations of the two-dimensional problem were generalized to the case of anisotropic media by S. G. Lekhnitskii.
B. G. Galerkin, A. I. Lur’e, and P. F. Papkovich investigated general forms of the integral representation of the equations of elasticity theory by means of three biharmonic functions or four harmonic functions. Their work opened the way to the solution of three-dimensional problems for thick plates and shells.
Galerkin solved a broad class of problems of the equilibrium of plates. A. L. Gol’denveizer, N. A. Kil’chevskii, Lur’e, Kh. M. Mushtari, and V. V. Novozhilov completed the formulation of the principles for the construction of linear shell theory. V. Z. Vlasov proposed approximate methods that combine the techniques of structural mechanics and elasticity theory. N. M. Beliaev’s study of the behavior of a beam subjected to periodic longitudinal and transverse loading contributed to the development of the theory of the dynamic stability of structures. Substantial results pertaining to the theory of flutter were obtained by M. V. Keldysh and E. P. Grossman. Approximate methods based on the use of variational principles were developed to a considerable extent. The Bubnov-Galerkin method has been especially widely used.
In addition to the theory of elasticity, the following new disciplines were first developed in the 1930’s: the theory of plasticity, the theory of creep, and soil mechanics. In the theory of plasticity, A. A. Gvozdev obtained theorems pertaining to upper and lower bounds on the load-bearing capacity of ideally plastic bodies. In soil mechanics, A. A. Novotortsev and V. V. Sokolovskii investigated free-flowing media, while N. M. Gersevanov and V. A. Florin studied the consolidation of saturated soils.
During the Great Patriotic War, research was conducted by L. A. Galin in contact problems of elasticity theory, by I. N. Vekua, Vlasov, Gol’denveizer, Lur’e, Novozhilov, and Iu. N. Rabotnov in shell theory, and by A. Iu. Ishlinskii and Sokolovskii in the theories of viscoelasticity and plasticity. Galin and Sokolovskii obtained the first solutions to problems of elastoplasticity. A. A. Il’iushin developed the deformation theory of plasticity and proposed a method of successive approximations for the solution of problems in the theory. Kh. A. Rakhmutulin and G. S. Shapiro provided solutions to dynamic problems of elastoplastic-wave propagation. Ia. E. Frenkel’ developed a theory of the propagation of disturbances in media saturated with water.
Beginning in the 1950’s, the center of research activity shifted to new subdivisions of mechanics, although work in the classical areas was actively continued. The main achievements in elasticity theory included the construction of a general nonlinear theory by Novozhilov and L. I. Sedov and the development of nonlinear shell theory, notably by K. Z. Galimov, Mushtari, and A. V. Pogorelov. New approaches to the general theory of elastic stability were worked out by Novozhilov from the standpoint of nonlinear elasticity theory, by Ishlinskii from the standpoint of linear elasticity theory, by V. I. Zubov and A. A. Movchan from that of Liapunov’s stability theory, and by V. V. Bolotin, A. S. Vol’mir, I. I. Vorovich, and A. R. Rzhanitsyn from that of statistical methods. Further achievements were made in the theory of the dynamic stability of elastic systems subjected to periodic forces (notably by Bolotin and I. I. Gol’denblat) and of elastic systems subjected to dynamic loading (notably by Ishlinskii and M. A. Lavrent’ev).
Efficient methods for solving problems of elastic-wave propagation in stratified media were developed by such specialists as L. M. Brekhovskikh, V. I. Keilis-Borok, and G. I. Petrashen’. Problems of the vibration of plates or shells that interact with a gas or a liquid were analyzed in detail, notably by Bolotin and E. I. Grigoliuk. Variational methods in the theory of plasticity were proposed by L. M. Kachanov, and the theory of the stability of elastoplastic bodies was set forth by V. D. Kliushnikov and other specialists.
Much work is being carried out by such specialists as N. Kh. Arutiunian, Gvozdev, Il’iushin, Kachanov, and Rabotnov with respect to the theory of the creep of metals, concrete, and polymers. Extensive research in the mechanics of composites has been conducted, notably by Bolotin, A. L. Rabinovich, and Rabotnov.
PERIODICALS. The following Soviet periodicals deal or have dealt with mechanics: Prikladnaia matematika i mekhanika (Applied Mathematics and Mechanics; since 1933), hvestiia Akademii nauk SSSR—Otdelenie tekhnicheskikh nauk (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR—Division of Technical Sciences; 1937–58), Mekhanika i mashinostroenie (Mechanics and Machine Building; 1959–64), Mekhanika (Mechanics; since 1965), Mekhanika zhidkosti i gaza (Mechanics of Liquids and Gases; since 1966), Mekhanika tverdogo tela (Mechanics of Solids; since 1966), Prikladnaia mekhanika (Applied Mechanics; since 1955), Zhurnal prikladnoi mekhaniki i tekhnicheskoi fiziki (Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics; since 1960), Magnitnaia gidrodinamika (Magnetohydrodynamics; since 1965), Mekhanika polimerov (Mechanics of Polymers; since 1965), and Problemy prochnosti (Problems of Strength; since 1969).

Bibliography

Istoriia mekhaniki s drevneishikh vremen do kontsa XVIII v. Edited by A. T. Grigor’ian and I. B. Pogrebysski. Moscow, 1971.
Moiseev, N. D. Ocherki razvitiia mekhaniki. Moscow, 1961.
Kosmodem’ianskii, A. A. Ocherkipo istorii mekhaniki, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1964.
Mekhanika v SSSR za 50 let, vols. 1–4. Moscow, 1968–73.
Loitsianskii, L. G. Mekhanika zhidkosti i gaza, 4th ed. Moscow, 1973.
Chemical sciences. The development of chemistry in Russia began in the mid-18th century, when M. V. Lomonosov laid the foundations of the theory that matter is composed of “corpuscles” (molecules), the mechanical motions of which determine the properties of matter. Lomonosov also formulated the law of the conservation of matter and motion, and he carried out a large number of chemical experiments and applied studies. He was the first to define physical chemistry as the science that explains, “on the basis of the concepts and experiments of physics, that which takes place in mixed bodies during chemical operations.”
Physical methods in chemistry underwent considerable development beginning in the first half of the 19th century. In 1803, V. V. Petrov carried out the first chemical reactions in an electric arc, and in 1838, B. S. Iakobi (M. H. von Jacobi) set forth the principles of electroplating. Research on the microstructure of steels was begun by P. P. Anosov in 1831. In 1840, G. I. Gess (G. H. Hess) discovered the law of constant heat summation (Hess’s law), and thereafter the study of the thermal phenomena that accompany chemical reactions developed on a solid foundation; N. N. Beketov and V. F. Luginin, for example, made important contributions to thermochemistry. In the field of inorganic chemistry, research on natural raw materials and the properties of elements and compounds (particularly the platinum metals) began in the mid-19th century, and in 1844, K. K. Klaus discovered the element ruthenium.
Methods of studying and synthesizing organic compounds were devised. For example, quinone was synthesized in 1838 by A. A. Voskresenskii, and aniline was produced synthetically by N. N. Zinin in 1842. The theory of chemical structure, the rudiments of which were first published by A. M. Butlerov in 1861, became the foundation of organic chemistry. Developing Butlerov’s theory, V. V. Markovnikov in 1869 established the order in which certain atoms or groups of atoms add to unsaturated hydrocarbons.
D. I. Mendeleev’s discovery of the periodic law in 1869 marked a turning point in the development of chemistry. The law served as the basis for the systematization of all chemical elements and their compounds; moreover, it made possible prediction of the existence and properties of a number of elements that were then unknown. Research that was undertaken in order to prove the periodic law stimulated the development of concepts concerning the complex structure and divisibility of the atom. Important studies of chemical solutions were conducted by Mendeleev between 1865 and 1887 and by D. P. Konovalov between 1881 and 1884; the latter established the relationship between the composition of a liquid solution and the composition and pressure of its saturated vapor.
The research of such scientists as N. S. Kurnakov on applications of chemical equilibria became the basis for physicochemical analysis, whose principles were established in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. N. A. Menshutkin’s studies (1870–90), which were of great importance in the field of chemical kinetics, dealt with the dependence of reaction rates on the composition of the reagents and the nature of the solvent; such scientists as A. N. Bakh and N. A. Shilov further developed the study of kinetics in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1903, M. S. Tsvet discovered a method of chromatography, and in 1906, L. A. Chugaev established important regularities in the formation of complex compounds.
Markovnikov (beginning in 1881) and N. D. Zelinskii (beginning in 1886) produced a number of works of extreme importance to the development of organic chemistry, and they laid the foundations for a new branch of chemistry—petrochemistry. In the 1880’s, A. E. Favorskii began studying unsaturated hydrocarbons. By synthesizing sulfo derivatives of anthraquinone in 1891, M. A. Il’inskii laid the foundations of the chemistry of anthraquinone dyes, and in 1913, G. S. Petrov designed and implemented a method for the industrial production of carbolite, a phenol-formaldehyde resin. Noteworthy contributions to the development of techniques for synthesizing organic compounds were made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by A. M. Zaitsev, G. G. Gustavson, and V. N. Ipat’ev.
Fundamental research in geochemistry was carried out by V. I. Vernadskii and A. E. Fersman, and research in agrochemistry and photosynthesis was conducted by D. N. Prianishnikov and K. A. Timiriazev.
Extensive and systematic research in chemistry and chemical engineering was not begun until the Soviet era, however. The years 1918 and 1919 saw the founding of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Analysis, the Institute for the Study of Platinum and Other Noble Metals, the Central Chemical Laboratory of the Supreme Council on the National Economy (now the L. Ia. Karpov Physical Chemistry Institute), and the Institute of Applied Chemistry. In the early 1920’s the Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and the Institute of Pure Chemical Reagents were established.
One of the goals of the plan worked out, under the leadership of V. I. Lenin, in 1920 by the State Commission for the Electrification of Russia (GOELRO) was to increase the use of chemicals in the national economy through accelerated development of the chemical industry, whose output was to be raised to 250 percent of the 1913 level by the year 1930. To direct the restoration and development of the chemical industry, Lenin enlisted the country’s finest chemists, and with them he worked to solve the problems of organizing new scientific institutions and creating the administrative bodies of chemical plants. Lenin himself studied the feasibility of expanding the output of chemical products; at his suggestion a by-product coke industry was established in the Kuznetsk Coal Basin, salt deposits in Siberia and Kara-Bogaz-Gol were developed, prospecting for phosphorites and potassium salts was begun, and a process for the production of radium preparations was developed. N. P. Gorbunov rendered great assistance to Lenin in these endeavors; a chemist by education and a former student of Chugaev’s, Gorbunov was administrative head of operations for the Council of People’s Commissars at the time.
An extremely important role in the development of chemistry in the USSR was played by decrees issued by the party and government—in particular, the decree of the Central Committee of the ACP(B) concerning the work of the Northern Chemical Trust (1929) and a number of decrees of party congresses, party conferences, and plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Also of great importance were several resolutions of the May 1958 plenum of the Central Committee, which indicated specific tasks to be fulfilled in the development of efficient processes for making such chemical products as synthetics and fertilizers; the resolutions also outlined measures for ensuring the fulfillment of the tasks.
The geographic distribution of chemical scientific institutions changed with the development of the national economy and culture. The network of scientific institutions was expanded and decentralized as a result of the development of the natural resources of Siberia and the Far East, the dramatic rise in the people’s educational level, and the appearance of trained scientists in the national republics. Complex problems in chemistry and chemical engineering came to be studied under the coordinated plans of scientific research institutes.
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. Research is being conducted in the USSR in all branches of physical chemistry.
A major contribution to the development of chemical kinetics was made by N. N. Semenov and his students. Between 1926 and 1933 they formulated the currently accepted theory of chain reactions. They also advanced the concept of branched chain reactions, which explains the dramatic variation in the rates of chemical reactions—ranging from rates practically too slow for measurement to the phenomenon of instantaneous chain combustion (explosion)—that result from only slight changes in the critical phenomena (outside parameters of the system). In addition, Semenov developed the idea that chain termination occurs as a result of the recombination of active atoms or the capture of such atoms by the wall of the reaction vessel.
Iu. B. Khariton and Z. S. Val’ta furthered the study of the mechanisms of branched chain reactions through their experiments with the oxidation of phosphorus; N. M. Emanuel’ performed similar experiments with carbon disulfide, and Semenov, V. N. Kondrat’ev, A. B. Nalbandian, and V. V. Voevodskii experimented with hydrogen. Kondrat’ev detected above-equilibrium concentrations of free hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals in a hydrogen flame, thus providing the first experimental proof of the theory of chain reactions. Semenov, Ia. B. Zel’dovich, and D. A. Frank-Kamenetskii developed the heat theory of the propagation of a flame. Zel’dovich made important contributions to the theory of detonation, and A. R. Beliaev used Semenov’s heat theory to explain the combustion of condensed systems. Soviet physical chemists laid the foundations of the theory of turbulent combustion.
The investigation of gas-phase fluorination by Semenov and A. E. Shilov led to their discovery of another type of chain reaction, involving the energetic branching of chains and the generation of free radicals by excited particles formed in the exothermic reactions propagating the chain. S. M. Kogarko and colleagues provided experimental proof that excited particles can cause a chain reaction to continue. A. D. Abkin and V. I. Gol’-danskii discovered the occurrence of chemical reactions near absolute zero, and Gol’danskii was the first to prove the tunneling of entire molecular groups in chemical reactions.
Great progress was made by Emanuel’ in the study of the slow reactions known as degenerate chain reactions. A complete, quantitative mechanism of the self-oxidation of hydrocarbons in the liquid phase was proposed, and single-step reactions constituting the initiation, propagation, and branching of oxidative chain reactions were discovered and studied at the quantitative level. Critical phenomena affecting liquid-phase oxidation were detected and explained. Moreover, the influence of heterogeneous factors on the mechanism of such processes was established.
E. A. Shilov advanced the idea that intermediate cyclic complexes can be formed in organic reactions. Ia. K. Syrkin conducted important research in the physical aspects of chemical reactions.
The first research in the USSR on the theory of catalysis was conducted by Zelinskii and his students, including A. A. Balandin and B. A. Kazanskii. Balandin developed the multiplet theory of catalysis, and S. Z. Roginskii and F. F. Vol’kenshtein developed the electronic theory of catalysis in semiconductors. The hypothesis of a chain mechanism in heterogeneous catalytic reactions was advanced by Semenov, Voevodskii, and Vol’kenshtein.
Between 1930 and 1960 such chemists as Frank-Kamenetskii, V. A. Roiter, and G. K. Boreskov helped develop the principles of the macrokinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions. M. I. Temkin proposed theories concerning the kinetics of reactions on nonuniform surfaces and the kinetics of multistep steady-state reactions, including catalytic reactions; these theories have been used to describe a number of industrially important processes, such as the synthesis of ammonia and the oxidation of ethylene.
In 1964, V. M. Griaznov, V. S. Smirnov, and co-workers discovered that both the cleavage of hydrogen molecules and the joining of hydrogen atoms occur on membrane catalysts that are permeable to hydrogen.
An important role in the development of the theory of catalysis has been played by research conducted in macrokinetics with special emphasis on diffusion and “physico-chemical” hydrodynamics. Industrial catalysts are currently being studied, with new research methods being devised, by M. F. Nagiev’s school at the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR and by D. V. Sokol’skii of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR.
Soviet chemists have made a considerable contribution to the study of homogeneous catalytic reactions. Of particular importance is the theory of homogeneous catalysis by carbonic acids and other substances that can act as donors and acceptors in organic solvents; the theory was worked out by various scientists, including E. A. Shilov. A. E. Shilov, together with M. E. Vol’-pin, demonstrated the possibility of fixing atmospheric nitrogen with organometallic catalysts. Making use of research on π-complexes of platinum metals, Syrkin and co-workers oxidized olefins to carbonyl compounds. Such scientists as I. V. Berezin have made important contributions to the structural and functional modeling of biocatalytic systems.
Systematic research is being conducted on radioactive substances. The theory of radiochemical oxidation was developed by such scientists as Bakh and Z. Ia. Pshezhetskii. The use of electron paramagnetic resonance enabled V. I. Spitsyn to study the intermediates formed when certain molecules are exposed to radiation and to confirm the presence of stabilized free electrons in frozen irradiated solutions.
Research in plasma chemistry has developed rapidly since 1960. The general principles and quantitative relationships of nonequilibrium kinetics have been established. Moreover, plasmochemical processes are being developed for making materials for microelectronics and producing acetylene and pigmentary TiO2.
Chemical transformations caused by shock waves have also been studied, and it has been shown that such substances as diamond and borazon can be produced through shock compression. Chemical changes that are caused by nuclear processes have been determined, and ways of stabilizing “hot” atoms of tritium, carbon, nitrogen, and other elements in various phases and media have been established. The principles of the chemistry of the positron, positronium, and muonium have been established, as well as the principles of the chemistry of mesonic atoms and molecules.
Basic research in photochemistry was carried out by A. N. Terenin, who was the first scientist to give a clear idea of the mechanism of the initial event of a photochemical reaction. The influence of light gases on the absorption of photons by complex molecules was discovered, a classification based on intramolecular interactions of electronic and vibrational states was proposed, a spectral study of intermolecular reactions in condensed media was carried out, and the problem of the influence of solvents on the intensity of molecular spectra was solved. The discovery by Terenin in 1924 that salt molecules are cleaved on exposure to light contributed to the development of molecular spectroscopy.
M. V. Vol’kenshtein investigated infrared and Raman spectra. In the 1940’s V. N. Kondrat’ev contributed to knowledge of elementary processes that occur during photochemical transformations. The mechanisms of photoionization in the gas phase were studied for many photochemical reactions, and many substances with specific properties were photochemically synthesized—including polymethylmethacrylate glasses (by S. R. Rafikov), sensitizers (by A. I. Kipriianov and I. I. Levkoev), and various semiconductors and photochromic compounds. A new chemical system for strengthening light signals was devised on the basis of enzyme reactions.
An important contribution to the development of electrochemistry was made by the school of A. N. Frumkin. As early as the 1920’s Frumkin combined problems of electrochemistry with the study of electrocapillary phenomena. He described the state of an adsorbed layer (Frumkin’s isotherm) in relation to the jump in potential at a metal-solution interface, and he developed the theory of the electric double layer. He also laid the foundations of modern electrochemical kinetics and introduced the concept of zero-charge potential as the basic characteristic of metallic electrodes.
In the period from the 1950’s to the 1970’s, Ia. M. Kolotyrkin ascertained the role of the formation of complexes in corrosion, established the involvement of water molecules in the electrochemical stages of the dissolution of metals, and proposed a number of methods for preventing corrosion.
In the 1960’s and 1970’s advances were made in understanding the elementary events of electrochemical processes on the basis of quantum-mechanical theory. B. P. Nikol’skii and his school formulated a theory of the generation of potential on ion-selective membranes and developed new types of electrodes.
P. A. Rebinder’s school developed new areas of colloid chemistry. For example, it established the principles of the physical chemistry of surfactants and the physicochemical mechanics of disperse systems. The Rebinder effect was discovered (that is, the deformation of solids and the decrease in their mechanical strength when exposed to an active medium or when small amounts of adsorbing agents are added). New concepts were developed concerning the types of spatial structures in disperse systems, and a number of Theological characteristics of disperse systems were established. B. V. Deriagin discovered the disjoining pressure of thin films in colloidal systems; on the basis of this discovery the theory of the stability of lyophobic solutions was developed, the mechanism of flotation of mineral particles was explained, and the theory of electrophoresis was refined.
Systematic research on adsorption is being conducted under the direction of M. M. Dubinin, who has carried on the work of N. A. Shilov. As a result, a practically universal quantitative theory of sorption—the theory of volume filling—has been created. Important information on the kinetics of adsorption has been derived, the mechanism of physical and chemical sorption in many systems has been established, and methods of determining the activity of sorbents and the nature of their surfaces have been devised.
Principles of the science of solutions were established by Mendeleev and D. P. Konovalov and developed by such scientists as Kurnakov, I. A. Kablukov, and V. A. Kistiakovskii. Kurnakov and his school found that certain information could be expressed by a singular point on a composition-properties diagram, and they introduced the concept of a solution as a one-phase system of variable composition. The physical aspects of the interaction between ions and a given medium were systematically investigated by V. K. Semenchenko, A. I. Brodskii, N. A. Izmailov, O. Ia. Samoilov, A. F. Kapustinskii, and K. B. latsimirskii.
The mechanisms of hydrogen bonding in solutions and the formation of complexes have also been studied, and in 1950 two types of ionic hydration were discovered. The phenomena of the complete and incomplete transfer of protons during acid-base reactions have been studied, and a unified theory of acid-base titration in nonaqueous solutions has been formulated. In 1940, S. A. Shchukarev studied the periodicity of the properties of compounds in solutions. Between 1930 and 1940, M. I. Usanovich and A. I. Shatenshtein developed one of the most general theories of acids and bases.
Research has also been conducted on the chemistry of crystals. G. B. Bokii determined criteria for the composition of an ordered system, and N. V. Belov established a number of regularities in the formation of silicate structures. The chemistry of organic crystals is being studied by A. I. Kitaigorodskii.
The research of Syrkin and M. E. Diatkina on quantum chemistry is being continued by their students; Syrkin and Diatkina’s work included calculating the energy levels and properties of a number of substances and studying the nature of bonds in crystals. A highly advanced theory of aromatic π-complexes has been developed. In 1974, I. B. Bersuker proposed a new method of calculating the electronic structure and properties of molecular systems containing heavy atoms. Such scientists as B. M. Kedrov have studied and described the evolution of concepts underlying principal chemical laws and the most important chemical definitions.
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Research in inorganic chemistry has been directed toward establishing the scientific principles of the production of materials that are important to the economy (such as metal alloys), exploiting the country’s salt resources, and, in particular, developing industrial methods for processing raw materials extracted from salt mines. The study of reactions in solid solutions served as the basis for the creation of the chemistry of metals; scientists involved in this branch of chemistry have included Kurnakov, G. G. Urazov, I. N. Lepeshkov, N. V. Ageev, G. I. Chufarov, I.I. Komilov, and E. M. Savitskii. The research of Spitsyn, T. M. Serbin, and G. A. Meerson on the chemistry and production of tungsten and molybdenum culminated in the development of an industrial method of producing tungsten and molybdenum wire. Spitsyn devised a way of producing metallic beryllium and beryllium compounds, and A. V. Novoselova and co-workers studied the chemical and physical properties of the element and its compounds.
Methods have also been devised for producing oxides, hydrides, nitrides, carbides, borides, and silicides of metals and making solutions of these metallic compounds in one another. Such methods have made possible the development of materials with special properties, such as particular hardness or high heat resistance. In addition, Iu. A. Buslaev has proposed ways of synthesizing oxonitrides, oxoborides, and oxophosphides of the transition metals at low temperatures.
Research on complex compounds has been extremely productive. In the 1920’s, Chugaev synthesized the pentamine compounds—predicted earlier by theory—of tetravalent platinum. Methods of producing all six of the platinum metals in their pure state were developed. Research that had been conducted by Chugaev was continued by the Moscow school (in particular, I.I. Cherniaev) and the Leningrad school (in particular, A. A. Grinberg). The main achievements of the former school were elaborating the theory of the trans effect and developing the chemistry of platinum, rhodium, iridium, uranium, and the transuranium elements; the main achievements of the latter school were determining the stereochemistry of palladium and elaborating the theory of the acid-base properties of complex compounds. An important class of complex substances—the heteropoly compounds of such elements as molybdenum, tungsten, and niobium—was studied by A. L. Davidov, K. A. Babko, Z. F. Shakhova, and Spitsyn. The influence of ligands on one another became the focal point of research on the chemistry of complex compounds.
Together with A. V. Ablov, Bersuker proposed a quantum-mechanical interpretation of the trans effect. K. B. latsimirskii discovered the kinetic effect of the influence of ligands on one another and the channels by which the effect is transferred through complex compounds. I. V. Tananaev and B. N. Laskorin have devised methods of using fluorides to purify uranium-containing substances, and they have proposed new methods of obtaining, purifying, and applying rare metals.
Since the 1940’s the chemistry of semiconductors has developed rapidly; prominent scientists in the field have included N. P. Sazhin, D. A. Petrov, I. P. Alimarin, Ia. I. Gerasimov, and Novoselova. Problems of the thorough purification of germanium, silicon, selenium, and tellurium have been solved. Compounds of such types as AIIIBV (nitrides, phosphides, and arsenides), AIIBVI (sulfides and selenides), and AIVBVI (chalcogenides) have been synthesized and studied. Criteria have been established for the prediction of semiconductor properties in many compounds, and methods of producing semiconductor materials have been introduced. Moreover, techniques for producing laser materials have been devised, and new materials are being sought for chemical lasers and lasers based on liquid, glass-forming media.
Substantial results have been achieved in radiochemistry. In 1921 the first radium preparation in the USSR was obtained under the direction of V. G. Khlopin and I. Ia. Bashilov; important research on radioactive elements was conducted later by such scientists as B. A. Nikitin, A. P. Ratner, and I. E. Starik. Khlopin also determined the law governing the distribution of microcomponents between solid and liquid phases; on the basis of this law, radioactive elements can be separated.
Methods of detecting extremely unstable compounds, including compounds containing radon, have also been worked out. The chemistry of the transuranium elements, including plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium, has been studied extensively by such scientists as V. M. Vdovenko, B. P. Nikol’skii, and V. V. Fomin. Compounds of heptavalent neptunium and plutonium were first synthesized in 1967 by N. N. Krot and A. D. German, and compounds of divalent californium, einsteinium, and fermium, as well as monovalent mendelevium, were first synthesized in 1971 by Spitsyn, N. B. Mikheev, and co-workers.
The distribution of radioactive components in melts, at the interface of two liquid phases, and on solid adsorbents has been studied. Several methods of producing radioactive isotopes and tracer compounds and of using them to investigate industrial materials have been developed by An. N. Nesmeianov. N. M. Zhavoronkov has obtained important results in chemistry and chemical engineering pertaining to the stable isotopes of the light elements. G. N. Flero v has synthesized isotopes of the new transuranium elements 104, 105, and 106, and he has proposed ways of separating elements 106 and 107. A radiochemical analysis has been performed on isotopes of cosmic origin in the regolith of the moon, and the samples of lunar soil that were brought back by the Luna spacecraft have been thoroughly examined.
Extensive studies have been made of the country’s natural salt resources, the initial work being done in the 1920’s. A large-scale chemical industry for the production of soda, acids, alkalis, and mineral fertilizers has been created. In the 1930’s, S. I. Vol’fkovich and co-workers developed methods of producing soda and ammonium sulfate from natural mirabilite. In 1936 such scientists as Vol’fkovich and E. V. Britske began working out the scientific principles underlying the production of phosphorus, phosphoric acids, and fertilizers from phosphorites and apatites. Various important products are now being manufactured on a large scale from raw materials obtained from the potassium and magnesium deposits at Solikamsk and the salt deposits in the Volga Region, the Ural Region, Middle Asia, the Ukraine, and Byelorussia. Systematic research on the chemistry of silicates by such scientists as Belov and P.P. Budnikov has served as the basis for establishing many branches of the building-materials industry.
Mathematical models of chemical reactors have been created by such scientists as G. K. Boreskov and M. G. Slin’ko. Such models make possible the production of efficient, high-capacity machinery for the chemical, petrochemical, and petroleum-refining industries.
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY. New types of analysis have been developed by Soviet scientists. These include fractional analysis and drop analysis (1922, N. A. Tananaev), the nondestructive analysis of metals and catalytic kinetic analysis (1958–60, Iatsimirskii), and ultramicroanalysis (1959–60, I. P. Alimarin). Between 1946 and 1949, A. V. Kiselev, K. V. Chmutov, and A. A. Zhukhovitskii introduced and improved techniques of chromatographic analysis.
Optical, electrochemical, and radiochemical analysis have undergone development. Neutron radiation was used for the first time to analyze trace impurities in semiconductor components. In dealing with problems of geochemistry, biogeochemistry, and cosmochemistry, A. P. Vinogradov made an important contribution to the development of the trace analysis of elements and to the study of the isotopic composition of minerals and meteorites. Between 1946 and 1950, problems associated with the use of organic reagents were studied by such Soviet analytical chemists as L. M. Kul’berg, I. M. Korenman, A. P. Terent’ev, and V. I. Kuznetsov.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Research in organic chemistry is highly developed in the USSR.
The various hydrocarbons found in petroleum have been systematically studied by Zelinskii, S. S. Nametkin, S. V. Lebedev, Iu. G. Mamedaliev, A. V. Topchiev, and co-workers. These scientists have devised methods for separating the hydrocarbons and developed low-temperature processes for producing acetylene from methane for dehydrogenating butane and pentane to form butadiene and isoprene, respectively, for dehydrogenating ethyl benzene and isopropyl benzene to form styrene and α-methylstyrene, respectively, and for converting cyclohexane and its homologues to aromatic hydrocarbons. Zelinskii, Kazanskii, and B. L. Moldavskii discovered and studied in detail the C5 and C6 dehydrocyclization of alkanes to the corresponding cyclopentane, cyclopentene, and aromatic hydrocarbons. These reactions, in addition to Zelinskii’s dehydrogenation catalysis, are the most important steps in reforming processes and in the industrial synthesis of benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons.
A large number of experiments have been performed with the hydrogenation of hydrocarbons. Between 1920 and 1930, Lebedev and Kazanskii elucidated the principles underlying hydrogenation catalysis, and in the 1940’s such scientists as A. D. Petrov and R. Ia. Levina synthesized hydrocarbons by converting alcohols first to olefins and then to paraffins. The theory underlying these syntheses was based largely on the discovery of hydropolymerization and hydrocondensation by Zelinskii and Ia. T. Eidus between 1926 and 1948.
For more than 50 years, beginning in the 1880’s, Favorskii’s school studied the isomeric transformations of acetylenic hydrocarbons. The results of these studies made it possible to interconvert acetylenic compounds, allenes, and dienes, to determine the conditions under which these compounds are stable, to study the mechanism of dienes’ isomerization and polymerization, and to find the structural factors that bear on intramolecular shifts of groups. Research on the dimerization and polymerization of acetylenic hydrocarbons and the hydration of the resultant products led to the synthesis of a number of acetylenic alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and steroids by I. N. Nazarov in the 1940’s; this research also led to the synthesis of chloroprene rubber by A. L. Klebanskii and I. M. Dolgopol’skii between 1932 and 1934. Systematic studies of the nitration of hydrocarbons led to the production of many industrially important nitro derivatives by A. I. Titov, S. S. Novikov, and Topchiev between 1940 and 1960.
In 1947, P. G. Sergeev, R. Iu. Udris, and B. D. Kruzhalov devised a method of obtaining acetone and phenol from benzene and propylene, forming cumene as an intermediate. Research on the cracking and alkylation of hydrocarbons made it possible to obtain the isoalkanes that are needed for the production of high-octane gasolines and to produce other hydrocarbons that are used as intermediates in organic syntheses. General methods of synthesizing cyclopropane and cyclobutane and their homologues have been devised by such scientists as N. Ia. Dem’ianov, N. M. Kizhner, and Kazanskii.
Reaction mechanisms have been studied, and conditions determined, for the liquid-phase oxidation of paraffins with the production of fatty acids, alcohols, and aldehydes.
Organoelemental compounds. The study of organoelemental compounds falls in between organic and inorganic chemistry. In the USSR this branch of chemistry is highly developed.
In the 1920’s research was limited mainly to organomagnesium and organosodium compounds. Studies of these compounds were conducted by Zelinskii, P. P. Shorygin, V. V. Chelintsev, and A. P. Terent’ev. Such scientists as K. A. Kocheshkov and B. M. Mikhailov subsequently studied organolithium compounds.
In 1929 a new method of producing organomercury compounds was discovered. Known as the Nesmeianov reaction, it served as the basis for the synthesis of many organic compounds containing heavy metals. In the 1930’s and 1940’s compounds of various elements, including tin, lead, bismuth, thallium, zinc, and antimony, were synthesized by using the method. The properties of the compounds were studied, and new types of reactions discovered, by Al. N. Nesmeianov, Kosheshkov, R. Kh. Freidlina, O. A. Reutov, and co-workers. Various reactions of chloronium, bromonium, and iodonium compounds were also investigated. The research of A. E. Arbuzov laid the foundations of the chemistry of organophosphorus compounds, and B. A. Arbuzov, M. I. Kabachnik, A. V. Kirsanov, and co-workers developed methods of producing organophosphorus insecticides, incombustible polymers, lubricants, and plasticizers.
The chemistry of organofluorides was first studied in the 1940’s by a number of scientists, notably I. L. Knuniants and his school, N. N. Vorozhtsov, A. V. Fokin, A. Ia. Iakubovich, and B. L. Diatkin. The fluorine-containing derivatives of nearly all classes of organic compounds have been obtained, and practical laboratory and industrial methods of synthesizing organofluorides have been worked out. Moreover, scientists have studied the nucleophilic and electrophilic addition of fluorine to unsaturated systems, the nature of the π-bonds in fluorine-containing olefins, the problems of coupling, the anodic fluorination of aromatic compounds, and the direct fluorination of uracil (to produce the antitumor preparation 5-fluorouracil).
Methods of producing organoelemental compounds of the elements of group III of the periodic table (including organoboron compounds) have been worked out by such scientists as Mikhailov. Numerous reactions of metallocene compounds of the transition metals have been studied, including the production of polymers based on ferrocene derivatives.
A number of fundamental theoretical problems in organic chemistry have been solved as a result of research on the chemistry of organoelemental compounds. Nesmeianov and Kabachnik formulated the theory of the dual reactivity of compounds that are not characterized by a classical tautomeric equilibrium. Together with such scientists as G. A. Razuvaev, Nesmeianov has also drawn important conclusions regarding the mechanism of free radical reactions and the relative reactivities of radicals; these conclusions are based on studies of the decomposition of double diazonium salts with the halides of metals and the decomposition of organometallic compounds in solutions.
Heterocyclic compounds. The investigation of heterocyclic compounds was begun by A. E. Chichibabin, who studied the chemistry of pyridine and other nitrogen-containing rings. The research performed by V. M. Rodionov, Zelinskii, and Iu. K. Iur’ev from the 1930’s to the 1950’s provided the basis for scientific concepts of the catalytic interconversions of five-membered heterocyclic compounds. Research on the chemistry of furan and thiophene led to the synthesis of numerous useful derivatives by N. I. Shuikin, Ia. L. Gol’dfarb, S. A. Giller, A. P. Terent’ev, and Iu. A. Zhdanov. Knuniants discovered a new class of heterocyclic compounds—the propiothiolactones. Diverse nitrogen-containing heterocycles have been systematically studied, and many biologically active substances of a heterocyclic nature have been synthesized, including highly efficacious pharmaceuticals and insectofungicides.
Natural compounds. From the 1920’s to the 1940’s research on natural compounds was devoted almost entirely to determining the composition and structure of certain of these compounds—specifically, the terpenes (studied by S. S. Nametkin, A. E. Arbuzov, and B. A. Arbuzov), sugars and cellulose (studied by Shorygin and S. N. Danilov), and the alkaloids (studied by such scientists as A. P. Orekhov, Chichibabin, Rodionov, A. S. Sadykov, and S. Iu. Iunusov).
As early as the 1950’s, however, the focus of research shifted to biological systems, and studies were performed that laid the foundation of bioorganic chemistry. Particular attention was given to biopolymers (proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides) and bioregulators (hormones, vitamins, and antibiotics). The latest physical and physicochemical techniques were used in the research. Such scientists as N. K. Kochetkov investigated the complex structure of glycoproteins and naturally occurring carbohydrates.
HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT COMPOUNDS. The first studies on the synthesis of high-molecular-weight compounds were carried out in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by such scientists as A. M. Butlerov, I. L. Kondakov, and G. S. Petrov. The early research of Lebedev on the polymerization of dienes and allenes (1908–13) made an important contribution to the formulation of the currently held concepts of polymerization. In 1928, Lebedev devised the first method of synthesizing butadiene rubber; industrial production of the material was begun in 1932 through his efforts.
In the early 1930’s, the science of polymers took shape as an independent branch of chemistry, comprising and developing the entire body of knowledge concerning the synthesis of high-molecular-weight compounds, the properties of these compounds, and the properties of bodies constructed from macromolecules. The research of V. A. Kargin played an important role in the development of the science of polymers in the USSR.
S. S. Medvedev and his school discovered that polymerization can take place through the formation of free radicals; they studied the mechanism of free-radical polymerization and formulated the concept of the occurrence of a chain reaction during polymerization.
B. A. Dolgoplosk discovered the oxidation-reduction initiation of polymerization; this important discovery served as the basis for developing the emulsion polymerization method for the industrial synthesis of rubber between 1939 and 1952. Medvedev and Kh. S. Bagdasar’ian made a substantial contribution to the development of the kinetic theory of free-radical polymerization in solutions, and S. Ia. Frenkel’ worked out the statistical principles of polymerization. Methods of controlling free-radical polymerization have been developed through the use of complexing agents that affect the reactivity of monomers and radicals. In addition, such scientists as V. A. Kabanov have simulated matrix biosynthesis by synthesizing macromolecules on matrices from synthetic polymers. Detailed studies have been made of polymerization in the solid phase and polymerization under the action of radiation.
Considerable advances have been made in the study and use of ionic and ionic coordination polymerization. The formation of “living” active centers was first proved by Medvedev in his early research, and he later established important features of the mechanisms of these processes. An important contribution was made by Dolgoplosk and his school to the study of the ionic coordination polymerization of dienes; their work led to the industrial production of stereoregular rubbers. Dolgoplosk later discovered and investigated the stereospecific catalysis of the polymerization of dienes under the influence of π-allyl complexes of the transition metals. Moreover, he determined that the polymerization of cycloolefins proceeds as a chain reaction with the opening of the ring, and he established the carbene mechanism of reactions of this type.
A. A. Korotkov was the first chemist to synthesize 1,4-cis-polyisoprene. N. S. Enikolopov discovered a new elementary event of the transfer of a chain with cleavage; the event characteristically occurs in certain polymerization processes of heterocyclic monomers. Knuniants was among the first scientists to study the polymerization of ∈-caprolactam. N. S. Nametkin’s research led to the creation of polysilicon hydrocarbons.
The research of V. V. Korshak and his school served as the basis for important generalizations concerning the mechanism of polycondensation. A number of new ways of synthesizing polymers were devised, including polyrecombination, dehydropoly-condensation, polyrearylation, and condensation polycyclotrimerization. New polymeric materials, including thermostable polymers, have been produced as a result.
Important advances in the synthesis and production of organoelemental polymers have followed from the pioneering research of K. A. Andrianov, who in 1937 became the first chemist to synthesize polyorganosiloxanes. He and his school subsequently worked out the basic principles of the synthesis of polymers with inorganic chains of molecules, including polyorganometallosiloxanes, and they synthesized thermostable organosilicon polymers, for which many uses have been found. Rigid-chain thermostable polymers have been produced by polycyclocondensation, and the mechanisms of these processes have been elucdated by such scientists as M. M. Koton.
A statistical theory of the reactivity of the links of a polymer chain has been formulated, with the effect of neighboring groups being taken into account. In addition, Soviet chemists have determined the extent to which the properties of block polymers and graft copolymers depend on their supramolecular structure and the structure of the constituent polymeric components. Such research, notably by N. A. Plate, has established the principles of the structural-chemical modification of polymers. Techniques have been developed for the radiochemical modification of polymers by grafting monomers from the gas phase. The characteristics of the radiochemical transformation of polymers have been investigated by such scientists as V. L. Karpov. B. A. Dogadkin has studied the principles of the vulcanization of rubber, and Danilov and Z. A. Rogovin have made an important contribution to the study and chemical modification of cellulose. Emanuel’ and Razuvaev are developing ways of stabilizing polymeric materials.
In the late 1930’s A. P. Aleksandrov, P. P. Kobeko, and Iu. S. Lazurkin carried out fundamental research on the physical properties of polymers; they formulated the kinetic concept of relaxation transitions in polymers acting as amorphous bodies of a special type. The concept was elaborated by Kargin and his school, who developed it into a well-structured system of concepts concerning the three physical states of amorphous polymers.
Studies of the relation between the physicochemical properties of polymers and their molecular and supramolecular structure led to effective methods of modifying plastics, rubbers, and synthetic fibers. Together with Kitaigorodskii and G. L. Slonimskii, Kargin proposed a concept of the role of the supramolecular organization of polymers; he also substantiated the structural mechanics of polymers. S. N. Zhurkov formulated and elaborated ideas concerning the influence of temperature on the strength and mechanical durability of polymers. Work has been done on the regularities underlying the change in the thermochemical properties of polymers upon plastification. A notable discovery was the phenomenon of chemical flow; the laws governing the uniaxial flow of polymers have been studied. G. V. Vinogradov has carried out important research on the rheology of polymers. V. F. Evstratov has studied the relation of the structure and properties of synthetic rubbers to the characteristics of resins produced from them.
The establishment in the late 1930’s of the thermodynamic reversibility of solutions of polymers was of great importance to the development of the theory of such solutions; important contributions in this regard were made by Kargin, Rogovin, and S. P. Papkov. Since the 1950’s new classes of polymers that form liquid-crystalline structures have been studied. V. N. Tsvetkov has developed general and experimental approaches to determining the conformation of individual macromolecules, and Ia. I. Frenkel’ and S. E. Bresler have proposed the first quantitative molecular theory of the conformational state of polymer chains. Vol’-kenshtein has developed the rotational-isomer concept of the flexibility of macromolecules.
Great progress has been made by Topchiev, Papkov, and B. A. Krentsel’ in research on polymers with a coupling system, and important contributions to the study of pharmacologically active polymers and polymers of biomedical significance have been made by such scientists as S. N. Ushakov. In addition, progress has been made in the study of polymeric systems that simulate various functions of biopolymers, such as catalysis and the self-assembly of ordered systems from complementary macromolecules.
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION. The development of the chemical sciences and chemical production is proceeding in an atmosphere of international cooperation; professional contacts between Soviet chemists and the scientists of other socialist countries are increasing, and dozens of Soviet chemical institutes and enterprises are collaborating with organizations and enterprises in other member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON). For example, a highly automated process for the production of polyethylene (in a tube reactor with a capacity of 50,000–70,000 tons per year) has been developed and put into operation as a result of cooperation between chemists and engineers in the USSR and the German Democratic Republic. Moreover, work is under way to create a high-yield production facility (with an output of more than 100,000 tons per year) for the manufacture of low-density polyethylene.
Cooperation between Soviet and Czechoslovak chemists has resulted in a process for producing pyrocatechol. Methods of obtaining olefins and their reprocessing products are being developed by Soviet and Hungarian specialists. Collaboration between Soviet and Bulgarian chemists in devising a process for the conversion of carbon monoxide has led to the creation of new, high-yield catalysts of longer durability. Planning and construction of facilities for the production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide are being carried out together with Rumanian chemists. Collaboration among chemists of COMECON member countries is coordinated by a number of organizations established specifically for that purpose.
Soviet scientists take an active part in international organizations. Since 1930 the National Committee of Soviet Chemists of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR has belonged to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), which promotes ties among the chemical institutions of 45 countries. The participation of Soviet chemical scientists in international chemical congresses, conferences, and symposia dealing with important problems of chemistry contributes to progress in the chemical sciences and strengthens international cooperation among scientists.
PERIODICALS. The leading chemical journals published in the USSR include Doklady AN SSSR: Seriia Khimiia (Reports of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Chemistry Series; since 1965), hvestiia AN SSSR: Seriia khimicheskaia (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Chemistry Series; since 1936), hvestiia AN SSSR: Neorganicheskie materialy (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Inorganic Materials; since 1965), Zhurnal fizicheskoi khimii (Journal of Physical Chemistry; since 1930), Zhurnal obshchei khimii (Journal of General Chemistry; since 1931), Kolloidnyi zhurnal (Journal of Colloidal Chemistry; since 1935), Zhurnal analiticheskoi khimii (Journal of Analytical Chemistry; since 1946), and Zhurnal organicheskoi khimii (Journal of Organic Chemistry; since 1965).
Other leading journals are Vysokomolekuliarnye soedineniia (Macromolecular Compounds; since 1959), Radiokhimiia (Radiochemistry; since 1959), Khimiia vysokikh energii (High-energy Chemistry; since 1967), Khimiia geterotsiklicheskikh soedinenii (Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds; since 1965), Zavodskaia laboratoriia (Industrial Laboratory; since 1932), Khimiia i zhizn’ (Chemistry and Life; since 1965), Khimicheskaia promyshlennost’ (Chemical Industry; since 1944), and Zhurnal Vsesoiuznogo khimicheskogo obshchestva im. D. I. Mendeleeva (Journal of the D. I. Mendeleev All-Union Chemistry Society; since 1956).
V. I. KUZNETSOV

Bibliography

Razvitie obshchei, neorganicheskoi i analiticheskoi khimii v SSSR. Moscow, 1967.
Razvitie fizicheskoi khimii v SSSR. Moscow, 1967.
Razvitie organicheskoi khimii v SSSR. Moscow, 1967.
Emanuel’, N. M. “Khimiia v Akademii nauk SSSR.” Uspekhi khimii, 1974, vol. 43, issue 5, pp. 745–834.
“Akademiia nauk SSSR i razvitie fundamental’nykh issledovanii.” Vestn. AN SSSR, 1974, no. 2.
Semenov, N. N. Nauka i obshchestvo. Moscow, 1973.
Kozlov, V. V. Ocherki istorii khimicheskikh obshchestv SSSR. Moscow, 1958.
Kozlov, V. V. Vsesoiuznoe khimicheskoe obshchestvo im. D. I. Mendeleeva. Moscow, 1971.
Physicogeographical sciences, UNTIL 1917. The first scientific studies of the natural features of Russia date from the first half of the 18th century. To a large extent they were linked with the cultural and educational reforms of Peter I, as a result of which geographic education was developed, numerous maps of the country were compiled, and the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences was founded; the academy’s first and second expeditions (1725–43) were instrumental in fostering the study of many remote regions. The first monographs to appear were devoted to the study of the natural features of Kamchatka (S. P. Krasheninnikov) and other regions. The theoretical foundations of the science of geography in Russia were first formulated by V. N. Tatishchev in 1739. M. V. Lomonosov, who in 1758 became head of the Geographic Department, made a major contribution to the development of geographic knowledge. His work On the Layers of the Earth (1763) contained, in addition to geological information, ideas on the formation of the relief and climate of various parts of Russia. Many parts of European Russia, as well as Western and Eastern Siberia and northern Kazakhstan, were studied by the academy’s expeditions of 1768–74 (P. S. Pallas, I. I. Lepekhin, S. G. Gmelin, and others). A. F. Middendorf s journeys to Siberia and the Far East (1842–45) revealed the extensive distribution of permafrost phenomena.
The Russian Geographic Society was founded in 1845. Its expeditions in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries played a major role in the study of the natural features of the Caucasus, Middle Asia, Central Asia, Siberia, the Far East, and other regions (P. P. Semenov-Tian-Shanskii, P. A. Kropotkin, Ch. Ch. Valikhanov, N. M. Przheval’skii, M. V. Pevtsov, P. K. Kozlov, and V. A. Obruchev).
Prior to the 19th century, descriptions of the natural features of various parts of the country were not differentiated according to individual components of the natural environment. During the 19th century, especially in the second half, intensive differentiation took place in the study of physicogeographical phenomena, and the disciplines of geomorphology, climatology, hydrology, soil science, and biogeography emerged. At the end of the 19th century, as differentiation continued, the tendency toward the development of a geographic synthesis intensified and the foundations of complex physical geography were laid.
Relief. The study of relief in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was associated with such scientists as A. P. Karpinskii, A. P. Pavlov, I. V. Mushketov, P. A. Kropotkin, V. A. Obruchev, and D. N. Anuchin. Karpinskii studied the origin of the major land-forms of the East European plain, Pavlov worked on the history of the development of relief, including the multiplicity of glaciations on the East European Plain, and Mushketov investigated the mountains of Middle Asia and the Caucasus and compiled the first orogenic map of the mountains of Turkestan. Kropotkin studied the theory of glaciers and the orogeny of Siberia, Obruchev worked on the problems of the origin of the loesses of Middle Asia, ancient glaciations, and the conditions of the formation of permafrost in Siberia, and Anuchin studied the topography of European Russia. Significant contributions were made in the study of the relief-forming role of exogenous processes, such as V. V. Dokuchaev’s studies of the importance of flowing water in valley formation. However, in the prerevolutionary period geomorphology was not yet an organized scientific discipline, and consequently the descriptions of topography were often arbitrary.
Climate. The country’s climate was first studied in the mid-19th century. The earliest works were M. F. Spasskii’s On the Climate of Moscow (1847) and K. S. Veselovskii’s On the Climate of Russia (1857). The meteorological service was established in the second half of the 19th century, and the network of meteorological stations was expanded according to a designated plan. H. Wild (G. I. Vil’d), the director of the Main Physical Observatory, and his associates compiled monographs on the distribution of temperatures (1882), precipitation (1888), and other characteristics of climate in Russia. In 1900 the Climatic Atlas of the Russian Empire was published under the editorship of M. A. Rykachev. In the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries, A. I. Voeikov completed studies of the geophysical factors affecting global climate; his main work was Climates of the Earth, Particularly of Russia (1884). Voeikov’s adherents, including L. S. Berg (bioclimatology and paleoclimatology), A. A. Kaminskii (problems of the water cycle), and V. Iu. Vize (the arctic climate and relationship between climate and the ocean), began their research in the prerevolutionary period.
Rivers and lakes. The study of rivers and lakes in the late 19th century was linked to a large extent with the research of A. I. Voeikov, who proposed the first classification of rivers according to how they are fed (1884) and studied the water balance of the Caspian Sea. A network of hydrologic posts (observation points) and stations were established in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, primarily on large navigable rivers, as well as on the rivers of Middle Asia, the Caucasus, and the southern part of European Russia, where irrigation was becoming widespread. By the beginning of 1917, there were more than 1,000 hydrologic stations and posts. The first compendiums of data on runoff and the factors affecting runoff and evaporation from river basins were compiled by E. V. Oppokov (1903–04) and E. M. Ol’dekop (1911). During the same period, the lakes of Russia were studied by D. N. Anuchin (European Russia) and L. S. Berg (the Aral Sea and Lake Issyk-Kul’). In 1915, V. G. Glushkov defined hydrology as a science and proposed a classification of hydrologic disciplines.
Glaciers. The study of glaciers began in the second half of the 19th century, when P. P. Semenov (later known as Semenov-Tian-Shanskii) described a number of glaciers in the Tien-Shan and I. V. Mushketov was named head of the Glacial Commission of the Russian Geographic Society, which provided the impetus to a systematic study of glaciers in the Caucasus, Middle Asia, and the Altai Mountains. In 1878 an expedition led by V. F. Oshanin discovered the country’s largest mountain-valley glacier, the Fedchenko Glacier, in the Pamirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, V. V. Sapozhnikov studied glaciation in the Altai Mountains. V. A. Rusanov described the glaciers of Novaia Zemlia in 1910–11, and K. I. Podozerskii published a catalog of the glaciers of the Caucasus in 1911.
Soil geography. The last quarter of the 19th century was the formative period of soil geography, the basic principles of which were formulated by V. V. Dokuchaev in the period 1883–99. The theoretical foundations of soil geography were provided by the theory of soil-forming factors (parent rock, climate, vegetation), which determine the processes of soil formation and the patterns of the spatial distribution of soils. Soil zonality was also studied by N. M. Sibirtsev (1895). As a result of the soil surveys carried out in many provinces of European Russia by N. M. Sibirtsev, K. D. Glinka, N. A. Dimo, and others and as a result of the work of the expeditions of the Resettlement Administration (directed by Glinka after 1908) of the Ministry of Agriculture in Kazakhstan, Western Siberia, and the Far East, many regional soil descriptions and maps were compiled in the prerevolutionary period. These works served as the basis for ideas about soil provinces (L. I. Prasolov, 1916), soil-vegetation complexes (N. A. Dimo and B. A. Keller, 1907, and others), combinations of soils occurring on the plains and in the mountains (S. S. Neustruev, 1915), and the water regime of soils and their dependence on the humidity of the climate (G. N. Vysotskii, 1906).
Vegetation. In the second half of the 19th century, important research on the vegetation cover was carried out by I. G. Borshchov in the arid regions between the Caspian and Aral seas (1865) and by F. I. Ruprekht in northern Russia, the Caucasus, and the Chernozem Zone of European Russia. In 1866, Ruprekht established the relationship between steppe vegetation and the formation of chernozems. The first Russian compendiums of plant geography were compiled by A. N. Beketov (1896), A. N. Krasnov (1899), and G. I. Tanfil’ev (1902). In the late 19th century I. K. Pachoskii (1896) and P. N. Krylov (1898) laid the foundations of phytocoenology (initially called phytosociology), the theory of plant communities that bridges the gap to the comprehensive synthetic studies in biogeography. The theory was intensively developed by G. F. Morozov and V. N. Sukachev in the early 20th century.
Zoogeography. Among the outstanding works on zoogeography in the second half of the 19th century were N. A. Severtsov’s studies of the zonal distribution of animals in Turkestan and M. A. Menzbir’s studies establishing the principles of the zoogeographic regionalization of the earth’s land area.
Geographic synthesis. The most important scientific generalizations in the area of geographic synthesis were made by V. V. Dokuchaev in the late 19th century. His ideas on the interrelationship of all elements of living and nonliving nature, the comprehensive land studies that he directed, and his formulation of the law of geographic zonality constituted the foundation of modern physical geography. In his works, Dokuchaev devotes considerable attention to the rational use of natural resources. Dokuchaev was also the father of the Russian geographic landscape school, which in the early 20th century developed the idea of the geographic landscape as a natural complex in which all the primary elements of nature are combined according to established rules (G. N. Vysotskii, G. F. Morozov, L. S. Berg, A. A. Borzov, and R. I. Abolin). The idea of the outer (geographic) shell of the earth as the object of study of physical geography (P. I. Brounov, R. I. Abolin) also dates to this period. Thus, through the diverse efforts of many Russian natural scientists, the system of physicogeographical sciences began to take shape in the prerevolutionary period—a system consisting of physical geography proper, which studies the geographic shell as a whole as well as individual natural territorial complexes, and various sciences studying different components of the natural environment.
After the October Revolution of 1917, the extensive study of the country’s productive forces was begun, the primary objectives of which were outlined by V. I. Lenin in the “Draft Plan of Scientific and Technical Work” (1918). The subsequent organization of numerous scientific expeditions and the establishment of a number of geographic institutions facilitated the development of the major branches of physical geography. All the physicogeographical sciences are closely related, make use of similar methods—such as cartographic, comparative geographic, and paleographic methods—and resolve the common problems of studying the structure, composition, and dynamics of the geographic shell and its individual parts. The practical aspects of the work of physical geographers include the solution of key problems of the national economy, such as those relating to the inventory, evaluation, use, and regeneration of various natural resources as well as to conservation; these practical tasks require the efforts of specialists from many physicogeographical sciences.
GEOMORPHOLOGY. Geomorphological studies have been used extensively since the first years of Soviet power in survey work connected with the construction of railroads and hydroelectric power plants, in prospecting for minerals, and in other sectors of the national economy. The first compendiums of geomorphology were compiled by I. S. Shchukin (1934–38) and Ia. S. Edel’shtein (1938). I. P. Gerasimov and K. K. Markov studied (1939) the problems of the paleogeography of the Quaternary period. Later, in 1951, Markov published a course in paleogeography. Various problems of paleogeography were also studied by A. A. Velichko, V. P. Grichuk, G. I. Lazukov, and M. I. Neishtadt.
The researches of A. P. Karpinskii and V. A. Obruchev, begun before 1917, laid the foundations of a theory of recent movements of the earth’s crust, which explains many features of the modern relief. The theory was developed subsequently by B. L. Lichkov (1936), S. S. Shul’ts (1948), and N. I. Nikolaev (1962), among others. The works of I. P. Gerasimov, Iu. A. Meshcheriakov, and others, which led to the identification of the principal genetic categories of relief—morphostructures and morphosculptures—were very important for the classification of relief. A more detailed study of morphostructures led to the development of structural geomorphology (K. I. Gerenchuk, S. S. Korzhuev, N. A. Florensov, V. P. Filosofov, and others) and its practical application in petroleum and gas prospecting. In the course of the development of the theory of morphosculptures—landforms whose formation and dynamics are dominated by exogenous processes—important results were obtained for fluvial and slope processes and glacial geomorphology (I. S. Shchukin, K. K. Markov, and others), as well as for the study of arid relief formation (B. A. Fedorovich), karst phenomena (N. A. Gvozdetskii and G. A. Maksimovich), and seacoasts (V. P. Zenkovich, O. K. Leont’ev, and others). The study of the ocean floor has intensified since the 1950’s (O. K. Leont’ev, G. B. Udintsev, A. V. Zhivago, and V. F. Kanaev).
The study of the dynamics of relief was further developed with the introduction of mathematical methods, systems analysis, and the modeling of geomorphological processes and phenomena (A. S. Devdariani, Iu. G. Simonov, and others), as well as with the introduction of applied aspects of geomorphology (T. V. Zvonkova and others).
In more recent years, a number of monographs appeared on the general problems of geomorphology (I. S. Shchukin, 1960–74), the relief of the USSR (S. S. Voskresenskii, 1968; Iu. A. Meshcheriakov, 1972), and the relief of separate regions of the USSR. These works include the series Geomorphology of the USSR, published by the Geographic Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR jointly with other institutions, and the series History of the Development of the Relief of Siberia and the Far East, published by the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
The first survey geomorphological map of the USSR, on a scale of 1:4,000,000, was published under the direction of I. P. Gerasimov and B. A. Fedorovich in 1960, followed in 1961 by the geomorphological map on a scale of 1:5,000,000 compiled by a group of scientists of the All-Union Geological Institute, including G. S. Ganeshin and I. I. Krasnov. A series of geomorphological maps of the continents and ocean floor has been included in the Physicogeographical Atlas of the World (1964) and in atlases of the Antarctic (1966), the Pacific Ocean (1974), and the Indian Ocean (1976). In 1970 the Geomorphological Map of the European USSR and the Caucasus, on a scale of 1:2,500,000, was published (M. V. Karandeeva, S. V. Liuttsau, and O. K. Leont’ev). This work was followed in 1972 by the Map of Leveling Plains and Weathering Crusts of the USSR, on a scale of 1:2,500,000, prepared under the editorship of I. P. Gerasimov and A. V. Sidorenko by the Ministry of Geology of the USSR, the All-Union Aerogeological Trust, and the Geographic Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Numerous geomorphological maps on different scales have been published for different parts of the country. Various problems of the methodology of geomorphological research and mapping have been discussed in manuals written by N. V. Bashenina and others (1962), Iu. F. Chemekov and G. S. Ganeshin (1972), and A. I. Spiridonov (1975).
Geomorphological research is conducted at the geographic and geological institutions of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the academies of sciences of the Union republics, at various institutions of the Ministry of Geology of the USSR (for example, the All-Union Geological Institute in Leningrad and the Aerogeologiia All-Union Scientific Industrial Association in Moscow), and at institutions of higher learning, such as the universities of Moscow and Leningrad. In the USSR geomorphological studies are coordinated by the Joint Geomorphological Committee of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR; research on an international level is coordinated by the corresponding commissions of the International Geographical Union and the International Union for Quaternary Research.
CLIMATOLOGY. The rapid expansion of the network of meteorological stations after the October Revolution of 1917 made it possible to obtain extensive data on the country’s climate. The publication of reference literature both for the country as a whole and for individual regions rose sharply. A series of world climatic maps was compiled for the Great Soviet Atlas of the World (1937). The World Agroclimatological Handbook was published in 1937 under the editorship of G. T. Selianinov. Several classifications of climate were proposed both for the USSR and for the entire planet. The best known was B. P. Alisov’s genetic classification (1936–49), based on the relationship between climate and the air masses and the general circulation of the atmosphere. New schools of climatology emerged in the prewar years, including complex climatology (E. E. Fedorov, 1920’s), and the methods of the statistical processing of observational data were refined (O. A. Drozdov and E. S. Rubinshtein).
Many climatic compendiums and handbooks were compiled for different parts of the USSR in the postwar years, including the series of monographs Climate of the USSR (vols. 1–8, 1958–65) and Handbook of the Climate of the USSR (vols. 1–34, 1964–70). Series of climatic maps were compiled for the Maritime Atlas (vol. 2, 1953) and the Physicogeographical Atlas of the World (1964). Also compiled were the Agroclimatological Atlas of the World (1972) and the Atlas of the Earth’s Heat Balance (1963). Research methods were improved, particularly the development of the probabilistic method (S. A. Sapozhnikova and A. N. Lebedev). Climatological analysis was also applied to the free atmosphere. Investigations of aeroclimatology made it possible to formulate an idea of the distribution of air temperature, atmospheric pressure, winds, humidity, and other characteristics in the troposphere and stratosphere above different parts of the earth (I. V. Khanevskaia, I. G. Guterman, and others).
The processes of climate formation, such as the dependence of climate on the heat and moisture cycles, atmospheric circulation, and other processes, were studied by M. I. Budyko (1956). The works of B. M. Aizenshtadt, T. G. Berliand, M. K. Gavrilova, N. P. Rusin, and others were devoted to the global and regional study of the components of the radiation and heat balances and their climate-forming role. The studies of O. A. Drozdov, N. N. Ivanov, and others dealt with the water cycle. The effects of the processes of the general atmospheric circulation on the climate of the USSR, the arctic and antarctic regions, the oceans, and the earth as a whole have been studied extensively (B. P. Alisov, V. A. Arkhangel’skii, V. A. Bugaev, G. Ia. Vangengeim, L. A. Vitel’s, S. S. Gaigerov, V. A. Dzhordzhio, N. V. Kolobkov, M. A. Petrosiants, Kh. P. Pogosian, G. M. Tauber, and S. P. Khromov).
Changes in climate, particularly modern changes, have been studied by M. I. Budyko, V. Iu. Vize, B. L. Dzerdzeevskii, O. A. Drozdov, T. V. Pokrovskaia, and E. S. Rubinshtein, among others. An explanation of the climatic regime of the Pleistocene has been proposed, based on an analysis of the direct and inverse relationships in the atmosphere-ocean-ice system (V. Ia. Sergin and S. Ia. Sergin, 1966–75). Research on man’s unintentional influences on climate (release of heat and carbon dioxide upon the burning of fuels, pollution of the atmosphere by aerosols, changes in the water regime of rivers and vegetation cover) has made it possible to predict the probable changes in climate in the not too distant future (M. I. Budyko, K. Ia. Kondrat’ev, and others).
Research on microclimates (S. A. Sapozhnikova, 1950; I. A. Gol’tsberg and others, 1967) has established a relationship between the physical conditions on the earth’s surface and the surface layer of air in different parts of the USSR.
Of particular interest in applied climatology are studies in agroclimatology (P. I. Koloskov, G. T. Selianinov, F. F. Davitaia, A. R. Konstantinov, D. I. Shashko, A. M. Shul’gin, and others) and complex climatology (L. A. Chubukov).
International scientific contacts in climatology are maintained through the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics and the International Geographical Union. (For information on institutions involved in the study of climatology see below: Meteorology)
LAND HYDROLOGY. Hydrology emerged as an independent scientific discipline in the USSR in the first quarter of the 20th century. In the first years of Soviet power it was greatly influenced by the development and implementation of the plan of the State Commission for the Electrification of Russia. The world’s first comprehensive hydrologic scientific institution was the Russian Hydrologic Institute (now the State Hydrologic Institute), founded in 1919 in Petrograd by V. G. Glushkov, who was its first director. The institute’s structure reflected the view of hydrology as the science concerned both with surface and subterranean waters on land and with ocean waters; these branches of hydrology were later separated into independent disciplines. The institute developed various methods of studying bodies of water, including laboratory experimental methods. The Hydrochemical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was founded in Novocherkassk in 1921 to study the chemical composition of river and lake waters.
While studying the water resources of the Crimea, D. I. Kocherin noted (1924) the altitudinal (vertical) zonality in the distribution of runoff in mountain regions. In 1927 he compiled the first map of the average runoff of rivers in the European part of the USSR and embarked on a study of fluctuations in annual runoff. M. A. Velikanov was the first (1925) to provide a systematic exposition of land hydrology. Together with D. L. Sokolovskii, he was the first to apply (1928) the methods of mathematical statistics in hydrologic calculations. Velikanov also founded the geophysical school in hydrology, introduced the theory of the water balance and dynamics of channel flow, and proposed the establishment of zonal water-balance runoff stations, an idea that was widely accepted in the USSR and abroad. Among such stations were the Valdai Runoff Station (now the Valdai Scientific Research Hydrologic Laboratory) and the station in the vicinity of Zelenogorsk, near Leningrad (the studies of V. A. Uryvaev, V. G. Glushkov, and A. A. Sokolov). In 1931, E. V. Blizniak examined the country’s principal water-management problems and later published major works on water research (1952) and hydroengineering studies (1956). In 1931–32, V. G. Glushkov proposed a geographic-hydrologic method of research based on the relationship between the waters in a particular region and the geographic landscape as a whole and its individual components. The method was developed further by S. D. Muraveiskii (1946–48), who viewed runoff as a geographic factor.
In the 1930’s, B. A. Apollov began developing methods of hydrologic forecasting; his work was later continued by G. P. Kalinin, V. D. Komarov, and E. G. Popov.
B. D. Zaikov and S. Iu. Belinkov compiled (1937) the first maps of the average runoff in the USSR (the maps were later refined). The spatial regularities of the formation of river regimes and the distribution of runoff were studied by B. D. Zaikov (1946) and D. L. Sokolovskii (1952). K. P. Voskresenskii’s studies (1962) presented new generalizations in this field. Subterranean river flow was also studied (B. I. Kudelin and others).
The problems of hydrologic regionalization attracted considerable interest in the postwar years (V. A. Troitskii, 1948, and P. S. Kuzin, 1960). B. A. Apollov (1952), M. I. L’vovich (beginning in 1945), and G. P. Kalinin (1968) studied the problems of global hydrology and the global water balance. Research developed on the study of channel processes (N. I. Makkaveev and others), the flow of suspended particles (G. I. Shamov and G. V. Lopatin), and the hydrochemistry of land waters (O. A. Alekin and P. P. Voronkov).
L. K. Davydov (1953–55), A. A. Sokolov (1952), and M. I. L’vovich (1971) compiled general surveys of Soviet rivers. The water cadastre of the USSR was published during the period 1930–48, as were hydrologic yearbooks and the reference series Resources of the Surface Waters of the USSR (vols. 1–20, 1966–76). During the International Hydrological Decade (1965–74), basic research was conducted on the global water balance and the earth’s water resources (1974). A. I. Chebotarev’s Hydrologic Dictionary was published in 1964. In 1974 the country’s hydro-logic network consisted of 6,243 permanent observation points.
The most important general works on lakes were written by L. L. Rossolimo (1952), B. B. Bogoslovskii and S. D. Muraveiskii (1955), and B. D. Zaikov (1955, 1960). A. V. Shnitnikov investigated changes in the processes of humidification (1957, 1969).
The principal hydrologic institutions in the USSR are the State Hydrologic Institute of the State Committee of Hydrometeorology and the Regulation of the Natural Environment of the USSR, the institute of water problems and the geographic institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (both in Moscow), the limnology institute in Leningrad, the Leningrad and Odessa scientific research hydrometeorological institutes, and the subdepartments of land hydrology at Moscow and Leningrad state universities.
Soviet hydrologists participate in many international scientific programs, such as the International Geophysical Year and the International Hydrological Decade.
GLACIOLOGY. The first major Soviet expeditions to study glaciers were conducted during the second International Polar Year (1932–33) and encompassed many glaciers in the Caucasus, Novaia Zemlia, the Urals, the Pamirs, the Tien-Shan, and the Altai Mountains. As a result of these studies, a number of theoretical generalizations on glaciology were drawn (S. V. Kalesnik, 1937, 1939). The cataloging of mountain glaciers, begun before 1917, was continued, by B. V. Tronov in the Altai Mountains (1925), N. L. Korzhenevskii in Middle Asia (1930), and others.
In the postwar period the processes occuring upon the interaction between glaciers, relief, and climate were investigated (M. V. Tronov, 1954, 1966), and the processes of ice formation in glaciers were studied (P. A. Shumskii, 1955). In the late 1940’s and early 1950’s, the first site investigations in the USSR were conducted under the direction of G. A. Avsiuk of the glaciers of the Tien-Shan, as a result of which the zonality of the temperature regime of glaciers was established. Site investigations expanded considerably during the International Geophysical Year (1957–59), when 17 Soviet glaciological bases were in operation—on Franz Josef Land and Novaia Zemlia, in the Polar Urals, in the Khibiny, on Mount El’brus, in the Altai Mountains, in the Suntar-Khaiata Range, in the Zailiiski Alatau, in the Terskei-Alatau, on the Fedchenko Glacier, and near Moscow, where the snow cover was studied, as well as six bases in Antarctica. The findings obtained during the International Geophysical Year and subsequent studies made possible the preparation of comprehensive glaciological monographs about these regions as well as generalizing studies in general glaciology (S. V. Kalesnik, 1963, V. M. Kotliakov, 1968, and others).
The USSR was subdivided into zones according to the snow-cover regime (G. D. Rikhter, 1960), the distribution of snow resources across the country was examined and the processes of thawing and water-production from snow were studied (P. P. Kuz’min, 1960, 1961), and the theory of the transfer of snow by wind was formulated (A. K. Diunin, 1963). The danger of avalanches was studied in various mountain regions (G. K. Tushinskii, 1963), as well as the mechanism of the movement of snow avalanches, the nature of the avalanche air wave, and the impact of an avalanche against an obstacle (G. K. Sulakvelidze and K. S. Losev, 1966).
A complete catalog of all the glaciers in the USSR, which will eventually total 110 fascicles, is being compiled in connection with the International Hydrological Decade; begun in 1965, it totaled 67 fascicles by 1976. In addition, observations are being made of changes in about 200 glaciers in different parts of the country, and comprehensive studies are being conducted of the balance of heat, ice, and water in the most thoroughly studied mountain glacier basins. An atlas of the earth’s snow and ice resources—glaciers, the snow cover, subterranean ice, and the like—is being compiled (1977).
In the 1960’s and first half of the 1970’s, the fundamentals of dynamic glaciology singling out two types of glacier fluctuations were established (P. A. Shumskii), evidence of the great extent of Pleistocene glaciation of the polar seas was obtained (M. G. Grosvai’d), and the idea of the earth’s total snow and variations in the amount was formulated (V. M. Kotliakov). In addition, the regularities of the feeding of mountain glaciers and ice sheets were clarified, the concept of the water-ice balance of glacial regions was introduced, and the methods of calculating the internal feeding of glaciers, the ice balance, and the runoff from glaciers were established (G. N. Golubev, A. N. Krenke, V. G. Khodakov, and others). The first models of glacial-nival processes were developed, which led to the possibility of forecasting and controlling such processes.
The principal institutions conducting glaciological research are the institutes of geography of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Moscow and the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR in Tbilisi, the geography sector of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR in Alma-Ata, and the institutions of the State Committee of Hydrometeorology and the Regulation of the Natural Environment, including the Arctic and Antarctic Scientific Research Institute in Leningrad, the Middle Asian Regional Scientific Research Institute of Hydrometeorology in Tashkent, and the Transcaucasian Hydrometeorological Scientific Research Institute in Tbilisi. Glaciological research is also conducted by the departments of geography at the universities in Moscow, Leningrad, Tomsk, Tashkent, and elsewhere. Glaciological projects are coordinated by the Soviet Section on Glaciology, which regularly publishes collections of works under the title Materialy gliatsiologicheskikh issledovanii: Khronika i obsuzhdeniia (Materials of Glaciological Research: Chronicle and Discussion; fascs. 1–26, 1961–75, publication continues). International scientific cooperation is maintained through the Commission on Snow and Ice of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics.
GEOCRYOLOGY. Prior to 1917, very little systematic information was available about strata of frozen rocks in the USSR. Systematic investigations of the permafrost zone were begun in the Soviet period in connection with the development of the productive forces in Siberia and the Far East. Geocryology emerged as a science with the publication of M. I. Sumgin’s monograph Permafrost in the USSR (1927). Beginning in 1930, geocryological research was coordinated by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, which established a special commission; in 1936 this function was taken over by the Committee for the Study of Permafrost, which in 1939 was reorganized into the Institute of Geocryology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Centered in Moscow, its first director was V. A. Obruchev; since 1960 the institute, which has established a network of permafrost stations in the northern and eastern parts of the country, has been part of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Yakutsk. A number of generalizing works on geocryology appeared in the 1940’s, particularly the fundamental study by M. I. Sumgin, S. P. Kachurin, N. I. Tolstikhin, and V. F. Tumel’ (1940), which established the original name of the science used in the Soviet literature—the study of frozen ground (merzlotovedenie)—as well as its principal content and its subdivision into general and engineering categories. As the content and the tasks of the study of frozen ground broadened, the term “geocryology” was introduced in practical scientific research. In the 1950’s the research of N. A. Tsytovich, N. I. Saltykov, S. S. Vialov, V. F. Zhukov, P. I. Mel’nikov, G. V. Porkhaev, and others established the fundamentals of engineering geocryology, with practical applications for residential, highway, and industrial construction, the mining industry, and agriculture. A series of monographs and maps characterizing different problems of general and engineering geocryology were published in the 1960’s and early 1970’s (P. A. Shumskii, P. F. Shvetsov, B. A. Savel’ev, P. I. Mel’nikov, N. I. Tolstikhin, I. Ia. Baranov, N. A. Tsytovich, B. N. Dostovalov, V. A. Kudriavtsev, A. I. Popov, and others).
The leading centers of geocryological research are the Institute of Geocryology of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the departments of geology and geography at Moscow State University, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology in Moscow, and the Production and Scientific Research Institute of Engineering Prospecting of the State Committee on Construction of the USSR, also in Moscow. In 1970 the Scientific Council of the Cryology of the Earth was established at the Academy of Sciences of the USSR; the council’s task is to study in detail the global and regional aspects of all the zones of cooling on the earth. The main results of the development of Soviet geocryology have been reflected at international conferences on geocryology, held in Lafayette, Ind., in 1963 and in Yakutsk in 1973.
SOIL GEOGRAPHY. The intensification of research in soil geography in the first years of Soviet power was linked with agriculture’s growing need for comprehensive data on the soils of various parts of the country. Regional soil studies were carried out virtually throughout the entire USSR, from the Far North and Yakutia to Middle Asia and the Crimea. Beginning in 1924, the country’s leading soil scientists, including S. S. Neustruev, L. I. Prasolov, and B. B. Polynov, took part in the expeditions under the direction of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Many findings obtained earlier were generalized (K. D. Glinka, 1923).
In the prewar years there were significant advances in soil mapping. L. I. Prasolov and his associates compiled the Soil Map of the Asiatic Part of the USSR on a scale of 1:4,200,000 in 1927 and the Map of the European Part of the USSR on a scale of 1:2,520,000 in 1930. In 1927 a survey soil map of the world was compiled under the editorship of K. D. Glinka. A new, more detailed map of the world was compiled by Prasolov and his associates on a scale of 1:50,000,000 and published in the Great Soviet Atlas of the World (1937). This made it possible to ascertain the most important regularities of soil distribution and evaluate the world’s soil resources. In the 1930’s, R. I. Abolin and S. A. Zakharov studied the altitudinal zonality of soils in the mountains of Middle Asia and the Caucasus. Zakharov also demonstrated (1934) that there were numerous series of altitudinal soil zones. S. S. Neustruev reviewed the theoretical foundations of the origin and geography of soils (1933). Studies of the complexity of the soil cover were carried out (E. N. Ivanova and others). A three-volume compendium of the soils of the USSR was published in 1939.
After the war, soil research was conducted in all the Union republics as well, particularly in the agricultural regions of Siberia and the Far East (K. P. Gorshenin, E. N. Ivanova, N. I. Bazilevich, Iu. A. Liverovskii, and others). Various maps and monographs characterizing the soil cover of individual republics and oblasts were prepared on the basis of detailed large-scale studies of kolkhoz and sovkhoz soils. The study of taiga and tundra soils, primarily in Siberia, made it possible to clarify the role of permafrost and seasonal freezing in soil formation. The development of the concept of soil structure and the complexity and contrasts of soil cover made it possible to describe quantitatively different soil areas of distribution and introduce statistical methods of study into soil geography (V. M. Fridland, 1965, 1972). The compilation (1956) of a 1:4,000,000 survey soil map of the USSR and its major regions (L. I. Prasolov, I. P. Gerasimov, N. N. Rozov, E. V. Lobova, and others) reflected basic ideas of soil distribution and made it possible to carry out (1962) the soil geographic regionalization of the USSR. Studies of soils in foreign countries made possible the compilation of new soil maps of the world and individual continents (published in the Physicogeographic Atlas of the World, 1964). Compendiums of the soils of the USSR (Iu. A. Liverovskii, 1974) and the entire world (M. A. Glazovskaia, 1972–73, 1975) have been published.
In the USSR research in soil geography is directed by the V. V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute in Moscow. Studies are also conducted at the soil institutes of many Union republics, at the Geographic Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and at various institutions of higher learning, such as the universities of Moscow and Leningrad. Various problems of soil geography have been discussed at international congresses of soil scientists and geographers and have been studied within the framework of various international biological programs. (See below: Soil science.)
BIOGEOGRAPHY. The development of biogeography in the first years of Soviet power was to a large extent linked with the theory of the biosphere worked out by V. I. Vernadskii in the 1920’s and 1930’s. Its subsequent development was fostered by the advances made in phytocoenology (V. N. Sukachev, V. V. Alekhin, A. P. Shennikov, A. Ia. Gordiagin, and others) and by the achievements of traditional schools based on the study of the regularities of the geographic distribution of various plant and animal species and their areas of distribution and the processes of formation of flora and fauna (A. I. Tolmachev, V. G. Geptner, and others). During the 1930’s productive discussions were held about the essential features of the phytocoenosis and the principles of geobotanical regionalization. This was the period of the classical works of N. I. Vavilov on the centers of origin of crop plants and the studies of E. V. Vul’f and A. N. Krishtofovich on the origin and development of the flora of the USSR and the entire world. L. G. Ramenskii developed the ecological trend in geobotany. Compendiums of the vegetation of the USSR, prepared by the joint efforts of various scientists (1938–40), and a 1:5,000,000 Survey Map of the Vegetation of the USSR (1939) were compiled. The first compendiums of zoogeography (V. G. Geptner, 1936, and I. I. Puzanov, 1938) and the ecology of land vertebrates (D. N. Kashkarov, 1937) were also published in the prewar years. The publication of the work Fauna of the USSR, containing comprehensive descriptions of the fauna and animal populations of the deserts, steppes, forests, and mountain lands, was begun (vols. 1–5, 1936–58).
Biogeocenotic studies of the seas and oceans were begun before 1917 by K. M. Deriugin’s school and were continued in Soviet times, eventually leading to the development of the theory of underwater landscapes. Quantitative relationships and biotic links between different groups of organisms and zonal regularities in the distribution of communities were established for many marine communities (earlier than for terrestrial communities). In the 1930’s, G. G. Vinberg laid the foundations of the theory of the productivity of freshwater ecosystems. Land biocenoses were studied (D. N. Kashkarov, V. N. Beklemishev, A. N. Formozov, and G. A. Novikov), as were cave biocenoses (la. O. Birshtein) and freshwater fish (L. S. Berg).
Research begun before the war on the vegetation of individual natural zones was continued after the war. Tundra vegetation was studied (B. N. Gorodkov, V. B. Sochava, and B. A. Tikhomirov), as well as forest vegetation (primarily by V. N. Sukachev’s school), meadow vegetation (A. P. Shennikov, L. G. Ramenskii, I. V. Larin, and T. A. Rabotnov), steppe vegetation (V. V. Alekhin, E. M. Lavrenko, and G. I. Dokhman), semidesert and desert vegetation (B. A. Keller, M. G. Popov, E. P. Korovin, A. V. Prozorovskii, and M. P. Petrov), mountain vegetation (P. N. Krylov, A. A. Grossgeim, P. D. Iaroshenko, P. N. Ovchinnikov, and K. V. Staniukovich), and bog vegetation (V. N. Sukachev and N. Ia. Kats). The problems of the interrelationships of the forest and the tundra and the interrelationships of the forest and the steppe were worked out by P. N. Krylov, V. L. Komarov, and A. I. Tolmachev, among others. L. E. Rodin, N. I. Bazilevich, and others conducted studies of the biomass and the productivity of the plant cover.
In the mid-1940’s, interest in geobotanical regionalization increased (V. I. Grubov, E. P. Korovin, E. M. Lavrenko, M. G. Popov, A. L. Takhtadzhian, and others), and geobotanical maps were published of the USSR (on a scale of 1:4,000,000 with explanatory notes, 1954) and different parts of the country (V. B. Sochava, E. M. Lavrenko, L. E. Rodin, and others). Geobotanical and zoogeographic maps of individual continents and of the entire world were compiled for the Physicogeographical Atlas of the World (1964). The concept of faunistic complexes—groups of animals with similar areas of distribution and living conditions—played a large part in zoogeographic regionalization (B. K. Shtegman and G. V. Nikol’skii). The identification and classification of animal life forms (G. P. Dement’ev, A. N. Formozov, and N. I. Kalabukhov) were important for the development of zoogeography, as was the study of animal populations (G. G. Vinberg, A. P. Kuziakin, and D. V. Panfilov).
New areas of study emerged, among them indicator geobotany (S. V. Viktorov, E. A. Vostokov), and the application of mathematical methods broadened, including statistics, information theory, and multivariate analysis (V. I. Vasilevich and Iu. G. Puzachenko).
Among the works devoted to the general problems of biogeography in the 1960’s and 1970’s were the monographs of P. D. Iaroshenko (1961), N. A. Bobrinskii and N. A. Gladkov (1961), A. I. Tolmachev (1962), A. G. Voronov (1963), and A. P. Shennikov (1964), the monograph Fundamentals of Forest Biogeocenology (1964), and the monographs of P. P. Vtorov and N. N. Drozdov (1974) and E. E. Syroechkovskii and E. V. Rogacheva (1975).
Research in biogeography is conducted at the botanical, zoological, and geographic institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the academies of sciences of the Union republics, at the Moscow and Leningrad state universities, and at biological stations and other institutions. International cooperation, maintained within the framework of the International Biological Program, the Man and the Biosphere program, and the various international biological and geographic congresses, are primarily directed at finding comprehensive solutions to conservation problems. (See below: Biological sciences.)
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. During the very first years of Soviet power, along with the development of individual elements of physicogeographical research, there was increasing interest in complex physicogeographical problems. This was fostered by the extensive study of the country’s productive forces, particularly in the backward frontier areas. In the course of detailed studies conducted in the 1920’s for purposes of agricultural development and reclamation, a landscape-surveying technique was developed and detailed landscape maps were compiled (B. B. Polynov, I. M. Krasheninnikov, I. V. Larin, and R. I. Abolin). On the other hand, there was extensive development of research on the physicogeographical regionalization of the republics, krais, and ob-lasts, which stimulated the search for regularities governing the physicogeographical differentiation of the earth’s surface (S. S. Neustruev, B. A. Keller, L. I. Prasolov, and others).
During the 1930’s, comprehensive studies of the natural features of a number of the country’s remote regions were carried out by academy expeditions organized by the Council for the Study of Productive Forces. The work of the expeditions led to major discoveries in the Pamir-Alai region, the mountains of the northeastern part of the country, and other regions and significantly altered earlier orogenic-hydrographic views. The 1930’s also marked the beginning of the extensive development of the arctic region. These and subsequent expeditions facilitated the comprehensive economic development of the country’s natural resources.
During the 1930’s, two major trends emerged in the theory of complex physical geography: landscape science and general geography. The former was headed by L. S. Berg, who developed the idea of the landscape as an integrated natural system. In 1931 he presented a characterization of the geographic landscape zones of the USSR, including a short essay on the theory of the landscape, in which he reviewed the dynamics of natural complexes. This line of study was further developed by L. G. Ramenskii (1938).
V. I. Vernadskii’s ideas on the geological and geochemical role of organisms and on the systems of geospheres and the cycle of matter in such systems (1920’s to 1940’s) were of considerable importance for the development of general geography. In the mid-1930’s, A. A. Grigor’ev worked out the theory of the earth’s geographic shell in greater detail by considering the principal characteristics of its structure. The First All-Union Geographic Congress, held in 1933, helped consolidate the geographic sciences.
Research in landscape science expanded considerably in the late 1940’s. Landscape surveys of considerable areas, carried out primarily by university personnel, and the compilation of landscape maps of different scales (for comprehensive atlases of individual republics and oblasts, for agricultural needs, and other purposes) led to the gathering of extensive factual data, which provided the basis for the further development of the morphology and classification of landscapes and for the refinement of the methods of physicogeographical regionalization (D. L. Armand, N. A. Gvozdetskii, I. M. Zabelin, A. G. Isachenko, F. N. Mil’-kov, N. I. Mikhailov, V. S. Preobrazhenskii, G. D. Rikhter, N. A. Solntsev, V. B. Sochava, and others). The Natural Historical Regionalization of the USSR was published in 1947–48 as part of a series devoted to the comprehensive and specialized regionalization of the natural features of the USSR, prepared by the Council for the Study of Productive Forces with the participation of various institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Several schemes of the physicogeographical regionalization of the USSR have been devised in recent years.
The methodology of physicogeographical investigations developed by A. A. Grigor’ev was used by the physicogeographical scientific station in the Tien-Shan beginning in 1948. In the late 1950’s and early 1960’s, the network of permanent geographic stations was expanded, with stations established near Kursk, in various parts of Eastern Siberia, and in the Far East. All these stations were associated with the institutes of geography of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and with other institutions. The permanent stations have facilitated the study of the structure and dynamics of different natural territorial complexes (geosystems).
Studies of various global geographic problems, for example, the earth’s radiation and heat balance, the global water cycle, and the long-term fluctuations in the heat regime and in humidification, have furthered the development of general geography (S. V. Kalesnik, K. K. Markov, M. M. Ermolaev, A. M. Riabchikov, and others).
In the postwar years, numerous regional physicogeographical studies were carried out along with the study of the general geographic regularities. Rather detailed descriptions of the natural features of all parts of the USSR were included in the compendiums of L. S. Berg (1947, 1952), B. F. Dobrynin (1948), and S. P. Suslov (1954). Outstanding are the 15-volume series Natural Conditions and Natural Resources of the USSR (1963–72), published by the Geographic Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the 12-volume series Essays on Nature (1961–72), and the 22-volume popular-science anniversary publication The Soviet Union (1966–72). Numerous studies have been devoted to describing the natural features of foreign countries and continents (B. F. Dobrynin, I. P. Gerasimov, E. N. Lukashova, E. M. Murzaev, T. V. Vlasova, and others) and the arctic and antarctic regions (I. D. Papanin, A. F. Treshnikov, A. P. Kapitsa, and others). The most complete cartographic representation of the principal natural global patterns is contained in the Physicogeographical Atlas of the World (1964).
The development of the methodology of geographic research is directed at improving laboratory facilities and the mathematical apparatus, making extensive use of material obtained as a result of aerial and satellite photography, conducting experiments in the field, and applying the methods of systems analysis to the interrelationships within individual natural territorial complexes. Landscape geochemistry (B. B. Polynov, M. A. Glazovskaia, A. I. Perel’man), landscape physics (D. L. Armand), medical geography (whose foundations were laid by E. N. Pavlovskii), and other geographic sciences have emerged from the common subject matter studied by physical geography and related sciences. The geography of the oceans, recreation geography, and the study of changes in landscape caused by human activity are in the formative stages. Similarly, a recent development is the participation of physical geographers in the study of various problems related to the protection and transformation of the environment. Among these problems are the planting of shelterbelts to control soil erosion, the qualitative assessment of land, and the preparation of a land cadastre. Regional planning and various aspects of regional studies and tourism are also the concern of physical geographers. An interesting feature of contemporary geography is the transition to the stage in which constructive solutions to the problems of the transformation of the environment are worked out by physical geographers jointly with economic geographers and representatives of other related sciences.
The existing network of scientific research institutions that consider problems of the physicogeographical sciences encompasses all the Union republics, where most of the research is carried out by local scientific personnel. Among the leading scientists in various fields of physical geography who have worked in the past or are currently working are A. G. Babaev of the Turkmen SSR, A. B. Bagdasarian of the Armenian SSR, K. I. Gerenchuk and A. M. Marinich of the Ukrainian SSR, K. K. Giul’ of the Azerbaijan SSR, N. L. Korzhenevskii of the Uzbek SSR, K. Raman of the Latvian SSR, and N. N. Pal’gov of the Kazakh SSR.
The principal Soviet centers of physicogeographical research, including landscape science, are the institutes of geography in Moscow, Irkutsk, Vladivostok, Tbilisi, and Baku, the departments of geography at the universities in Moscow, Leningrad, L’vov, Voronezh, and Riga, and the Geographic Society of the USSR.
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION. The most important problems of the science of geography in the postwar years have been taken up by the congresses of the Geographic Society of the USSR in 1947, 1955, 1960, 1964, 1970, and 1975. Soviet geographers have actively participated in the work of the international geographic congresses in Brazil (1956), Great Britain (1964), India (1968), and Canada (1972), where they have represented Soviet geographic science, which is based on dialectical materialist methodology. The Twenty-third International Geographic Congress was held in Moscow in 1976. Together with scientists from other countries, Soviet geographers have conducted extensive studies of the natural features of many foreign regions, such as Antarctica, Cuba, Vietnam, and the Mongolian People’s Republic; they have participated and continue to participate in various international programs. Soviet geographers maintain international ties through the International Geographical Union.
PERIODICALS. Information about the physicogeographical sciences appears regularly in numerous Soviet geographic, biological, geological, and meterological periodicals. The major periodicals include hvestiia Vsesoiuznogo geograficheskogo obshchestva (Proceedings of the All-Union Geographic Society; since 1865), Priroda (Nature; 1912), hvestiia Akademii Nauk SSSR: Seriia geograficheskaia (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Geographic Series; 1951), Vestnik LGU: Geologiia i geografiia (Journal of Leningrad State University: Geology and Geography; 1962), Vestnik MGU: Seriia V: Geografiia (Journal of Moscow State University: Series V: Geography; 1946), Referativnyi zhurnal: Geografiia (Journal of Abstracts: Geography; 1954), and Geomorfologiia (Geomorphology; 1970).
Physicogeographical information also appears regularly in other publications, including Zemlevedenie (Geography; 1894) and Voprosy geografii (Problems of Geography; 1946). Articles on physical geography occasionally appear in Biulleten’ Moskovskogo obshchestva ispytatelei prirody: Otdel geologicheskii (Bulletin of the Moscow Society of Naturalists: Geological Section; 1922), Zoologicheskii zhurnal (Zoological Journal; 1916), Botanicheskii zhurnal (Botanical Journal; 1916), Geografiia v shkole (Geography in the School; 1934), Meteorologiia i gidrologiia (Meteorology and Hydrology; 1935), Lesovedenie (Silvics; 1967), Ekologiia (Ecology; Sverdlovsk, 1970), and Vodnye resursy (Water Resources; 1972).
The principal results of recent physicogeographical research have appeared in the materials published by the Twenty-third International Geographic Congress.
O. K. LEONTEV and A. I. SPIRIDONOV (geomorphology), S. P. KHROMOV (climatology), A. A. SOKOLOV and K. G. TIKHOTSKII (hydrology), V. M. KOTLIAKOV (glaciology), A. A. SHARBATIAN (geocryology), V. M. FRIDLAND (soil geography), A. G. VORONOV (biogeography), and A. G. ISACHENKO (parts of physical geography)

Bibliography

Razvitie nauk o Zemle v SSSR. Moscow, 1967.
Isachenko, A. G. Razvitie geograficheskikh idei. Moscow, 1971.
Razvitie fiziko-geograficheskikh nauk (XVII-XX vv). Moscow, 1975.
Ocherki istorii geograficheskoi nauki v SSSR. Moscow, 1976.
Aktual’nye napravleniia sovremennoi geografii. Moscow, 1976.
Sovremennye problemy geografii. Moscow, 1976.
Berg, L. S. Ocherki po istorii russkikh geograficheskikh otkrytii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1949.
Vilenskii, D. G. Russkaia pochvenno-kartograficheskaia shkola i ee vliianie na razvitie mirovoi kartografii pochv. Moscow-Leningrad, 1945.
Geografiia v MGU za 200 let, 1755–1955. Moscow, 1955.
Otechestvennye fiziko-geografy i puteshestvenniki. Moscow, 1959.
Sovetskaia geografiia: Itogi i zadachi. Moscow, 1960.
Grigor’ev, A. A. Razvitie teoreticheskikh problem sovetskoi fizicheskoi geografii (1917–1934 gg.). Moscow, 1965.
Gerasimov, I. P. Preobrazovanie prirody i razvitie geograficheskoi nauki v SSSR. Moscow, 1967.
Gvozdetskii, N. A. Sovetskie geograficheskie issledovaniia i otkrytiia. Moscow, 1967.
Istoriia otkrytiia i issledovaniia Sovetskoi Azii. Moscow, 1969.
Geograficheskoe obshchestvo za 125 let. Leningrad, 1970.
Sokolov, A. A., and A. I. Chebotarev. Ocherki razvitiia gidrologii v SSSR. Leningrad, 1970.
Lebedev, D. M., and V. A. Esakov. Russkie geograficheskie otkrytiia i issledovaniia s drevneishikh vremen do 1917 goda. Moscow, 1971.
50 let sovetskoi geodezii i kartografii. Moscow, 1967.
Churkin, V. G. Atlasnaia kartografiia. Leningrad, 1974.
Salishchev, K. A. Kartovedenie. Moscow, 1976.
Geodesy. The first geodetic and cartographic work was carried out in connection with the compilation of various maps of the Muscovite State. One such map was the Great Map, or Great Drawing (17th century), which contained the first general information about the geography of the country and the adjacent lands.
The first topographic surveys and astronomical-geodetic studies in Russia in the modern sense were carried out at the turn of the 18th century; these provided the basis for the geographic study of the country and adjacent frontier regions for the purpose of compiling the first maps and atlases. The School of Mathematical and Navigational Sciences was established in Moscow in 1701 to train astronomers, geodesists, cartographers, hydrogrophers, and seafarers. The first degree measurements were made in the early 1730’s at the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences to test the foundations of the law of universal gravitation, to determine the dimensions of the earth, and to create a reference geodetic network. Numerous astronomical-geodetic and geographic mapping expeditions were mounted in the 17th and 18th centuries (I. M. Evreinov and F. F. Luzhin, A. D. Krasil’nikov, Kh. P. Laptev and D. Ia. Laptev, S. I. Dezhnev, V. I. Bering); these expeditions resulted in outstanding geographic discoveries in the northern and eastern parts of Asia. The establishment of scientific cartography in Russia was linked with the Geographic Department of the Academy of Sciences, which for many years was under the directorship of M. V. Lomonosov.
The Military Topographical Depot, the principal geodetic institution in prerevolutionary Russia, was established in the early 18th century. Land surveying schools were founded in numerous provincial capitals during the 18th century; the school founded in Moscow in 1779 was reorganized in 1835 into the Land Surveying Institute, which trained many outstanding scientists in geodesy and cartography, including Ia. A. Iveronov, A. N. Bik, S. M. Solov’ev, F. N. Krasovskii, A. S. Chebotarev, M. D. Solov’ev, K. A. Tsvetkov, and V. V. Popov. The geodetic section of the Academy of the General Staff was organized in the 18th century, and numerous prominent military geodesists and cartographers studied or worked there, including F. F. Shubert, N. Ia. Tsinger, M. V. Pevtsov, I. I. Pomerantsev, and V. V. Vitkovskii.
Through the efforts of the Military Topographical Depot and other departments, such as the Surveying Department, the Resettlement Administration, and the Geological Committee, reference geodetic networks were established in the European part of the USSR, Middle Asia, and certain parts of Siberia. In addition, topographic surveys were carried out using different scales, and degree measurements were made. Of particular importance were the degree measurements carried out along the meridian from the mouth of the Danube to the Arctic Ocean in the first half of the 19th century under the direction of V. Ia. Struve and K. I. Tenner. As early as the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, monographs that would meet modern standards were written on geodesy (A. P. Bolotov, A. N. Bik, and S. M. Solov’ev), higher geodesy (V. V. Vitkovskii, I. A. Iveronov, F. A. Sludskii, and N. Ia. Tsinger), practical astronomy (N. Ia. Tsinger and A. N. Savich), the theory of the figure of the earth (F. A. Sludskii and M. F. Khandrikov), and topography and cartography (V. V. Vitkovskii). The theoretical foundations and practical methods of the principal geodetic projects were worked out during the 19th century, as were the theory and methods of astronomical determinations and precision leveling work.
The development of geodesy and cartography in the USSR dates to the decree signed by V. I. Lenin on Mar. 15, 1919, which created the Higher Geodetic Administration (now the Main Administration, or Central Board, of Geodesy and Cartography of the Council of Ministers of the USSR). The administration was charged with carrying out state cartographic and geodetic surveys in the Soviet Union, and its principal task, as outlined by the decree, was to study the topography of the country for the purpose of understanding and developing the productive forces, as well as developing the country’s natural resources. This task, which still continues to be important today, has been greatly expanded to include a number of major scientific and technical problems. The expansion of astronomical-geodetic and topographic mapping work required the creation of new scientific and technical facilities and the training of the corresponding engineering and technical personnel. To this end, institutes of engineers of geodesy, aerial photographic survey, and cartography were established in Moscow (1930) and Novosibirsk (1939). In addition, departments and subdepartments of geodesy were created at a number of higher technical schools, astronomical-geodetic or cartographic departments were organized at certain universities, and topographical technicums were established by the Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography. Special scientific research institutes were also founded, including the Central Scientific Research Institute of Geodesy, Aerial Photography, and Cartography (1928) in Moscow and the Scientific Research Institute of Applied Geodesy in Novosibirsk. Aerial geodetic production enterprises, cartographic factories, and institutes of engineering geodetic surveying in construction were established by the Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography.
After the establishment of Soviet power, the principal geodetic projects and topographic surveys were begun anew, since much of the previous data had become outdated. The new fundamental program of geodetic work was worked out by F. N. Krasovskii in 1928. It envisioned the creation of an astronomical-geodetic network in the USSR for the purpose of substantiating topographic surveys and solving geodetic problems related to the determination of the figure and dimensions of the earth. By the mid-1970’s, such a network encompassed the entire Soviet Union; moreover, a continuous state triangulation network was established over a considerable part of the country, which served as the basis for topographic surveys and engineering geodetic work.
In the early 1930’s, F. N. Krasovskii, followed later by N. A. Urmaev, D. A. Larin, I. Iu. Pranis-Pranevich, and others, worked out the theory and methods of the leveling of the astronomical-geodetic network and the continuous triangulation networks. Many geodesists studied the laws of the effects and accumulation of measurement errors in the astronomical-geodetic network, continuous triangulation networks, and high-precision leveling work (A. S. Chebotarev, K. L. Provorov, A. Z. Sazonov, and others).
In the mid-1930’s, work was begun on the design and production of Soviet-made instruments and tools for measuring angles in triangulation, as well as instruments and tools used in high-precision leveling and field astronomical determinations. Various types of engineering geodetic instruments were designed. In the late 1940’s research was carried out at the Central Scientific Research Institute of Geodesy, Aerial Photography, and Cartography, leading to the development of various types of light and radio range finders; also developed were radio geodetic systems used to measure great distances and radio altimeters used in aerial photographic surveying.
Various catalogs of geodetic stars and ephemerides were compiled for the needs of field astronomical determinations through the efforts of various astronomical and geodetic institutions, such as the Pulkovo Observatory, the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and the Central Scientific Research Institute of Geodesy, Aerial Photography, and Cartography. In the 1930’s, N. N. Pavlov, working at Pulkovo, and in 1940, V. E. Brandt, working at the Central Scientific Research Institute of Geodesy, Aerial Photography, and Cartography, embarked on the development of the methods and instruments for recording the passage of stars during astronomical observations using photoelectric cells. These methods were later used by the Soviet time service.
N. A. Pavlov in the late 1930’s and I. I. Entin and others in the early 1950’s studied the effects of atmospheric refraction on the results of high-precision leveling. In the early 1950’s, research was begun on refraction occurring in the course of carrying out geodetic leveling work and angle measurements in triangulation and in measuring distances with light and radio range finders (A. A. Izotov, L. P. Pellinen, A. P. Ostrovskii, D. I. Maslich, N. V. Iakovlev, and others). By the mid-1970’s, the theories, methods, and instruments had been developed for the direct determination of the integral coefficient of refraction of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere (M. T. Prilepin, V. S. Mikhailov, and others).
The general gravimetric survey of the USSR, begun in the mid-1930’s, has been completed. Geodetic, geophysical, and geological institutions carried out detailed gravimetric surveying, meeting the requirements of geodesy and geophysics, in many regions of the country. Beginning in the 1940’s, various types of gravimeters and high-precision pendulum instruments were built, which are used today to determine the force of gravity for scientific and practical purposes. In the early 1970’s, after many years of research at the Central Scientific Research Institute of Geodesy, Aerial Photography, and Cartography (M. E. Kheifets and others) and the Institute of Earth Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Iu. D. Bulanzhe and others), a high-precision network of gravimetric reference points was created. The basis for all gravimetric work in the country, the network has made it possible to study changes in the earth’s gravitational field overtime.
In the course of astronomical-geodetic and gravimetric work in the USSR, the figure, dimensions, and gravitational field of the earth have been determined. As early as 1940, F. N. Krasovskii and A. A. Izotov had determined the dimensions of the earth’s ellipsoid quite accurately based on degree measurements made in the USSR, the United States, and Western Europe; in 1942, a uniform system of geodetic coordinates (A. A. Izotov and M. S. Molodenskii) and leveling elevations was established for the entire country. The astronomical-geodetic networks and leveling grids of the USSR were later incorporated into this system of coordinates and elevations. Continuing research, primarily by L. P. Pellinen and others at the Central Scientific Research Institute of Geodesy, Aerial Photography, and Cartography, is refining the geodetic and geophysical parameters of the earth in conformity with the current requirements of science and engineering.
In the 1930’s, N. K. Migal’ worked out the theory of determining the figure of the earth without making use of the normal field of the force of gravity. M. S. Molodenskii devised the method of astronomical gravimetric leveling. In the early 1940’s, he proposed a new theory for determining the earth’s figure without reference to the earth’s internal structure. The subsequent extensive study of the theory, both by Molodenskii and his students, including M. I. Iurkina, V. F. Eremeev, L. P. Pellinen, and V. V. Brovar, greatly influenced modern theoretical geodesy, both in the USSR and abroad.
Beginning in the early 1960’s, scientists continued to solve fundamental scientific problems of geodesy using observations from artificial space satellites. Various devices for photographic satellite observations were invented and constructed (M. K. Abele and K. K. Lapushka). The theoretical and methodological principles for determining the geodetic and geophysical parameters of the earth’s figure and gravitational field from satellite observations were worked out, as were the theoretical and methodological principles of space triangulation (I. D. Zhongolovich, L. P. Pellinen, and others). Projects were carried out to determine the moon’s gravitational field on the basis of lunar observations by artificial satellites (E. L. Akim) and to map the lunar surface on the basis of photographs made by spacecraft and data obtained by lunar vehicles.
By the early 1950’s, a vast amount of data from repeated levelings had been accumulated, which were then applied to the study of the vertical movements of the earth’s crust. A map of vertical crustal movements in the European USSR was compiled (Iu. A. Meshcheriakov and associates). A network of geodynamic polygons was established, where continuous studies of the vertical and horizontal movements of the crust are carried out using geodetic methods.
The first use of aerial photography and photogrammetry for topographic surveying dates to the late 1920’s. The methods of aerial photography and photogrammetry subsequently came to serve as the basis for the preparation of topographic maps. Various types of aerial cameras were designed, including those with wide-angle lenses (M. M. Rusinov). General-purpose and differential methods of preparing topographic maps from aerial photographs were developed. Research was conducted on the effects and accumulation of measurement errors in the construction of photogrammetric networks (M. D. Konshin, G. P. Zhukov, and others). Analytic methods of formulating photogrammetric networks were worked out, as well as automated procedures for their mathematical processing (A. N. Lobanov, M. D. Konshin, and others). Original photogrammetric instruments were developed (F. V. Drobyshev, G. V. Romanovskii, M. D. Konshin, P. S. Aleksandrov, and others), including stereometers, stereographs, stereocomparators, and photogrammetric rectifiers.
Beginning in the early 1950’s, aerial photographic survey and photogrammetric methods were applied in geological, reclamation, agricultural, forest-management, construction, transportation, and other engineering surveys. Color multiband (multispectral) photography (A. N. Iordanskii, V. Ia. Mikhailov, L. M. Gol’dman, and others) began to be used along with black-and-white photography. Color surveying is done in exaggerated colors in the visible and infrared regions of the spectrum and thus has great information potential. The use of infrared photography and terrain-mapping radar was begun (V. B. Komarov and others), making it possible to obtain additional valuable information about various physical properties and characteristics of objects on the earth’s surface by the photographic scanning of the terrain. These same surveying techniques are used to study the earth by means of satellites and spacecraft.
The development of geodetic and aerial phototopographic surveying made it possible to prepare a uniform topographic map of the entire country on a scale of 1:100,000 and to compile maps on even larger scales of many parts of the country. In addition to compiling new and updating conventional topographic maps, new types of maps are being compiled, including special-purpose maps whose content and accuracy meet the requirements of individual branches of the national economy, as well as topographic photomaps, which make use of both aerial photographic and graphic representation (L. M. Gol’dman, L. A. Kashin, and others).
Soviet geodesists have participated in the work of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics since 1955 and have been involved in its most important projects.
PERIODICALS. Periodicals dealing with geodesy include Geodeziia i kartografiia (Geodesy and Cartography; since 1925) and hvestiia vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii: Geodeziia i aerofotos”emka (Proceedings of Higher Educational Institutions: Geodesy and Aerial Photography; since 1957).
A. A. IZOTOV

Bibliography

Rybakov, B. A. Russkie karty Moskovii, XV-nach. XVI ve ka. Moscow, 1974.
Evteev, O. A. Pervye russkie geodezisty na Tikhom okeane. Moscow, 1950.
Fel’, S. E. Kartografiia v Rossii 18 veka. Moscow, 1960.
Novokshanova-Sokolovskaia, Z. K. Kartograficheskie i geodezicheskie raboty v Rossii v XlX-nachale XX v. Moscow, 1967.
50 let sovetskoi geodezii i kartografii: Sb. st. Moscow, 1967.
Cartography. The development of Soviet cartography as a science and an economic enterprise is based on documents signed or written by V. I. Lenin, including the Mar. 15, 1919, decree that created the Higher Geodetic Administration of the All-Russian Council of the National Economy (now the Main Administration, or Central’ Board, of Geodesy and Cartography of the Council of Ministers of the USSR). The decree also established the administration’s principal task—the study of the country in a topographical sense for the purpose of improving and developing its productive forces. The goals of the systematic study and examination of productive forces as outlined by Lenin in the “Draft Plan of Scientific and Technical Work” (1918) led to the development of special (topical) branches of cartography at scientific and production organizations. Lenin’s letters (1920–21) regarding preparatory work for the first Soviet geographic atlases were particularly important for the development of the scientific and ideological foundations of Soviet cartography. They established the methodological foundations of Soviet cartography: dialectical principles for reflecting phenomena in all their aspects, interrelations, historical development, and contradictions.
The major achievement of Soviet cartography in the prewar years was the compilation of topographic maps of different scales and general maps based on them, including the l:l,000,000-scale State Map of the USSR, whose compilation and publication were completed during the Great Patriotic War (1941–45). Thematic, or topical, mapping was developing at the same time. Among the important achievements were the Map of Industry of the European Part of the USSR on a scale of 1:500,000 (1927) and the Map of the Asiatic Part of the USSR on a scale of 1:5,000,000 (1929). The sectoral thematic atlases of the USSR were of major practical and scientific importance, for example the Atlas of Industry of the USSR, in five parts (1929–31), and the Atlas of the Industry of the USSR at the Beginning of the Second Five-year Plan (1934). The publication of the comprehensive Great Soviet Atlas of the World (1937), a physical, economic, and political geographic atlas, marked a new, modern era in the development of cartography.
During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), the Soviet Army was provided with accurate, up-to-date maps for all its needs. In the postwar period, sectoral and comprehensive mapping was developed and a number of state thematic maps were compiled, such as geological and soil maps. Also developed were maps of the USSR of a generalizing nature—hypsometric, geological, tectonic, metallogenic, hydrogeological, and other maps on a scale of 1:2,500,000 and geomorphological, soil, vegetation, and other maps on a scale of 1:4,000,000. High-quality school maps and atlases were compiled, including the series of wall maps for higher educational institutions (1950–59).
Of particular importance were various fundamental comprehensive works: the Maritime Atlas (3 vols., 1950–53), the Climatic Atlas of the USSR (2 vols., 1960–62), the Atlas of Agriculture (1960), the Physicogeographical Atlas of the World (1964), the Atlas of the Peoples of the World (1964), the International Map of the World (on a scale of 1:2,500,000; 1964–75), developed jointly with the cartographic and geodetic services of several socialist countries, the Atlas of the Antarctic (1966), the Atlas of the Development of the Economy and Culture of the USSR (1967), the Officer’s Atlas (1974), and the Atlas of the Oceans (vol. 1: Pacific Ocean, 1974; vol. 2: Atlantic and Indian Oceans, 1971). Also important were the scientific reference atlases of the Soviet Union, as well as the reference atlases of the individual republics, krais, and oblasts. The compilation of comprehensive atlases of the Ukraine and Moldavia (1962), Armenia (1961), Byelorussia (1958), Azerbaijan (1963), Georgia (1964), and Tadzhikistan (1968) attested to the vigorous development of cartography in the Union republics.
Among the most valuable popular-science publications were the historical-biographical atlas Lenin (published in 1970 in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of Lenin’s birth), the atlas The Formation and Development of the USSR (1972), and the atlas The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1976).
The advances in the mapping of the USSR and the compilation of generalized maps of the planet as a whole are closely linked with the formation and development of cartography as a science; this, in turn, leads to the development of special cartographic methods that make it possible for us to represent and learn about reality by means of geographic maps as spatial models of the actual world. The scientific and technological revolution, particularly the introduction of computers and automated equipment, gave new impetus to the development of cartography and deepened its ties with other fields of knowledge. New trends emerged: theoretical cartography, which studies the essential cognitive features and information functions of maps; synthetic and evaluation-forecasting cartography; the cartographic method of investigation, which deals with ways of using maps in scientific and practical work; and mathematical cartographic modeling and automation of the processes of map production and use.
Major contributions to the development of theory and practice have been made by research groups of the Scientific-Editorial Map Compilation Department of the Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography (development of major cartographic works), the Central Scientific Research Institute of Geodesy, Aerial Photography, and Cartography (mathematical cartography, generalization theory), the Moscow Institute of Engineers of Geodesy, Aerial Photographic Survey, and Cartography (map studies, compilation and editing of maps), the department of geography at Moscow State University (thematic and comprehensive mapping) and various branch scientific research institutes, particularly the All-Union Geological Institute (geological and geomorphological mapping), the V. V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute (soil mapping), the Botanical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (vegetation mapping), the Institute of Geography of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (geomorphological mapping), all in Moscow, and the Main Geophysical Observatory (climatic mapping) in Leningrad.
Leading scientists in the development of individual branches of the cartographic science include lu. M. Shokal’skii (atlases and hypsometric maps), F. N. Krasovskii, V. V. Kavraiskii, N. A. Urmaev, and G. A. Ginzburg (mathematical cartography), N. M. Volkov (cartometry), N. N. Baranskii, I. A. Vitver, A. I. Preobrazhenskii, and M. I. Nikishov (economic maps), L. I. Prasolov, I. P. Gerasimov, and N. N. Rozov (soil maps), V. B. Sochava and E. M. Lavrenko (maps of vegetation), D. V. Nalivkin, N. S. Shatskii, and A. A. Bogdanov (geological maps), Z. A. Svarichevskaia, A. I. Spiridonov, and D. V. Borisevich (geomorphological maps), A. G. Isachenko and V. B. Sochava (landscape maps), A. S. Barkov, V. G. Erdeli, and G. N. Bashlavina (school maps), A. A. Borzov, T. N. Gunbina, and I. P. Zarutskaia (the hypsometric method), and M. A. Tsvetkov (forest maps). The scientific aspects of map studies and the editing and compilation of maps have been developed and generalized by K. A. Salishchev, who is also working on developing methods of using maps as a means of scientific research.
The principal problems of cartography have been worked out by lu. V. Filippov (cartographic generalization), D. A. Larin (atlas projections), A. D. Kopylova (map publication), and A. F. Aslanikashvili (theoretical aspects).
Soviet cartographers are very much involved in various international projects, including the compilation of such major maps as the l:2,500,000-scale International Map of the World (1964–75), developed by the Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography jointly with the cartographic and geodetic services of a number of socialist countries, the l:2,500,000-scale International Tectonic Map of Europe (1st ed., 1964; 2nd ed., 1973–76), the l:2,500,000-scale International Map of the Quaternary Deposits of Europe (1967), the l:2,500,000-scale Metallogenic Map of Europe (1968–73), the 1:2,500,000-scale International Geomorphological Map of Europe (1976—), the 1:500,000-scale International Soil Map of the World (1970—), and the Geological and Geophysical Atlas of the Indian Ocean (1975).
Soviet cartographers have taken part in the work of the International Geographical Union since 1956 and the International Cartographic Association since 1964. The Commission of National and Regional Atlases of the International Geographical Union, which greatly influenced the development of comprehensive atlas mapping in many countries of the world, was centered in Moscow State University between 1956 and 1972. The National Atlas of Cuba, prepared by the joint efforts of Cuban and Soviet scientists, came out in 1970.
The prospects for the continued development of Soviet cartography are defined by the rapid and continuous growth in the use of maps and the increasing importance of maps in the national economy, cultural construction, and scientific research. Maps have proved to be particularly useful in helping improve national economic planning and management, developing major regions and territorial production complexes, and forecasting socioeconomic processes.
The prospects for the development of thematic and comprehensive mapping in the USSR are especially broad and diverse. Thorough, detailed maps of the earth’s natural conditions and resources, waters, soils, climate, and the biosphere are essential for conservation, the rational use of natural resources, and the regeneration of the country’s natural resources. The long-term comprehensive studies of the world ocean have expanded the spatial limits of mapping, and the study of outer space has presented cartography with the challenge of compiling maps of the moon and of Mars and the other planets.
PERIODICALS. The principal periodicals dealing with various aspects of cartography include Geodeziia i kartografiia (Geodesy and Cartography; since 1925), Izvestiia Akademii Nauk SSSR: Seriia geograficheskaia (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Geography Series; since 1951), Vestnik MGU: Seriia V: Geografiia (Journal of Moscow University: Series V: Geography; since 1846), Izvestiia Vsesoiuznogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva (Proceedings of the All-Union Geographical Society; since 1865), and Izvestiia vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii: Geodeziia i aerofotos”emka (Proceedings of Higher Educational Institutions: Geodesy and Aerial Photography; since 1957).
K. A. SALISHCHEV
Meteorology. Meteorology had attained a fairly sophisticated level of development in Russia as early as the 19th century. The Main Physical Observatory (now the Main Geophysical Observatory) was founded in St. Petersburg in 1849 as the country’s central meteorological institution. It subsequently established a series of branches in Pavlovsk, Tbilisi, Orenburg, Irkutsk, and Vladivostok, as well as a series of meteorological observatories at a number of universities. H. Wild (G. I. Vil’d), who was the observatory’s director for many years, established a model network of weather stations in Russia in the second half of the 19th century, which gradually encompassed the entire country. The weather service was founded in the 1870’s.
The first aerological (V. V. Kuznetsov) and actinometric (S. M. Savinov, N. N. Kalitin, and V. A. Mikhel’son) observations were made in the early 20th century. However, Russian meteorologists focused their attention primarily on climatology (see above: Physicogeographical sciences: Climatology) and synoptic meteorology (M. A. Rykachev, P. I. Brounov, V. I. Sreznevskii, S. D. Griboedov, and others). The first attempts at long-term weather forecasts through the use of statistical comparisons and the synoptic method were made by B. P. Mul’tanovskii (1912). A. I. Voeikov and P. I. Brounov begun conducting research in agricultural meteorology.
Meteorology developed rapidly after the October Revolution of 1917. The network of weather stations expanded considerably in the 1920’s through the addition of a network of actinometric and aerological stations. The nationwide Hydrometeorological Service of the USSR was established in 1929. A number of original actinometric instruments were developed (N. N. Kalitin and others). P. A. Molchanov’s invention of the radiosonde (1930) made possible continuous observations of the state of the free atmosphere, to which end a vast network of radio-sounding stations was set up. In the 1940’s, radar began to be used to observe the state of the atmosphere (V. V. Kostare v and others). The development of meteorological rockets in the early 1950’s and meteorological satellites and laser sounding in the 1960’s made it possible to study the upper layers of the atmosphere. Meteorological observations from scientific research ocean vessels became widespread.
After the Revolution, the country’s Hydrometeorological Service founded a number of institutes, including the Hydrometeorological Scientific Research Center of the USSR in Moscow, one of the four world centers of the World Weather Service; the A. I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory in Leningrad; the Central Aerological Observatory in Dolgoprudnyi; the Institute of Aeroclimatology in Moscow; and the Institute of Experimental Meteorology in Obninsk. Numerous institutes were also founded by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the republic academies of sciences, including the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Moscow.
A. A. Fridman’s studies in the early 1920’s of the theory of turbulence and vortex formation in the atmosphere laid the foundations of the Soviet school of dynamic meteorology. The research of his associates and students (B. I. Izvekov, N. E. Kochin, I. A. Kibel’, M. I. Iudin, and others), as well as the work of A. M. Obukhov, E. N. Blinova, G. I. Marchuk, and A. S. Monin from the 1940’s to the 1960’s, made it possible to apply the equations of hydrodynamics and thermodynamics to the analysis of large-scale atmospheric processes, including the general circulation of the atmosphere. The expansion of aerological observations and the appearance of computers in the 1950’s contributed to the development of numerical methods of weather forecasting.
Synoptic meteorology continued developing in the 1930’s and 1940’s. There were significant contributions to the theories of air masses and atmospheric fronts, jet streams, and frontal cyclogenesis and to the methodology of frontal analysis (A. I. Askinazii, V. A. Bugaev, V. A. Dzhordzhio, S. P. Khromov, and others), especially with the help of data obtained from aerological observations (V. A. Bugaev and Kh. P. Pogosian). Studies are currently being carried out of the regional characteristics of circulation processes in many parts of the USSR and the arctic and antarctic regions. Synoptic studies help improve the methodology of short-term weather forecasting. Research to devise a methodology for long-term weather forecasting (for as long as a season), begun some time ago by B. P. Mul’tanovskii, is developing in many directions on the basis of the study of the general circulation of the atmosphere using synoptic methods (S. T. Pagava, G. Ia. Vangengeim, and others) as well as mathematical statistics (M. I. Iudin, N. A. Bagrov, and others) and numerical methods (E. N. Blinova). However, because of the exceptional difficulty of the problem, practical results are as yet unsatisfactory.
The theoretical and experimental study of atmospheric turbulence, whose principal statistical characteristics were determined in the 1920’s by A. A. Fridman and L. V. Keller, has developed considerably. In 1941, A. N. Kolmogorov and A. M. Obukhov worked out a statistical theory of small-scale turbulence, which was later developed and applied to problems of atmospheric physics by V. I. Tatarskii, A. M. Iaglom, and many others. The vertical profiles and diurnal behavior of meteorological elements in the surface and boundary layers of the atmosphere were studied empirically and theoretically (B. I. Izvekov, 1929; 1940’s to 1960’s, M. E. Shvets, A. A. Dorodnitsyn, D. L. Laikhtman, L. T. Matveev, and others). In 1953–54, A. M. Obukhov and A. S. Monin formulated a general similarity theory for the surface and water-contacting layer of the atmosphere and the conducting layer, which became the basis for the systematization of all data on turbulence near the underlying surface. Beginning in the 1950’s, aircraft, radar, and laser soundings were also used to study turbulence in the upper atmosphere, which is largely associated with jet streams and thus is of practical importance for aviation. Thermal convection in the atmosphere was investigated, particularly in connection with cloud formation.
In view of the growing pollution of the atmosphere, considerable attention since the early 1960’s has been devoted to the theoretical and empirical study of atmospheric diffusion as the mechanism by which aerosols are disseminated through the atmosphere (M. E. Berliand and others).
In the early 1920’s, N. N. Kalitin and his students turned to the study of the dispersion and absorption of solar radiation and the radiation of the earth itself and its atmosphere. After 1940, a series of fundamental theoretical studies was carried out on the dispersion and transfer of radiation in the atmosphere and on radiant heat exchange (V. V. Shuleikin, V. A. Fok, E. S. Kuznetsov, V. V. Sobolev, K. S. Shifrin, E. M. Feigel’son, G. V. Rozenberg, and K. Ia. Kondrat’ev). M. I. Budyko proposed a model for calculating all the components of the heat balance of the earth’s surface and studied their geographic distribution. This provided the basis for the compilation of the world-famous Atlas of the Earth’s Heat Balance (1955) at the Main Geophysical Observatory.
During the 1950’s, empirical and theoretical studies of the microphysics of clouds were carried out (A. M. Borovikov, G. K. Sulakvelidze, I. I. Gaivoronskii, and others), and a number of advances were made in the practical solution of the problem of artificially seeding clouds and fogs, first posed by V. N. Obolenskii in the 1930’s (E. K. Fedorov). In particular, it is now possible to effectively prevent the formation of hail, a practice that is followed in the Ukraine, Moldavia, the northern Caucasus, and Georgia.
Electrical atmospheric phenomena, especially the electricity of clouds, were studied by P. N. Tverskoi, Ia. I. Frenkel’, I. M. Imianitov, N. S. Shishkin, and others. In the 1940’s, Frenkel’ proposed a theory according to which the origin of the atmosphere’s electric field is explained by the processes of the separation of charges within clouds.
With the advent of rockets and satellites in the 1960’s, Soviet scientists, working on similar projects as their counterparts in the United States but using original methods, significantly enriched and refined ideas about the gas, ion, and aerosol composition of the upper atmosphere and the physical and chemical reactions occurring there, as well as ideas about the auroras, the illumination of the night sky, and the dynamics of the ionosphere. A. I. Lebedinskii’s studies (1950’s) made it possible to study the spatial structure of the auroras and the shape and motions (drift, turbulence) of the inhomogeneities in the ionosphere. On the basis of observations of the ozone content in the atmosphere made at network stations and by various expeditions (A. Kh. Khrgian and others), it was possible to establish a number of characteristics of motion at the altitudes of the ozonosphere. For example, pulsations of the upper atmosphere caused by fluctuations in solar activity were detected as a result of rocket soundings of the temperature, wind, composition, and other characteristics of the upper atmosphere (information that was later supplemented by satellite observations). The foundations of satellite meteorology were laid (K. Ia. Kondrat’ev and others).
Considerable work has been done in applied meteorological disciplines, such as agricultural, aeronautical, engineering, and construction meteorology.
Soviet meteorologists are actively involved in the work of the World Meteorological Organization, particularly the World Weather Service, one of whose founders was V. A. Bugaev. They have actively participated in a number of international programs devoted to the global study of atmospheric processes in their interaction with oceanic and other processes. Such programs include the International Geophysical Year (1957–58), the International Geophysical Cooperation (1959), the International Year of the Quiet Sun (1964–65), the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP), whose 1974 international Atlantic Tropical Experiment was the first stage, and the Monsoon Experiment in the Indian Ocean (1977). Similar programs that are narrower in scope have been carried out by the USSR alone or jointly with other countries, such as France, India, and the United States. The USSR has made major contributions to the meteorological study of the arctic and antarctic regions. The final objective of the various international and national projects is to improve the quality of short-term weather forecasting and to develop methods of long-term forecasting, one of the most important challenges faced by modern science.
PERIODICALS. Among the principal periodicals in Soviet meteorology is Izvestiia Akademii Nauk SSSR: Seriia fizika atmosfery i okeana (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Physics of the Atmosphere and Ocean Series, since 1965; between 1937 and 1951 it was published under the title Seriia geograficheskaia i geofizicheskaia [Geography and Geophysics Series] and between 1952 and 1964 under the title Seriia geofizicheskaia [Geophysics Series]). Other important journals include Meteorologicheskii vestnik (Meteorological Journal; 1891–1935) and Meteorologiia i gidrologiia (Meteorology and Hydrology; since 1935).

Bibliography

Khrgian, A. Kh. Ocherki razvitiia meteorologii, 2nd ed., vol. 1. Leningrad, 1959.
Meteorologiia i gidrologiia za 50 let Sovetskoi vlasti. Edited by E. K. Fedorov. Leningrad, 1967.
Oceanography. Russian scientists have made major contributions to the study of the oceans. They initiated the deep-water study of the physical and chemical characteristics of the environment and were the first to develop methods of conducting observations in the ocean (I. F. Kruzenshtern, 1803–06; E. Lenz, 1823–26). They also carried out observations of the tides and made a number of generalizations (F. P. Litke, 1844), worked out a scheme of the vertical circulation of the ocean (E. Lenz, 1845) and the foundations of the theory of straits, and established certain regularities of the formation of the vertical physical and chemical structure of the ocean (S. O. Makarov, 1885, 1894). Iu. M. Shokal’skii’s monograph Oceanography (1917), describing the principal physical and chemical processes and geographic features of the world ocean, was the culminating work of this period.
After the October Revolution of 1917, oceanographic research developed rapidly. In 1921 the Floating Marine Research Institute was established by a decree of V. I. Lenin. This marked the beginning of the comprehensive oceanographic study of the northern seas for the purpose of developing their natural resources. Oceanographic research is conducted at the P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanography of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Moscow (since 1946), the State Oceanographic Institute in Moscow (1943), the Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR in Sevastopol’ (1948; from 1929 to 1948 known as the Marine Hydrophysical Station), and the Arctic and Antarctic Scientific Research Institute in Leningrad (1958; between 1925 and 1930 known as the Institute for the Study of the North, and from 1930 to 1958 as the All-Union Arctic Institute). Research is also conducted at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography in Moscow (1933), the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics (1967), Moscow State University, Leningrad State University, and many other scientific and educational institutions. As a result of the intensive development of oceanographic research after the war, oceanography was distinguished from physical geography as an independent complex of scientific disciplines that studied the physical, chemical, geological, and biological aspects of the natural features of the ocean.
The fundamental problem of physical oceanography is to identify the regularities governing the interaction of the ocean and the atmosphere, ranging from the formation of streams and the amount of movement, heat, and moisture on the surface and within the water mass to long-term global changes in the ocean and the atmosphere. Such data serve as the basis for predicting the state of the ocean and for weather forecasting. Soviet scientists made major contributions to the solution of these problems in the 1950’s and 1960’s (V. V. Shuleikin, V. Iu. Vize, D. L. Laikhtman, A. S. Monin, G. M. Tauber, and others), particularly through the theoretical and experimental study of turbulence and turbulent mixing. In the 1960’s, new ideas about turbulence under conditions of stable stratification and about the vertical microstructure of ocean waters were formulated (A. S. Monin, R. V. Ozmidov, A. G. Kolesnikov, and others). Progress was made in studying wind-driven waves and working out the spectral theory of waves. The regularities of the occurrence, development, and attenuation of waves at small and great depths under complex shore configurations were established, and methods were devised for the practical computation of wave elements (V. V. Shuleikin, B. Kh. Glukhovskii, Iu. M. Krylov, and others).
The study of variations in the water level of the oceans and seas, including tidal fluctuations, has advanced to practical methods of calculation. In the 1950’s to 1970’s, knowledge about the propagation of tidal waves in the open sea, in mid-ocean, and in the littoral zone was expanded, a classification of tides was developed, and methods of calculating tidal characteristics in the littoral zone and in the open sea were refined (A. N. Sretenskii, V. V. Timonov, A. I. Duvanin, B. L. Lagutin, and others). The study of periodic variations in the level of the ocean has made it possible to establish their relationship to winds, atmospheric pressure, and other factors. Methods of forecasting storm surges and long-term changes in the level of enclosed seas were developed (L. F. Rudovits and others).
The use of moored buoys to measure currents, begun in the mid-1950’s, fostered the development of research on the circulation of the waters of the oceans and seas. Important theoretical propositions concerning currents in the monsoon regions of the ocean were worked out, as well as the method of full streams, the effects of irregularities in the wind and bottom relief on currents, and the interrelationships of wind fields, current velocities, and water density. The existence of vortexes of different size and length of existence in the ocean were established. Methods of calculating the circulation of ocean waters were derived (V. V. Shuleikin, N. N. Zubov, V. B. Shtokman, P. S. Lineikin, A. I. Fel’-zenbaum, A. S. Sarkisian, and others). Charts of currents at different ocean depths were compiled by A. M. Muromtsev, V. N. Stepanov, V. G. Kort, V. A. Burkov, and others in the course of the study of the relationship between the circulation of water and water density.
During the study of the intermixing of ocean water and seawater, the principal regularities of vertical mixing under different geographic conditions were established, as was the important role of the winter vertical circulation in oceans and seas. From the 1930’s to 1950’s, the regularities of the observed increase in density upon the intermixing of waters of different temperature and salinity were formulated, and methods were devised for calculating vertical mixing (N. N. Zubov, V. B. Shtokman, and others).
Important results were obtained in the study of the optics and acoustics of the ocean. The spectral composition of the color of the sea and its dependence on illumination and angle of observation were established, and the laws of the propagation of light at great depths were determined. Methods were developed to analyze the absorption of light by seawater for different degrees of saturation with suspended particles (V. V. Shuleikin, M. V. Kozlianinov, and others, 1950’s). In ocean acoustics, the regularities of sound propagation in ocean waters as a function of temperature and salinity were established, the super long-range propagation of sound in an underwater sound channel was detected (1946) and its theory worked out, and the theoretical foundations of the regularities of sound attenuation within a body of water were established for different scatterers (L. M. Brekhovskikh, L. D. Rozenberg, and others).
The study of ocean and sea ice has developed considerably. The regularities of the formation, dissemination, and destruction of ice in different parts of the ocean were identified, as were the physicochemical characteristics of ice and the methods of ice forecasting (N. N. Zubov, V. Iu. Vize, V. S. Nazarov, B. Kh. Buinitskii, and others). Of major importance were the observations made on the drifting Severnyi Polius stations (beginning in 1937; I. D. Papanin, P. P. Shirshov, E. K. Fedorov, and E. T. Krenkel’) and the systematic studies conducted in the antarctic seas (beginning in 1956).
Of particular importance were the studies of the long-term and short-term variations in the physical characteristics of the macrostructure, mesostructure, and microstructure of the ocean (K. N. Fedorov, R. R. Belevich, Iu. V. Makerov, A. A. Rybnikov, and others). The regularities of the formation of the vertical and horizontal thermohaline and dynamic structure of the oceans and seas were identified in the 1950’s and 1960’s (A. D. Dobrovol’skii, A. M. Muromtsev, V. N. Stepanov, and others).
In marine hydrochemistry, the regularities of the exchange and transformation of chemical substances in the ocean and the formation of the ocean’s chemical balance were identified, as were the regularities governing the protection of oceans and seas from chemical and radioactive contamination. In the course of research on these problems, the chemical balance of virtually all the oceans and seas and the laws governing the internal chemical exchange with the land and the atmosphere were established. In the 1960’s and 1970’s, various methods of predicting and calculating changes in the hydrochemical regime in enclosed seas engendered by economic activities were first developed in the USSR, and the principal regularities governing the pollution of oceans and seas were established (S. V. Bruevich, O. A. Alekin, L. K. Blinov, B. A. Skopintsev, and others).
In marine biology, the regularities governing the productivity of waters were identified, as were the species and quantitative biological structure of the ocean and its variability in time and space. An ecological regionalization of the ocean was carried out. Commercial biological research expanded greatly, and new fishing areas were successfully developed in the open sea.
(For greater details see below: Biological sciences: Zoology.)
A. M. MUROMTSEV
The geological study of the southern and northern seas of the USSR was begun in the 1890’s, and by the 1940’s the first ideas about the relief of the bottom and types of bottom sediments had been developed (N. I. Andrusov, A. D. Arkhangel’skii, N. M. Strakhov, Ia. V. Samoilov, and others). The systematic geological study of the oceans using new technical equipment and methods was begun in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s. The underwater Gakkel and Lomonosov ridges were discovered (la. Ia. Gakkel’ and others) as a result of the geomorphological study of the floor of the Arctic Ocean; various types of bottom sediments were also studied. The first compendium of marine geology was published in 1948 by M. V. Klenova. From the late 1950’s through the 1970’s, the structure and many major landforms of the bottom of the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans, including some antarctic areas, were identified and investigated, including underwater ridges, seamounts, troughs, and fracture zones; geomorphological and tectonic maps of the oceans were also compiled (A. V. Zhivago, G. B. Udintsev, and others). Geophysical methods were used to study the thickness, structure, and physical parameters of the sedimentary layer and oceanic crust in different tectonic regions (Iu. P. Neprochnov, I. P. Kosminskaia, A. G. Gainanov, and others). The structure of the bottom of the Caspian, Black, and Mediterranean seas was studied in detail using geophysical and geological methods (O. K. Leont’ev, Ia. P. Malovitskii, and Iu. P. Neprochnov).
The processes of sediment formation were studied, and new genetic types of sediments and sedimentary formations were identified. Lithological and geochemical maps of the three oceans, as well as maps of sedimentation rates, were compiled (P. L. Bezrukov, A. P. Lisitsyn, and others). The stratigraphy of Cenozoic ocean deposits was worked out on the basis of diatoms (A. P. Zhuze) and foraminifers (V. A. Krasheninnikov). Studies were made of the absolute age of ocean sediments.
The regularities of the distribution, composition, and conditions of formation of mineral resources on the surface of the ocean floor (ferromagnesian concretions and phosphorites) were studied. The general geological, tectonic, and geochemical prerequisites indicating the presence of gas and petroleum in the sedimentary basins of the Indian, Atlantic, and Arctic oceans were substantiated (M. K. Kalinko, A. A. Geodekian, and others). (See below: Geological sciences.)
L. E. LEVIN
Research results have made it possible to provide essential data, manuals, and information for navigation, fishing, marine hydroengineering construction (including tidal electric power plants), shipbuilding, and other sectors of the national economy.
Since the 1950’s the USSR has been successfully developing international cooperation in the study of various aspects of the natural features of the world ocean within the framework of the intergovernmental oceanographic commissions of UNESCO, the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, and other organizations. Soviet scientists have actively participated in all international oceanographic research programs, including the International Geophysical Year (IGY), the study of the Kuroshio Current (Japan Current) and adjacent parts of the Pacific Ocean, and studies of the Southern Ocean, the North Atlantic, the tropical zone of the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Caribbean Sea. The USSR has participated in all major international conferences on oceanography, including the First Oceanographic Congress (New York, 1959), the Second International Oceanographic Congress (Moscow, 1966), the Fifteenth General Assembly of the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans (Tokyo, 1970), and the Joint Oceanographic Assembly (Edinburgh, 1976).
In 1974 the USSR commenced publication of the Atlas of the Oceans (vol. 1: Pacific Ocean), containing information on the geological, geophysical, hydrological, climatic, biogeographical, and other aspects of oceanography. The Geological and Geophysical Atlas of the Indian Ocean was published in 1975.
PERIODICALS. Among the principal periodicals in oceanography is Izvestiia Akademii Nauk SSSR: Seriia Fizika atmosfery i okeana (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Physics of the Atmosphere and Ocean Series, since 1965; between 1937 and 1951 it was published under the title Seriia geograficheskaia i geofizicheskaia [Geography and Geophysics Series], and between 1952 and 1964, under the title Seriia geofizicheskaia [Geophysics Series]). Equally important are Okeanologiia (Oceanography; since 1961), Meteorologiia i gidrologiia (Meteorology and Hydrology; since 1935), Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: Razdel Okeanologiia (Reports of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Oceanography Section; since 1954), Trudy Gosudarstvennogo okeanograficheskogo instituta (Proceedings of the State Oceanographic Institute; since 1947), Trudy Instituta Okeanologii AN SSSR (Proceedings of the Institute of Oceanography of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR; since 1946), Trudy Morskogo gidrofizicheskogo instituta (Proceedings of the Marine Hydrophysical Institute; since 1948), and Trudy Arkticheskogo i Antarkticheskogo nauchno-issledovatel’skogo instituta (Proceedings of the Arctic and Antarctic Scientific Research Institute; since 1931).

Bibliography

Esakov, V. A., A. F. Plakhotnik, and A. I. Alekseev. Russkie okeanicheskie i morskie issledovaniia v XIX-nachale XX v. Moscow, 1964.
Deriugin, K. K. Istoriia okeanograficheskikh issledovanii. Leningrad, 1972.
Plakhotnik, A. F. Fizicheskaia okeanologiia: Kratkii obzor vazhneishikh issledovanii. Moscow, 1973.
Geological sciences. The first information on minerals in what is now the USSR appeared in the third and second millennia B.C., when man carried on primitive mining work. In the 16th and 17th centuries, bits and pieces of information on the wealth of Russia’s mineral resources were provided by travelers, prospectors, and fur trappers. During the 18th century, the geological structure and natural resources of Russia were studied primarily by expeditions of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, which covered vast areas between Kamchatka in the east and the Dnestr River and the Carpathians in the west. S. P. Krasheninnikov, S. G. Gmelin, I. G. Gmelin, P. S. Pallas, I. I. Lepekhin, V. M. Severgin, N. Ia. Ozeretskovskii, and others took part in the expeditions, amassing extensive scientific data on the geology, geography, ethnography, flora, and fauna of various parts of Russia. The Prikaz Rudokopnykh Del (Office of Mining Affairs; renamed the Berg-Kollegiia under Peter I the Great) and other institutions were also involved in prospecting for and extracting mineral raw materials.
Many branches of the modern science of geology arose in the mid-18th century. The foundations were laid for stratigraphy (J. Lehmann), tectonics, lithology, and paleogeography (M. V. Lomonosov, I. I. Lepekhin, and others). Mineralogy, the oldest earth science, developed further (M. V. Lomonosov and V. M. Severgin), as did the applied branches of geology. The scientific school established by Lomonosov attached great importance to chemical processes that occur both on the earth’s surface and within the earth and that are specifically responsible for the formation of many mineral deposits.
In the early 19th century, the Berg-Kollegiia was reorganized into the Mining Department (1807). Also at this time, the Moscow Society of Naturalists (1805) and the Mineralogical Society (1817) were founded, both of which organized expeditions and conducted scientific research in geology. The expeditions of A. F. Middendorf to Siberia, K. M. Baer to the Caspian Sea, W. H. Abich to the Caucasus, and K. Ditmar to Kamchatka provided important material on the geological structure of the areas.
Rapid progress was made in the science of geology in Russia in the first half of the 19th century. This was linked to the development of the paleontological method (E. I. Eikhval’d) and the stratigraphic scale (D. I. Sokolov, G. P. Gel’mersen); the latter became the foundation of virtually all applied and theoretical research in geology. At the same time, the first geological maps appeared, which encompassed a significant part of European Russia (1841, 1845). In the petrographic and mineralogical sciences, the most important advances were made in descriptive crystallography and mineralogy (A. Ia. Kupfer, N. I. Koksharov, and others).
A milestone in the history of Russian geology was the founding of the Geological Committee (1882), which embarked on a systematic geological survey of European Russia, the Caucasus, the Ural and Altai Mountains, and Turkestan. The principal investigations were conducted by expeditions led by I. V. Mushketov and V. A. Obruchev (Middle and Central Asia, Eastern Siberia), P. P. Semenov-Tian-Shanskii (Central Asia), and others. Paleontological and stratigraphic research continued developing in the late 19th and early 20th centuries through the work of such scientists as F. B. Shmidt, A. P. Karpinskii, A. P. Pavlov, F. N. Chernyshev, N. I. Andrusov, and A. D. Arkhangel’skii.
The research of Russian scientists led to new discoveries in tectonics. The method of the paleogeographic analysis of the development of cratons was developed (A. P. Karpinskii, 1887, 1894). Russian scientists devoted considerable attention to various aspects of lithology. A. P. Pavlov identified two new types of continental deposits, deluvial and proluvial (1888), and A. D. Arkhangel’skii laid the foundations of comparative lithological analysis (1912).
The invention of the polarizing microscope in the mid-19th century proved to be an important turning point in the history of petrography. The new method of petrographic research was first applied in Russia by A. A. Inostrantsev and A. P. Karpinskii in 1867. F. Iu. Levinson-Lessing’s fundamental studies on magma and magmatic formations and provinces and on their dependence on tectonics appeared at the end of the 19th century, as did his classification of igneous rocks. E. S. Fedorov formulated the main propositions of the theory of crystal symmetry and structure, worked out the theodolite method of studying minerals (1891), and employed crystallochemical analysis in mineral testing.
At the turn of the 20th century, V. I. Vernadskii’s research led to a fundamental breakthrough in mineralogy—the formation of genetic mineralogy and geochemistry.
Of particular importance for the study of minerals were the studies of L. I. Lutugin and F. N. Chernyshev related to the mapping of the coal-bearing strata of the Donets Basin, the works of I. M. Gubkin on the compilation of structural maps of petroleum-bearing strata, and the research of N. I. Andrusov on the origin of petroleum from sapropelic organic matter dispersed in clayey sediments. In hydrogeology, V. I. Vernadskii established the uniformity of all natural waters occurring in different geo-spheres. The foundations of engineering geology were laid in connection with the development of railroad and industrial construction. A. P. Pavlov studied the mechanism of the formation of landslides; he developed a classification of landslides and worked out ways of preventing them.
In 1892 a new geological map of European Russia on a scale of 1:2,520,000 was compiled and published under the direction of A. P. Karpinskii. Work was also begun on the compilation of a general “10-verst” map of European Russia on a scale of 1:420,000.
During World War I (1914–18), the state was in need of various mineral raw materials, many of which were imported from abroad. In 1915, at the suggestion of V. I. Vernadskii, the Academy of Sciences and the Geological Committee formed the Commission for the Study of Natural Productive Forces of Russia, which prepared complete surveys of deposits of the most important minerals.
After the October Revolution, upon V. I. Lenin’s initiative (1918), the Commission for the Study of Natural Productive Forces embarked on research directed at establishing new mineral raw material bases. During this period, the Soviet government devoted considerable attention to the development of the science of geology in the country. In September 1918, Lenin signed a decree establishing the Moscow Academy of Mines. During the 1920’s and 1930’s, departments of geology were organized at a number of universities, polytechnical schools, and higher industrial schools. A number of geological research institutions were also organized. The Geological, Paleontological, and Petrographic institutes and the M. V. Lomonosov Institute of Geochemistry and Mineralogy were founded on the basis of the Peter the Great Geological and Mineralogical Museum. Branches, divisions, and centers of the academies of sciences were formed in the Union republics and individual parts of the RSFSR, such as the Kola Peninsula and the Urals. Also important was the formation of territorial geological administrations within the Main Geological Administration of the People’s Commissariat of Heavy Industry of the USSR.
Regional geological research developed. Extensive geological exploration in different parts of the country led to the discovery of new copper and iron-ore deposits in the Urals and central Kazakhstan, antimony-mercury deposits in Middle Asia, potassium salts in the Cis-Ural Region, unique deposits of apatite on the Kola Peninsula, and new gold-bearing deposits in Siberia. The first steps were taken in identifying the country’s extremely important Volga-Ural Oil-Gas Region.
For purposes of geological mapping, reference geologic sections of all geological systems were studied, the stages and suites were paleontologically substantiated, and paleogeographic schemes were devised (D. V. Nalivkin and others). In the prewar period, the analysis of isotopes to determine the absolute age of geological formations was introduced (V. G. Khlopin, I. E. Starik, and others), the theoretical propositions of the theory of geosynclines were expanded (A. D. Arkhangel’skii, A. A. Borisiak, N. S. Shatskii, and others), and a method of analyzing facies and thicknesses to study the oscillatory movements of the earth’s crust were developed (V. V. Belousov). An important achievement was the compilation of the first tectonic map of the USSR (A. D. Arkhangel’skii and N. S. Shatskii, 1933), which became the prototype of all subsequent tectonic maps.
The expansion of research in petroleum and coal geology promoted the development of lithology. The problem of the formation of petroleum-producing suites was studied (N. M. Strakhov), and geochemical facies of sedimentary rocks were identified. The principles of the differentiation of matter during sediment accumulation were substantiated, as was the periodicity of sedimentary rock formation (L. V. Pustovalov, 1940). The developing theory of facies was applied to the study of the evolution of the natural environment and the transformation of the organic world (A. A. Borisiak, lu. A. Zhemchuzhnikov, and D. V. Nalivkin).
The comprehensive study of the Quaternary (Anthropogenic) period began in the 1930’s and 1940’s, using archaeological, geo-morphological, petrographic, paleobotanical, and other methods (A. P. Pavlov, G. F. Mirchink, S. A. Iakovlev, V. I. Gromov, and others).
In the mineralogical and petrographic sciences, research was conducted by N. V. Belov (1940) to determine the structure of minerals. A graphic method of analyzing the composition of rocks that identified the chief characteristics of their chemism was proposed, and the foundations of petrochemistry were laid by A. N. Zavaritskii (1944). A new area of study, engineering petrography, developed as a result of the work of D. S. Beliankin. Ideas about isomorphic series and the role of living matter in the migration of chemical elements and mineral formation were formulated, and a new science, biogeochemistry, emerged (V. I. Vernadskii, Ia. V. Samoilov, and A. P. Vinogradov).
In the 1920’s and 1930’s, the possibility of a geophysical study to elucidate the abyssal structure of the earth’s crust and the earth as a whole was theoretically substantiated and subsequently proved (G. A. Gamburtsev). The development of seismology was linked with the expansion of the network of seismic stations. The theory and technique of electrical geophysical exploration and well logging were worked out by such scientists as V. A. Fok, A. N. Tikhonov, and L. M. Al’pin. The technique of marine geophysical exploration was tested. Advances were made in the theory of the earth’s gravitational and magnetic fields by M. S. Molodenskii and B. M. Ianovskii, among others. A magnetic survey of the USSR was carried out, and the aeromagnetic method was developed by A. A. Logachev (1936).
A theory of the earth’s formation was worked out, as was a scheme of the earth’s evolution by O. Iu. Shmidt. The study of the internal structure of the earth was begun.
In the study of mineral resources, a new field, metallogeny, emerged (S. S. Smirnov, Iu. A. Bilibin, and K. I. Satpaev). The weathering crust and the ore types attributed to it were studied (I. I. Ginzburg), a new chemogenic theory of the formation of phosphorites was proposed (A. V. Kazakov, 1939), and the theory of belts and sites of coal accumulation was advanced (P. I. Stepanov, 1937). The foundations of coal petrography were laid (Iu. A. Zhemchuzhnikov, 1934), the regularities governing the disposition of petroleum and gas regions were clarified, and petroleum prospecting methods were worked out (I. M. Gubkin and others).
As a result of hydrogeological surveying, data were obtained on the essential features of the formation processes of subterranean waters and on their dynamics and zonality (F. P. Savarenskii and G. N. Kamenskii) and chemism (N. N. Slavianov).
Instrumental in the development of engineering geology were the engineering geological studies carried out in connection with large-scale hydroengineering and industrial construction and the construction of the Moscow Subway (F. P. Savarenskii, I. V. Popov, D. S. Sokolov, and others). Also important was the study of ground (P. A. Zemiatchenskii, M. M. Filatov, V. A. Priklonskii, and others).
During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), intensive research was conducted on the geology of mineral resources. Extensive data, primarily concerning the geology of the ore deposits of the Urals, Kazakhstan, Middle Asia, Siberia, and the northeastern part of the USSR, formed the basis of the theory of tectonic-magmatic complexes. A link was established between the type of ore matter and the stages of development of individual zones of the crust’s mobile belts (Iu. A. Bilibin and Kh. Abdullaev) and between metallogenic regularities and the structural characteristics of the ancient basement of ore provinces (D. I. Shcherbakov). A hypothesis of the formation of bauxite deposits was advanced (A. V. Peive). Many theoretical propositions advanced in the prewar years by Soviet scientists concerning the possibility of finding deposits of new mineral raw materials were confirmed during the war.
The abundant scientific material gathered during the Great Patriotic War greatly facilitated the development of geology in the postwar years. There was a significant increase in the total number of geological institutes (more than 40) within the Academy of Sciences of the USSR; the new institutes included the Geological Institute, the Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry, the V. I. Vernadskii Institute of Geochemistry and Analytic Chemistry, and the O. Iu. Shmidt Institute of Earth Physics, all in Moscow. The number of geological institutes in the academies of sciences of the Union republics likewise increased, and such institutes conduct comprehensive regional geological and geophysical studies in the corresponding republics. Between the 1950’s and 1970’s, geological institutes were established at the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Novosibirsk (the Institute of Geology and Geophysics) and at a number of branches of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, as well as at the Urals and Far East scientific centers.
In addition to the Ministry of Geology of the USSR, republic ministries or administrations of geology, territorial production geological administrations, and geophysical and hydrogeological trusts were established in the Union republics. The Ministry of Geology of the USSR has about 40 scientific research institutes, including the All-Union Geological Institute in Leningrad and the All-Union Institute of Mineral Raw Materials, the All-Union Institute of Geophysical Prospecting Methods, the All-Union Institute of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, and the All-Union Geological Oil Exploration Institute, all in Moscow. It also has numerous laboratories and other facilities. The institutes and laboratories conduct research in regional geology and metallogeny, compile various types of geological maps on different scales, and develop new methods of prospecting for minerals and new techniques for exploring them.
Extensive geological surveys were carried out in the postwar years. In 1940 only 65.8 percent of the country’s total area was surveyed. By the 1970’s, intermediate-scale geological maps had been compiled for the entire USSR and large-scale maps had been prepared for the most important mining, coal, and petroleum and gas regions. In addition to general geological maps, various tectonic, metallogenic, and other maps were published, encompassing the entire USSR and, in a number of cases, adjacent countries.
There is a growing tendency in the geological sciences to make use of mathematical methods in establishing statistical and other quantitative regularities of geological processes (A. B. Vistelius, D. A. Rodionov, and others). The necessity of formalizing geological objects, processes, and concepts has been recognized (Iu. A. Kosygin). The basic principles of designing automatic control and data-processing systems in geology have been determined. More than 1,500 computer programs, covering all aspects of geological exploration work, have been developed and tested by the Ministry of Geology of the USSR.
Extensive research has been carried out on the history and methodology of the geological sciences. The work of leading geologists has also been studied and the significance of their work for the development of geology has been shown. The history of the geological sciences has been analyzed (D. I. Gordeev and others).
The most important theoretical aspects of geology have been studied, and the development of the geological sciences as a whole has been outlined (V. V. Tikhomirov).
The achievements of Soviet geology are summarized in multi-volume works devoted to specific aspects of the country’s geography. They include Geology of the USSR, Geological Structure of the USSR, Stratigraphy of the USSR, Petrography of the USSR, Minerals of the USSR, Fundamentals of Paleontology of the USSR, Tectonics of the USSR, Patterns of Distribution of Minerals in the USSR, The Extent of the Geological Study of the USSR, Geology of Deposits of Coal and Fuel Shales in the USSR, Ore Deposits of the USSR, Hydrogeology of the USSR, and Engineering Geology.
In the period from the 1950’s to the 1970’s, extensive geological surveys have been carried out far outside the USSR. The comparison of results from studies of different ocean basins and continents has made it possible to embark on the solution of many global geological problems.
The contemporary geological sciences include stratigraphy, tectonics (including the geology of the earth’s abyssal zones), lithology, mineralogy, petrography, geochemistry, geophysics, the geology of mineral resources, hydrogeology, and engineering geology.
STRATIGRAPHY. A general scale of the absolute age of all strati-graphic subdivisions was developed by G. D. Afanas’ev. The differentiation of the Upper Precambrian beds of the Urals into the Riphean group (1945), the identification of the Vendian at the base of the sedimentary mantle of the Eastern European Platform (1950), and a thorough reexamination of stromatolites and limestone algae led to the development of the global stratigraphy of Upper Precambrian formations (V. V. Menner, B. S. Sokolov, B. M. Keller, and others). The boundary between the Phanerozoic and Precambrian was objectively substantiated. The theoretical prerequisites for a new way of detailing the geologic sections and typing the chief structural boundaries of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic were established, and a technique was developed for working out the stratigraphy of the Upper Paleozoic on the basis of foraminifers (D. M. Rauzer-Chernousova, 1965). The study of microscopic plant remains, such as spores, pollen, and acritarchs, significantly broadened the field of study of stratigraphy by making it possible to date barren petroleum-bearing strata. A zonal scale of Paleogenic and Neogenic deposits of the continents and ocean floor was worked out on the basis of the remains of plankton foraminifers and nannoplanktons.
The study of the fossils of large mammals made it possible to identify a series of successive complexes (V. I. Gromov, 1948) and apply them in the dating of Anthropogenic beds. Also useful in the solution of this problem was the introduction of potassium-argon isotope and radiocarbon methods of determining age, the use of paleomagnetic data, and the study of the remains of small rodents and palynological material. Major changes in climate at the end of the Pleistocene and during the Holocene were shown to occur at the same time throughout the planet, which provided the basis for an exact correlation of Anthropogenic strata using the detailed climate-stratigraphic method (K. V. Nikiforova). A correlation table of the Anthropogenic beds of the world was compiled. (See below: Biological sciences: Paleontology-)
TECTONICS. In the postwar years fundamental works appeared on the tectonics of the Caucasus (K. N. Paffengol’ts, V. E. Khain, and others), Kazakhstan (A. A. Bogdanov, P. N. Kropotkin, and others), the alpine zone (M. V. Muratov and others), and the Urals (N. A. Shtreis and others). Soviet scientists, including V. A. Obruchev, N. I. Nikolaev, and N. A. Florensov, were forerunners in the study of various aspects of neotectonics. During the 1940’s and 1950’s, tectonic modeling based on the principle of physical similitude was successfully developed (V. V. Belousov, M. V. Gzovskii, and I. V. Luchitskii); a new field of study, tectonophysics, emerged. The theory of the activation of tectonomagmatic movements of consolidated segments of the earth’s crust was formulated (V. V. Belousov), and the characteristics of salt-dome tectonics were identified (Iu. A. Kosygin). A classification of salt domes and their stages of development was proposed based on the study of the geosynclinal process and characteristic associated structures. A technique was developed for reconstructing ancient abyssal structures based on tracing inherited dislocations in the cratonic mantle (A. L. Ianshin). In the course of the development of the theory of abyssal faults, the spatial relationship between faults, magmatic processes, and various useful minerals was established (A. V. Peive and others). The idea of the arch-block structure of the earth’s crust and the origin of rift zones was formulated (N. A. Florensov and Iu. M. Shein-mann). An important place came to be occupied by a new understanding of the geosynclinal process based on the latest findings pertaining to the geology of the ocean floor and the tectonics of folded regions. A comparison of the cross sections of the modern oceanic crust with the lower part of the cross section of ancient eugeosynclinal zones revealed similarities in rock composition and the sequence of formation. The geosynclinal process came to be viewed as the process of the formation of the continental crust, originating in the oceanic stage of its development. Characteristic features of the tectonics of the basement of the ancient cratons were identified, and a model of their “nuclear structure” in the Archean was proposed (E. V. Pavlovskii).
An analysis of the geological structure of the continents and oceans made it possible to devise several models of the earth’s global tectonics (A. V. Peive and V. E. Khain).
Important generalizations have been made regarding the tectonics of major regions. They have been reflected in such works as the Tectonic Map of the USSR and Adjacent Countries (1953, 1956), the Tectonic Map of Eurasia on a scale of 1:5,000,000 (1966), the Tectonic Map of the Pacific Ocean Segment of the Earth on a scale of 1:10,000,000 (1970), the Geological Map of the Pacific Mobile Belt and the Pacific Ocean on a scale of 1:10,000,000 (1973), and the Tectonic Map of Europe on a scale of 1:2,500,000 (2nd ed., 1964). New types of tectonic maps appeared, including the Map of the Precambrian Tectonics of the Earth (1972), the Map of the Structure of the Folded Basement of the USSR, and the Tectonic Map of the Moon on a scale of 1:7,500,000(1971).
A number of theoretical conceptions were advanced linking the characteristics of the development of the upper strata of the crust with the geology of the earth’s abyssal zone (V. V. Belousov, Iu. M. Sheinmann, and others).
Important data on the abyssal zone were obtained during the first stage of the project to drill a superdeep borehole (down to depths of more than 7,000 m) in the crystalline rock of the Kola Peninsula (1970). Comprehensive studies of the space surrounding the borehole necessitated substantial changes in the ideas about the abyssal structure of the Precambrian formations of the Baltic Shield, the nature of seismic boundaries and deep-seated gravimetric anomalies, and the geothermal gradient.
LITHOLOGY. In the postwar years, the study of the sedimentary rocks of the petroleum and gas provinces of Azerbaijan, the northern Caucasus, the Volga-Ural Region, and Western Siberia continued. The study of formations emerged as a common area of study for lithology, stratigraphy, and tectonics (N. S. Shatskii and N. P. Kheraskov, 1955). The irreversible evolution of sediment accumulation over the course of geological time was first demonstrated by N. M. Strakhov. Changes over time in the chemical composition of the most important types of rocks of the sedimentary mantle were established, as were changes in the chemical composition of the ocean and atmosphere and in the surface geochemical processes (A. P. Vinogradov and A. B. Ronov). A facies-cyclical analysis of coal-bearing strata was carried out (Iu. A. Zhemchuzhnikov and others). The problem of the nature of flysch was worked out (N. B. Vassoevich). The study of the phenomenon of postdiagenetic changes (catagenesis), which occur in the earth’s crust, made it possible to elucidate the processes of the formation of deposits of many minerals. A new methodology was worked out for the compilation of paleoclimatic maps, which made it possible to trace the evolution of lithogenetic conditions from the Cambrian to modern times and which now serve as the basis for the identification of certain minerals. The analysis of the quantitative distribution of sedimentary material in the world ocean, including suspended material, made it possible to establish that sediment formation is controlled by climatic, vertical, and circumcontinental zonality and is related to the relief and tectonics of the ocean (A. P. Lisitsyn, P. L. Bezrukov, and V. P. Petelin). The results of lengthy studies by Soviet and foreign lithologists led to the identification of a number of regularities in the processes governing the formation of sedimentary rocks and to the formulation of the theory of lithogenesis (N. M. Strakhov, Fundamentals of the Theory of Lithogenesis, 1960–62). Atlases of lithofacies maps of the Russian Platform and the entire USSR on a scale of 1:7,500,000 were compiled, tracing the geological history from the Proterozoic to modern times (A. P. Vinogradov and others, 1967–69).
A new trend emerged in the 1960’s—the lithology of Precam-brian formations—based on the study of the lithological characteristics of metamorphic rocks and their primary sedimentary analogs (A. V. Sidorenko and others). Biogenic carbon was found to be present in many metamorphosed rocks of approximately 2.5–3 billion years of age. It was established that in the Precambrian as much organic matter was accumulated and later metamorphosed as in the Phanerozoic; Precambrian strata are considered to be the source of ore-forming substances for younger deposits. (See above: Oceanography.)
MINERALOGY. In recent years, the problem of the homogeneity and typomorphism of minerals was worked out. Research using the latest physical methods, such as electron microsounding, electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, Mossbauer spectros-copy, and electron paramagnetic resonance, was expanded (G. P. Barsanov, G. S. Gritsaenko, and A. S. Povarennykh). New findings were made concerning the composition and structure of various minerals, such as native gold, platinum, the platinum metals, sulfides, titanomagnetites, feldspars, phyllosilicates, and the hydrates of iron oxides. The importance of colloids in mineral and ore formation was clarified (F. V. Chukhrov). New minerals from the group of intermetallic compounds were detected in sulfide ores, and the variable composition of many sulfides was established, including the composition of chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and the complex sulfides of lead, antimony, mercury, and bismuth.
The use of the latest physical methods in mineralogy, particularly electron paramagnetic resonance, led to the discovery of electron-hole centers in many minerals (A. S. Marfunin and others, 1972). Research in thermobarometry based on liquid gas inclusions helped to reveal the physicochemical and thermodynamic conditions of mineral formation and the stages and zones of ore deposition.
Various experimental and theoretical studies of mineral systems were carried out, and the fields of their stability were clarified for a range of conditions corresponding to the earth’s upper mantle. The mechanisms of the reactions involved in the formation of the most important rock-forming minerals (the amphiboles, feldspars, pyroxenes, and quartz) were elucidated, as were the forms of transport of the main ore-forming components by hydrothermal solutions. The theory of the crystal chemistry of natural silicates was refined through the study of the role of silicon-oxygen radicals, and the structures of more than 100 minerals were identified (N. V. Belov).
PETROGRAPHY. Magmatic and metamorphic rocks and their associations were studied in connection with the general problems of the internal structure of the earth and the evolution of its matter. Formation analysis plays an important role in the study of magmatism. Its methods were adopted for practical use by scientific and production institutions and were used in the compilation of geological maps and the formulation of prognostic metallogenetic generalizations. A classification of magmatic formations was worked out by Iu. A. Kuznetsov (1964), and the Map of Magmatic Formations of the USSR on a scale of 1:2,500,000 was compiled (1968). A general scheme of the evolution of volcanism in the course of the formation of the earth’s crust was established on the basis of the study of modern and ancient volcanic activity. Methods of paleovolcanic research were worked out by I. V. Luchitskii (1971). New schemes of metamorphic facies were devised, which made it possible to classify crystalline rocks with regard to conditions of very high pressure, corresponding to those of the earth’s mantle (V. S. Sobolev and others). For this purpose, findings from the detailed study of deep inclusions in the kimberlites of Yakutia’s diamond pipes were used. A new method for the physicochemical analysis of the paragenesis of rock and ore minerals was developed, making it possible to directly assess the principal physicochemical parameters of meta-morphism, magmatism, and ore formation (D. S. Korzhinskii and others). Systems of mineral facies of metamorphic rocks (applicable to crystal conditions) and magmatic formations were derived, and a theory of the zonality of metasomatic rocks and ores was developed that makes it possible to locate ore deposits during prospecting and exploration. Scientists substantiated the hypothesis that associates abyssal processes with the flow of juvenile fluids, confined to dislocation zones in the earth’s crust. The Map of the Metamorphic Facies of the USSR on a scale of 1:7,500,000 was published (V. S. Sobolev and others, 1966).
GEOCHEMISTRY. In the 1950’s interest developed in the study of radioactive elements, and a new scientific discipline, isotope geochemistry, emerged (A. P. Vinogradov). Studies were undertaken to determine the absolute age of rocks (E. K. Gerling, A. I. Tugarinov, K. O. Kratts, and others) and to clarify the geochemistry of rare and dispersed elements. The hypothesis of a universal mechanism of formation of the planet’s shells based on the zone fusion of the silicate phase of the earth’s mantle was proposed (A. P. Vinogradov). Important data were obtained for the solution of the problem of the origin of petroleum, which fostered the development of a new branch of geological science, organic geochemistry (N. B. Vassoevich). The theory of the migration of chemical elements was worked out (A. A. Saukov, V. V. Shcherbina, and others). A new quantitative model of the crust’s chemical composition was proposed based on the distribution of elements in rocks (A. B. Ronov and A. A. Iaroshevskii). The experimental modeling of geochemical processes that occur at high temperatures and pressures was carried out (N. I. Khitarov). The study of gas-liquid inclusions in minerals led to the formation of another new branch, thermobarogeochemistry (N. P. Ermakov).
The geochemical study of the rocks of the ocean floor established the existence of three types of oceanic rock: basalts, Iherzolites, and harzburgites, which are linked by a common composition (the lherzolites are the prototype of pyroliths, the material from which basalt melts, and harzburgite is the residue of this process). The study of the distribution of rare and dispersed components in these rocks revealed a number of important geochemical characteristics of the behavior of ore elements that are very important in resolving the question of the sources of ore-forming matter. A study of the isotopic composition of the carbon of organic compounds disclosed the existence of an intramolecular effect of isotope separation completely uncharacteristic of inorganic substances.
The problem in the earth’s history regarding the time when sulfur isotopes began to differentiate, which is now believed to have begun in the Early Proterozoic (2.6–3.0 billion years ago), was clarified. New data were obtained on the isotopic composition and discharge of certain gases, such as He and Ar, which are governed by tidal effects in the crust and which change abruptly immediately preceding tremors in seismic regions.
Research was also conducted in cosmochemistry. On the basis of the study of lunar matter brought back by the Soviet unmanned spacecraft Luna 16, Luna 20, and Luna 24 and provided by American scientists, it has been established that the composition of the basalts of the moon’s crust is similar to that of the basalts of the earth’s crust. In addition to the basalts that fill the lunar seas and are 3.8–3.2 billion years old, anorthosites were found to occur on the lunar continents. Their age is 4.5 billion years, which corresponds to the time of formation of the moon itself, the earth, and the meteorites. Using findings from the Venera 6, Venera 9, and Venera 10 spacecraft, the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere of Venus was established (97 percent), as were the high temperatures on its surface (450°C) and the pressure (about 100 atmospheres). The content of uranium, thorium, and potassium in the rocks of Venus is close to that in the rocks on the earth.
The distribution of platinum metals, gold, and other metals has been studied on the basis of different phases of meteorites. It has been demonstrated that the solid solution of the metallic phase of meteorites includes as admixtures only those elements that oxidize at higher partial oxygen pressures than iron.
GEOPHYSICS (PHYSICS OF THE “SOLID” EARTH). In the course of the study of the earth’s internal structure, the effects of radioactive warming on the earth’s thermal history were clarified (E. A. Liubimova). The experimental study of the behavior of rocks at high pressures and temperatures (L. V. Al’tshuler and Iu. N. Riabinin) made it possible to construct a model of the earth based on its composition, to confirm the “oxide” hypothesis of the composition of the lower mantle, and to surmise that the earth’s core consists of iron with an admixture of lighter components (V. A. Magnitskii, V. S. Sobolev, V. A. Kalinin). The theory of the transitional layer in the mantle and the low-velocity layer was developed (V. A. Magnitskii and others). The existence of a secular acceleration in the earth’s rotation, which is caused by internal processes and minimizes the tide-related retardation of rotation, was established. A method was also proposed for studying the processes occurring within the earth by conducting observations of the rotational velocity changes in the force of gravity (N. N. Pariiskii, 1975).
The problem of stresses in the crust in the absence and presence of isostatic equilibrium was resolved. It was demonstrated that the strong horizontal stresses that arise in the lithosphere in this case lead to large-scale horizontal movements (E. V. Artiushkov). The study of crustal horizontal tectonic movements using the most up-to-date measuring devices, such as laser range finders, made it possible to analyze the horizontal shifts of mountains (Iu. D. Bulanzhe, 1975). From the findings of magnetotelluric sounding and seismology, the zones of development of the asthenosphere, which is characterized by greater fluidity, have been established.
The physical foundations of paleomagnetic research were worked out by G. N. Petrova and A. I. Khramov, and major contributions were made to the theory of the earth’s magnetic field by S. I. Braginskii. Methods were developed by V. A. Troitskaia for studying the interplanetary field based on ground observations of geomagnetic pulsations. Methods of studying the secular motion of the earth’s magnetic field are being developed by A. N. Pushkov.
The study of gravitational anomalies throughout the country led to the further development of the theory of the gravitational field (M. S. Molodenskii and Iu. D. Bulanzhe). Mathematical interpretations of gravitational and magnetic anomalies were worked out (B. V. Numerov, V. N. Strakhov, and others).
Seismic methods of studying the elastic properties of the earth’s crust are being refined, as are procedures for processing seismograms in order to obtain information on the position of the foci of earthquakes and to determine the mechanisms and parameters of the movements at the foci (E. F. Savarenskii and others). Machine methods of computing the velocity cross section of the earth based on data on surface and body waves were developed (V. I. Keilis-Borok). The positions of the boundary surfaces within the earth were more accurately determined. The Atlas of Earthquakes in the USSR was compiled in 1962. Methods of searching for signs that indicate the possibility of an earthquake were developed, as were standards of antiseismic construction (M. A. Sadovskii, I. L. Nersesov, and others, 1970). Quantitative methods of studying seismic danger are being developed (Iu. V. Riznichenko). A tsunami forecast service has been established (S. L. Solov’ev).
Geophysical methods of exploration for minerals. Techniques and equipment were developed for gravimetric, magnetometric, radiometric, and other types of surveying while moving on land, on the sea, and in the air. The theoretical study of electromagnetic fields within the earth led to the development of new methods of electrical exploration (M. N. Berdichevskii, L. L. Van’ian, 1955–65). Seismic exploration has become widespread. The method of abyssal seismic sounding worked out by G. A. Gamburtsev in 1949 makes it possible to study the abyssal structure of the crust. The piezoelectric effect of rocks was discovered, on the basis of which a new method of geophysical exploration was proposed (M. P. Volarovich and others, 1973).
Pulse methods used in nuclear physics were applied to the study of rocks of the sedimentary strata, thus making it possible to measure parameters important for assessing the petroleum and gas content even in reinforced boreholes (G. N. Flerov, D. F. Bespalov, and others). In the field of borehole geophysics, new well-logging methods were developed, including acoustical (E. V. Karus), neutron-gamma logging, and geochemical methods. Heat- and pressure-resistant instruments are being developed to investigate deep and superdeep wells. A complex of marine geophysical methods and an automated system for the collection, storage, and processing of data on-board expeditionary ships were devised. Ways of integrating the methods of exploratory geophysics on land permitting the most effective prospecting and exploration of deposits were worked out (V. V. Fedynskii).
GEOLOGY OF USEFUL MINERALS. In the study of ore deposits, data were obtained on the conditions of formation of sedimentary iron and manganese ores (B. P. Krotov and V. N. Strakhov), important regularities in the distribution of mercury formations were established (V. A. Kuznetsov), and characteristics of the geology and genesis of hydrothermal uranium deposits (F. I. Vol’fson) and the metallogeny of antimony, mercury, lead, zinc, and uranium (V. I. Smirnov) were identified. The zonality of rare-metal mineralization was established for central Kazakhstan (G. N. Shcherba) and the northeastern part of the USSR (E. A. Radkevich and N. A. Shilo). The conditions of formation of rare-metal deposits were established and the methodology of study developed (K. A. Vlasov, L. N. Ovchinnikov, and others). The genesis of sulfide copper-nickel deposits in Pechenga (G. I. Gorbunov) and Noril’sk (M. N. Godlevskii) were ascertained, as was the origin of copper deposits in Kazakhstan (K. I. Satpaev), and copper-molybdenum mineralization in Armenia (I. G. Magak’-ian and S. S. Mkrtchian). A genetic classification of tin-ore deposits was proposed (O. D. Levitskii). Scientists identified the primary stages of the development of magmatism and metallogeny in the Caucasus, the Crimea, the Carpathians, the Urals, Siberia (including the Gornyi Altai and Tuva), the Pacific Ocean ore belt, Middle Asia, and Kazakhstan. The various types of ore provinces and ore formations were identified in the USSR (V. I. Smirnov and I. G. Magak’ian). The geological conditions of the formation of bauxites and different types of phosphate deposits were reviewed (G. I. Bushinskii and others). The important role of microorganisms in the formation of iron-ore deposits was demonstrated (F. V. Chukhrov). The theory of the formation of placers of gold, tin, and other nonferrous metals was developed over the course of many years on the basis of diverse data (Iu. A. Bilibin, I. S. Rozhkov, N. A. Shilo, and others).
Major advances were made in the theory of ore formation in the 1960’s and 1970’s. The crucial importance of abyssal differentiation of ore-bearing magmas in the formation of large ore deposits was demonstrated for magmatic deposits of chromites, titanomagnetites, and sulfide copper-nickel ores. The important role of metamorphism in the formation of ore concentrations was clarified (G. A. Sokolov). Physicochemical models were developed describing the conditions of occurrence of metallic deposits in magnesian and calcareous skarns (V. A. Zharikov). Researchers established that hydrothermal deposits are not simply the product of postmagmatic activity but may also be formed by hot mineral waters of meteoric, interstitial, and metamorphogenic origin with subcrustal, crustal, and infiltration ore-forming matter. The conditions of formation of new groups of endogenous ore deposits—carbonatite, albitite, and stratiform deposits—were determined, and their importance in the balance of reserves of nonferrous and rare metal ores was demonstrated.
Work is under way on the study of the sources of ore-forming substances using various combinations of the isotopes of sulfur, carbon, oxygen, and strontium. A formational systematics of endogenous ore deposits was worked out by V. A. Kuznetsov. The conditions of occurrence of volcanogenic gold and silver deposits were investigated by N. A. Shilo. Genetic models were devised of the formation of ore deposits that develop in connection with marine and continental volcanism; the decisive part played by both abyssal and surface magmatic processes in the formation of the important groups of endogenous and exogenous ore deposits was proved (G. S. Dzotsenidze, G. N. Kotliar, and V. I. Smirnov).
Ideas were developed about the great importance of the tectonic magmatic activation of ancient cratons and regions of completed folding in the formation of deposits of rare and precious metals (A. D. Shcheglov).
In the metallogenic analysis of the USSR and its individual provinces, scientists have increasingly focused on quantitative estimates, which determine the total probable reserves of ores and metals in a prospective region. Research is under way to work out a scientifically substantiated method of predicting the occurrence of ores in areas with different geological structures and to establish new trends in geological exploration. To this end, metallogenic and prognostic maps on different scales have been compiled that take into account the geological regularities governing the disposition of deposits, for example, the Metallogenic Map of the USSR on a scale of 1:2,500,000 (1970). The possibilities of the formation of marine placer deposits of titanium, gold, and tin in the coastal zones of USSR waters have been studied.
In petroleum and gas geology, various studies were carried out on the origin of petroleum and its relationship with the stages of lithogenesis. The biogenic (sedimentary migration) theory of the formation of petroleum and gas deposits was formulated (N. B. Vassoevich and others). Volumetric-genetic methods of predicting petroleum and gas reserves were successfully worked out on the basis of a quantitative estimate of the extent of the formation and migration of hydrocarbons (A. A. Trofimuk and others).
The research on the geological structure and regularities of formation and disposition of petroleum and gas deposits facilitated the discovery and development of the Western Siberian Oil and Gas Basin, the Timan-Pechora Basin, and other basins in the European USSR and Middle Asia (Gazli, Shatlyk, and others). Gas-hydrate deposits were discovered, and the effects of hydrate formation on the formation and conservation of beds were studied. A quantitative estimate was made of the probable distribution of gas-hydrate deposits over vast areas of little-studied bodies of water (A. A. Trofimuk, 1969).
In coal geology atlases of lithogenic types and microstructures of coals of the Donets Basin were prepared and published in the postwar period (Iu. A. Zhemchuzhnikov and others). A prognostic map was compiled for coal-bearing deposits in the USSR (A. K. Matveev, I. I. Gorskii, and others, 1956). The formation analysis of coal-bearing complexes was refined (P. P. Timofeev).
HYDROGEOLOGY. A major step forward in the development of hydrogeology was the transition from the description of phenomena to the use of mathematical models to assess quantitatively hydrogeological processes in time and space. The research of the 1950’s to 1970’s focused on the zonality of subterranean waters (hydrodynamic, hydrochemical, geothermal, phase-aggregate, biochemical, and gaseous); these zones and their alternation have been traced to various depths. The principles of the hydro-geological regionalization of the USSR were worked out by G. N. Kamenskii. The runoff of subterranean waters was studied under different natural-hydrogeological conditions. The maximum, minimum, and averaged rates of the runoff of groundwaters and artesian waters were established and their qualitative and quantitative indexes elucidated. The Map of Subterranean Runoff in the USSR on a scale of 1:2,500,000 was compiled by B. I. Kudelin. Estimates were made of the usable reserves of subterranean waters in deposits of fresh, drinking, household, industrial, mineral, and thermal waters, and the theory of the formation of their composition was worked out. Effective methods were formulated for forecasting the water and salt regime of drained and irrigated lands. The hydrogeological conditions for the industrial development of mineral deposits and the burial of industrial wastes to protect the environment were clarified. New methods were developed for identifying and analyzing local underground water resources in arid regions—the deserts and semi-deserts of not only the USSR but also of a number of developing countries (U. M. Akhmedsafin, V. N. Kunin, and others). The dynamics of subterranean waters were studied using mathematical models of the complex hydrogeological processes occurring in artesian basins and underground streams. Several maps were compiled, including the Hydrochemical Map of the USSR on a scale of 1:5,000,000 (1966), the Hydrogeological Map of the USSR on a scale of 1:2,500,000 (1969), and the Map of Subterranean Mineral Waters of the USSR on a scale of 1:2,500,000 (1975).
ENGINEERING GEOLOGY. In regional engineering geology, a technique was developed for mapping inaccessible regions based on a combination of aerial photography methods and ground studies. General small-scale engineering geological maps were compiled for Western Siberia and Kazakhstan (E. M. Sergeev and others). Projects were carried out to predict exogenous processes (landslides, cave-ins, and mud flows) in the Caucasus, the Carpathians, and the mountains of Middle Asia. Using a specially developed technique, the first engineering geological maps were compiled of large segments of the coast and shelf of the Black Sea, Petr Velikii Bay, and certain inlets of the Sea of Japan. The Engineering Geological Map of the USSR on a scale of 1:2,500,000 was compiled (1972). New methods of artificially reinforcing rocks was worked out.
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION. In addition to fundamental geological studies of the characteristics of the abyssal structure of the earth as a whole based on the study of the USSR, Soviet geologists take part in comprehensive geological, geophysical, geo-chemical, and space studies. Soviet geologists have also initiated a number of major international scientific projects and programs, including the Geodynamic Project, the International Project on the Upper Mantle of the Earth, and the projects to study the neotectonics and recent movements of the crust and the correlation of tectonic, magmatic, and metamorphic processes. Together with American scientists, Soviet geologists have made significant advances in studying the tectonics of the ocean floor (A. V. Peive, G. B. Udintsev, and others). The special role of the midoceanic ridges and rift depressions in the structural makeup of the earth has been clarified. Beginning in 1968, Soviet scientists worked together with American scientists on the deepocean drilling project carried out by the research ship Glomar Challenger. Soviet and American scientists maintain close contacts with respect to cosmochemistry, particularly the study of lunar soil. The academies of sciences of the socialist countries are taking part in the joint study of the geosynclinal process and formation of the earth’s crust.
On the basis of bilateral agreements, the USSR renders assistance in scientific and geological exploration work to 32 socialist and developing countries, among them Vietnam, the German Democratic Republic, Cuba, the Mongolian People’s Republic, and various African countries.
PERIODICALS. The principal periodicals in the geological sciences are Izvestiia AN SSSR: Seriia geologicheskaia (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Geology Series; since 1936), Sovetskaia geologiia (Soviet Geology; since 1958), Geologiia rudnykh mestorozhdenii (Geology of Ore Deposits; since 1959), Izvestiia AN SSSR: Seriia fizika zemli (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Physics of the Earth Series; since 1965), Geotektonika (Geotectonics; since 1965), and Razvedka i okhrana near (Prospecting and Protection of Mineral Resources; since 1931). Equally important are Litologiia i poleznye iskopaemye (Lithology and Mineral Resources; since 1963), Geokhimiia (Geochemistry; since 1956), Izvestiia vysshykh uchebnykh zavedenii: Geologiia i razvedka (Proceedings of Higher Educational Institutions: Geology and Prospecting; since 1958), Geologiia nefti i gaza (Geology of Oil and Gas; since 1957), and Geologiia i geofizika (Geology and Geophysics; Novosibirsk, since 1960).
I. B. IVANOV, N. P. LAVEROV, V. I. SMIRNOV, and V. V. TIKHOMIROV

Bibliography

Razvitie nauk o Zemle v SSSR. Moscow, 1967.
Geologiia v Moskovskom universitete za 50 let sovetskoi vlasti: Sb. Moscow, 1967.
50 let sovetskoi geologii. Moscow, 1968.
Gordeev, D. I. Istoriia geologicheskikh nauk, part 2. Moscow, 1972.
Tikhomirov, V. V. “Geologiia v Akademii nauk za 250 let (1724–1974).” Izv. AN SSSR: Seriia geologicheskaia, 1974, no. 5.
Istoriia geologii. Moscow, 1973.
Mining sciences. The USSR accounts for 25 percent of the world’s total mining production and is first in the world with respect to the scale of underground mining. This explains, to a large extent, the broad scope of research on the development of the most efficient methods of extracting and processing minerals and making rational use of natural resources.
The basic principles of mining science were formulated by M. V. Lomonosov in The Foundations of Mining Science (1742). The Russian scientist I. A. Shlatter made major contributions to the study of ore occurrence and the mining and concentration of ores (1760). A number of major works led to the formation and differentiation of the individual disciplines of mining science in Russia. These include the works on methods of stripping and mining solid minerals by A. I. Uzatis (1843), G. Ia. Doroshenko (1880), A. M. Terpigorev (1906, 1915), and B. I. Bokii (1914), on drilling by G. D. Romanovskii (1866), on mining mechanics by I. A. Time (1899), and on mine pressure and rock displacement by M. M. Protod’iakonov (1912) and P. M. Leontovskii (1912). Equally important were the works on the scientific foundations of work safety in mines by A. A. Skochinskii (1901) and N. N. Chernitsyn (1917), on ore concentration by G. Ia. Doroshenko (1876), S. G. Voislav (1876), and V. A. Gus’kov (1915), and on hydromechanization by P. P. Mel’nikov (1836), M. A. Shostak (1891), and I. A. Time (1891); other important works were those on the underground gasification of coal by D. I. Mendeleev (1888) and on petroleum extraction by V. G. Abikh (1853), N. I. Andrusov (1908), V. N. Veber (1911), and I. M. Gubkin (1916).
After the October Revolution of 1917, the development of the country’s industry and power system necessitated the restoration and expansion of the mineral raw-material base. In his “Draft Plan of Scientific and Technical Work” (1918), V. I. Lenin outlined the paths of scientific development that would meet the needs of the national economy. A number of scientific and educational centers were established that focused on research in the mining sciences, such as the Moscow Academy of Mines (1918), the mining institutes in Kharkov (1922) and Krivoi Rog (1922), the All-Union Scientific Research and Planning Institute for the Mechanical Processing of Minerals (Petrograd, 1920), and the mining departments at the polytechnical institutes in Tbilisi, Baku, Tashkent, and Vladivostok. The first all-Union mining scientific and technical congress was held in 1926.
During the 1920’s, the scientific principles of mine design were formulated, scientific generalizations were made about the principal technological mining processes and their regularities were established, and the problems of work safety were studied (B. I. Bokii, M. M. Protod’iakonov, A. M. Terpigorev, L. D. Sheviakov, A. A. Skochinskii, I. M. Gubkin, I. N. Glushkov, K. P. Kalitskii, D. V. Golubiatnikov, and V. G. Shukhov).
During the prewar five-year plans (1929–40), mining operations were mechanized through the electrification of the mining industry and the standardization of equipment (A. M. Terpigorev, A. O. Spivakovskii, and others). The physicomechanical properties of minerals and country rocks were studied for the purpose of applying the knowledge to the development of methods of cutting and breaking rocks. The scientific foundations of mining mechanics were laid (A. P. German, M. M. Fedorov, A. S. Il’ichev, and others), as were those of mining geometry and mine surveying (P. K. Sobolevskii, V. I. Bauman, P. M. Leontovskii, I. M. Bakhurin, and others).
During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), mining science solved the problems of the efficient, rapid development of new mineral deposits in the eastern parts of the country, the reconstruction of mines, and the introduction of progressive mining methods at existing underground and opencut mines, making it possible to create an extensive mineral raw-material base.
Postwar researchers focused on the restoration of destroyed mines, particularly those of the Donets and Moscow coal basins and the Krivoi Rog iron-ore basin.
During the war, the opencut method became widespread, huge mining enterprises were built, and mechanized extraction and haulage complexes were designed and constructed (E. F. Sheshko, N. V. Mel’nikov, A. V. Topchiev, P. I. Gorodetskii, B. I. Satovskii, and others).
The scientific and technological revolution led to a sharp increase in the national economy’s need for minerals. Scientific research during the 1960’s and 1970’s became increasingly more specialized owing to the complexity and specificity of the problems. To carry out field studies of the occurrence of deposits, various methods were developed to determine the stress state of rock masses and their deformations and displacements in the course of mining operations. The method of modeling with equivalent materials was developed (G. N. Kuznetsov) and subsequently applied in geomechanics. Experimental-analytic engineering methods of calculating mine supports and rock displacements were substantiated on the basis of the theory of the limiting state and statistical probabilistic methods (P. I. Tsimbarevich, V. D. Slesarev, and others). The regularities governing the interaction of the supports and the wall rock, as well as the stability of excavations, were identified, as were the guidelines for the selection of designs for supports suitable for the given conditions. A number of theoretical regularities governing mine shocks (I. M. Petukhov) and sudden releases of coal and gas (S. G. Avershin, L. N. Bykov, V. V. Khodot, and others) were established.
Effective mining systems applicable to thick, steep coal seams were proposed (N. A. Chinakal, T. F. Gorbachev, and others), as were fully mechanized face-clearing means under diverse mining conditions, complexes with individual metal supports, and mechanized complexes, including narrow-bucket excavators, hydraulically operated supports, and belt conveyors (A. V. Dokukin, V. N. Khorin, V. G. Iatskikh, and others). Also introduced were the means for the complete mechanization of excavation operations, the installation of supports, and shaft-sinking operations (N. M. Pokrovskii, Ia. B. Kal’nitskii, D. I. Maliovanov, and others) and methods of calculating the parameters of the working elements of face-clearing and mine-sinking machines (L. I. Baron and others).
The scientific foundations of the exploitation of ore deposits were formulated; they pertained to systems of mining, stripping methods, various technological processes, and mechanized means (N. I. Trushkov, N. A. Starikov, M. I. Agoshkov, G. M. Malakhov, and others).
Technological schemes for face-cutting work and designs for standard types of coal shafts were worked out (A. S. Kuz’mich, M. I. Ustinov, and others). In mine aerodynamics, analytic methods were devised to calculate mine ventilation systems (A. A. Skochinskii, V. N. Voronin, V. B. Komarov, and others). On the basis of the study of the presence of gases in the deposits of the chief basins, a method was proposed to predict variations in the amount of gas present according to the depth of occurrence of the gas-bearing strata (G. D. Lidin and others). Methods for the preliminary degasification of coal-bearing strata and the removal of gas from the subsurface through boreholes were worked out and put into practice.
Engineering procedures to drain water from deposits or to freeze it were proposed, as were special methods of sinking mine shafts from the surface (G. I. Man’kovskii, N. G. Trupak, and others). The basic principles of underground hydraulic coal extraction were formulated; engineering calculations of ways to effect the fragmentation of coal seams by jets of water underground were developed, and the hydraulic transport of the coal and hydraulic methods of raising the coal to the surface from great depths were worked out (V. S. Muchnik, G. P. Nikonov, and others).
One of the main concerns of mining science became the physicotechnical study of rocks, as the objects acted upon in the course of mining (L. I. Baron, V. V. Rzhevskii, M. M. Protod’iakonov [the younger], and others). The fundamentals of the theory of the fragmentation of rocks by blasting were worked out, as were the engineering methods of calculating explosive charges to determine the degree of breakage and the extent of the directed displacement of the bulk of the blasted rock (M. A. Sadovskii, N. V. Mel’nikov, G. P. Demidiuk, G. I. Pokrovskii, and others).
The technology and machinery for the comprehensive mechanization of stripping and stoping operations in opencut mining were scientifically substantiated (N. V. Mel’nikov, V. V. Rzhevskii, B. P. Bogoliubov, and others). The theoretical principles and technical methods of working placer deposits were developed (S. M. Shorokhov and others).
The regularities of the processes of the hydraulic mechanization of opencut methods were identified: the hydraulic fragmentation of rock, hydraulic transportation and stacking, and the use of hydraulic machinery for mining and concentration operations (N. D. Kholin, G. A. Nurok, G. P. Nikonov, A. P. Iufin, and others).
The theoretical foundations of the gravity, flotation, electromagnetic, and other methods of concentrating minerals were worked out. The action of superimposed fields of force (magnetic, electrical, vibration, ultrasound, and radiation), which intensify existing concentration processes, were studied. Combined concentration and hydrometallurgical schemes for processing extracted raw materials were developed using sorption, extraction, and ion-exchange processes, which permit the economical removal of components from lean ores, industrial solutions, and waste water while at the same time decontaminating them (I. N. Plaksin, P. V. Liashchenko, V. Ia. Mostovich, V. I. Klassen, B. N. Laskorin, S. I. Pol’kin, V. A. Glembotskii, and others).
In the 1970’s, geotechnology became established as an independent branch of mining science. It has theoretically substantiated extraction techniques based on the conversion of solid minerals to a mobile state directly at the place of occurrence (A. I. Kirichenko, V. Zh. Arens, and others). Scientific principles were worked out and special equipment built for the underwater extraction of minerals, and experimental projects to extract minerals from the shelf were begun.
The methods of technical-economic analysis were formulated, as were the methods of determining optimal mine parameters that take into account fixed and working capital (L. D. Sheviakov, M. I. Agoshkov, P. Z. Zviagin, and others).
The characteristics and principles of the optimal mining of minerals were clarified and substantiated, taking into account the geological conditions of the minerals’ occurrence, losses, and depletion and the level of development of mining machinery (N. V. Mel’nikov, M I. Agoshkov, A. N. Omel’chenko, and others).
The mining sciences pertaining to well drilling and the working of petroleum and gas deposits developed successfully. Research in petroleum and gas drilling was directed at developing the technology for turbodrilling and designing and building highly efficient machinery. In the 1920’s a geared turbodrill for drilling petroleum and gas wells was designed and tested under industrial conditions (M. A. Kapeliushnikov and others). In the 1930’s and 1940’s the theory of axial turbodrills without reduction gears was worked out. Such turbodrills were built and used extensively (P. P. Shumilov, M. T. Gusman, R. A. Ioannesian, and E. I. Tagiev) and played a decisive role in the development of petroleum and gas deposits in the USSR in the postwar period. The operating principles of turbodrills with a split flow in the lower section were developed, making it possible to design machines for drilling deep petroleum and gas wells and sinking shafts. Turbodrills for drilling large-diameter shafts were built (G. I. Bulakh).
Scientists developed the principles of the forced curvature of wells with a large deflection of the face relative to the mouth of the well that occurs during drilling using stoping drills (M. P. Gulizade and A. G. Kalinin). The clustering of wells became widespread (F. S. Popovin, S. A. Orudzhev, V. I. Muravlenko, and others), making it possible to reduce significantly the area of non-usable agricultural lands, to make efficient use of offshore drilling platforms, and to ensure the rapid development of petroleum extraction in littoral areas and the boggy areas of Western Siberia. Theoretical and experimental research was successfully conducted on the fragmentation of rock during well drilling (L. A. Shreiner and others). Highly productive drill bits were constructed from superhard alloys. A drill pipe of aluminum alloy allowing a significant increase in the rate of drilling was developed, tested, and introduced on a broad scale (V. F. Shtamburg and others). Attention was focused on the theoretical and experimental study of hydrodynamics in drilling (R. I. Shishchenko, B. S. Filatov, A. Kh. Mirzadzhanzade, and others) and on the study of complications that may arise in the course of drilling.
In Russia the development of the theory of working petroleum deposits dates to 1894, when a work appeared by the Russian geologist A. Konshin in which he derived the curve of the constant percentage drop in petroleum extraction in order to calculate residual extraction. In the period 1918–24, works by S. N. Charnotskii and others appeared that for the first time dealt with the effects of distance between wells on the productivity of both the horizons being worked and the wells themselves. The theory of the regimes of petroleum deposits was formulated in 1929–30 by a commission headed by the academician I. M. Gubkin. The first major generalizations about the extraction of gas were made in the 1930’s by I. N. Strizhov and others. The foundations of the mechanics of petroleum extraction and pipe and underground hydrodynamics were worked out by L. S. Leibenzon, V. N. Shchelkachev, and I. A. Charnyi. In 1940, A. P. Krylov and B. B. Lapuk proposed the overall principle of resolving the problems of working deposits using mining geology, underground hydrodynamics, and sectoral economics. The scientific foundations of comprehensive planning were later formulated for the development of petroleum deposits (A. P. Krylov, M. M. Glogovskii, and N. M. Nikolaevskii) and gas deposits (N. K. Baibakov, F. A. Trebin, Iu. P. Korotaev, and others).
Effective methods were developed for artificially determining the pressure in the layer by the injection of water, which fills up the layer and increases the rate of petroleum removal. These methods encompassed various types of flooding: contour flooding (beyond the boundaries of the stratum), different types of intra-contour flooding (within the stratum), areal flooding (A. P. Krylov, Iu. P. Borisov, M. L. Surguchev, M. M. Ivanova, and others), and selective-focal flooding (G. G. Vakhitov, R. Sh. Mingareev, and others). The planning of mining systems based on new principles required a more detailed study of the underground hydrodynamics governing the various conditions of petroleum occurrence and extraction (M. T. Abasov, M. M. Sattarov, M. D. Rozenberg, A. K. Kurbanov, and others). Highly efficient comprehensive industrial engineering concepts were worked out, ensuring a more intensive development of petroleum extraction in Tiumen’ Oblast (S. A. Orudzhev, V. I. Muravlenko, V. Iu. Filanovskii-Zenkov, and others). Investigations turned to the development of fundamentally new ways of increasing the petroleum output of individual strata. Methods of thermal influence were tested, such as the pumping in of hot water or steam, a moving center of combustion, and “wet petroleum combustion in the stratum” (A. B. Sheinman, E. B. Chekaliuk, Iu. P. Zheltov, and others). Deep hose-type and submerged electric pumps were introduced to bring petroleum from deep highly productive wells to the surface (A. A. Bogdanov and L. G. Chicherov), making it possible to force out large volumes of liquid from depths of as much as 3,500 m.
As early as the 1940’s, high-pressure airtight systems for the collection and preparation of petroleum, gas, and water were being used at oil fields in the southern parts of the country (S. A. Vezirov and F. G. Baronian). In subsequent years, such systems, in automated modular form, became widespread. New scientific and technical concepts of petroleum refining were developed and all operations were automated (V. D. Shashin, V. I. Graifer, and others).
Methods of working areas near the face of the borehole were developed, which led to considerable increases in output. The theory of the hydraulic fragmentation of strata was worked out (S. A. Khristianovich and others). A number of innovative technical concepts made it possible to develop efficiently the unique gas deposits located in the permafrost zone of the northern part of Tiumen’ Oblast. Under these conditions, reliable designs for large-diameter and highly productive wells that provide protection against thawing of the permafrost rock were developed and introduced into practice; the wells were concentrated in the most productive part of the deposits.
The introduction of modern methods of protecting wells against corrosion and sulfide cracking and the development of casing and pump-compressor pipes capable of withstanding aggressive media made it possible to bring large hydrogen sulfide-containing deposits into production quickly, such as the Orenburg and Urtabulak deposits. Large-module metal deep-water and reinforced-concrete ice-resistant rigs were developed and built to bring undersea petroleum and gas resources into economic use (S. A. Orudzhev, L. A. Mezhlumov, Iu. A. Safarov, A. A. Asan-Nuri, and others), as were scaffolding structures with platforms along the scaffolding (B. A. Raginskii, N. V. Ozerov, and others).
Research in the mining sciences is conducted at institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the academies of sciences of the Union republics, as well as at technological and specialized branch institutes of the coal, petroleum,’gas, and chemical industries, the ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy industries, and the building-materials industry. It is also conducted at higher educational institutions, including the A. A. Skochinskii Mining Institute (Moscow Oblast; formed in 1959 on the basis of the All-Union Coal Institute, founded 1927, and the Mining Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, founded 1938), as well as at the sector of engineering physics mining problems of the Institute of Earth Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Moscow, 1967) and the Mining Institute of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Novosibirsk; established in 1957 on the basis of the mining geological institute of the former Western Siberian branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, founded 1944). In addition, research is conducted at the Institute of Mining of the Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy of the USSR (Sverdlovsk; founded 1962), the State Institute of Mined Chemical Raw Materials (Moscow Oblast; 1943), the All-Union Petroleum and Gas Research Institute (Moscow; 1943), the All-Union Institute of the Gas Industry (Moscow Oblast; 1948), the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Mining Geomechanics and Mine Surveying (Leningrad; 1932), the All-Union Research Institute of Drilling Technology (Moscow; 1953), the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Nonmetallic Construction Materials (Tol’iatti; 1958), and the All-Union Research Institute of the Peat Industry (Leningrad; 1922).
Soviet scientific institutions have expanded and strengthened their ties with institutes and organizations in the European socialist countries and in France, Great Britain, the United States, Canada, India, and other countries. The USSR takes part in international mining, petroleum, gas, peat, and other congresses.
PERIODICALS. The principal periodicals in the mining sciences are Gorny i zhurnal (Mining Journal, since 1825), Neftianoe khoziaistvo (Petroleum Industry, since 1920), Torfianaia promyshlennost’ (Peat Industry, since 1924), Ugol’ (Coal, since 1925), Tsvetnye metally (Nonferrous Metals, since 1926), Gazovaiapromyshlennost’ (Gas Industry, since 1956), Shakhtnoe stroitel’stvo (Mine Construction, since 1957), and Referativnyi zhurnal: Gornoe delo (Mining Abstracts Journal, since 1961).
N. V. MEL’NIKOV and S. A. ORUDZHEV

Bibliography

Sovetskaia gornaia nauka, 1917–1957. Moscow, 1957.
Faerman, E. M. Razvitie otechestvennoi gornoi nauki. Moscow, 1958.
Sovremennoe sostoianie gornoi nauki v SSSR. Moscow, 1968.
Tekhnika gornogo dela i metallurgii. Moscow, 1968.
Mel’nikov, N. V. Razvitie gornoi nauki v oblasti otkrytoi razrabotki mestorozhdenii v SSSR. Moscow, 1961.
Fedorov, S. F. Ocherki po istorii geologii nefti. Moscow, 1953.
Biological sciences. The development of the biological sciences in Russia began in the 18th century with the study of the country’s flora and fauna. Biologists took part in expeditions sponsored by the Academy of Sciences to various regions of the country; for example, the biologists G. V. Steller, S. P. Krasheninnikov, and I. G. Gmelin were members of V. Bering’s Second Kamchatka expedition (1733–43). The results of the first period of study of the flora and fauna were summarized by P. S. Pallas (1770–1830), who assembled numerous botanical and zoological collections. In the 19th century much information was gathered on expeditions to Siberia (A. F. Middendorf, 1842–45, 1870), Middle Asia (A. P. Fedchenko, 1868–69, 1870, 1871), and other regions. In order to process the findings of the expeditions, the development of taxonomy was necessary. At the initiative of N. V. Nasonov, the series of monographs Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries was published in 1911, providing an orderly classification of the animal world of the country.
Marine research during the 19th century was concerned entirely with the animal life of the seas (E. I. Eikhval’d, O. A. Grimm). In the early 20th century, general hydrobiological problems came to the forefront (N. M. Knipovich, S. A. Zernov). It was at this time that the flora and fauna of Lake Baikal, the most unusual lake in the world, were first investigated (V. I. Dybovskii, A. A. Korotnev).
Several biological disciplines, including morphology, embryology, paleontology, human and animal physiology, and plant physiology, were studied in “Russia beginning in the second half of the 18th century. Zoological research led to an understanding of the evolutionary development of nature; of particular note was the work of K. F. Rul’e, an evolutionist-zoologist of the mid-19th century.
In the second half of the 19th century major scientific schools emerged in Russia, schools highly regarded by scientists throughout the world. V. O. Kovalevskii is among the founders of modern paleontology; K. M. Ber, A. O. Kovalevskii, and E. Metchnikoff, of animal embryology; N. A. Severtsov, M. A. Menzbir, A. N. Severtsov, and N. V. Nasonov, of modern vertebrate zoology; and A. A. Korotnev, N. P. Vagner, N. A. Kholodkovskii, and V. M. Shimkevich, of invertebrate zoology. Major contributions were made by Metchnikoff and S. N. Vinogradskii to microbiology, D. I. Ivanovskii to virology, and Ia. S. Famintsyn, K. A. Timiriazev, V. I. Palladin, and D. N. Prianishnikov to plant physiology. World recognition has been given to the work of F. V. Ovsiannikov, I. M. Sechenov, N. E. Vvedenskii, I. P. Pavlov, I. R. Tarkhanov, B. F. Verigo, and V. Iu. Chagovets in animal and human physiology; A. Ia. Danilevskii and M. V. Nentskii in animal biochemistry; A. N. Beketov, S. I. Korzhinskii, A. N. Krasnov, and I. K. Pachoskii in plant taxonomy and geography; and M. S. Voronin, I. N. Gorozhankin, V. I. Beliaev, and S. G. Navashin in plant cytology and morphology.
Russian scientists discovered the phenomena of phagocytosis (Metchnikoff, 1882) and chemosynthesis (Vinogradskii, 1877), described the nodule bacteria on the roots of legumes (Voronin, 1866), and discovered the egg cell in mammals and humans (Ber, 1827). They are also credited with the discovery of double fertilization in angiosperms (Navashin, 1898) and the discovery of viruses (Ivanovskii, 1892). Important research was also conducted on higher nervous activity, phylembryogenesis, and the forest.
In prerevolutionary Russia, biological research was pursued primarily at universities and medical, agricultural, and forestry institutions. Just before the October Revolution of 1917, the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences had only three laboratories, two museums, and one experiment station devoted to biological research; these six facilities had a total staff of only 30 persons.
The first years after the victorious October Revolution marked the establishment of several research institutes that gradually played a leading role in the development of pure research. The Institute of Biophysics was organized in 1919 by P. P. Lazarev. In 1920, with the support of N. A. Semashko, a group of biomedical institutes was set up under the People’s Commissariat of Health of the RSFSR. The group included the Institute of Experimental Biology (1917, headed by N. K. Kol’tsov), the Institute of the Physiology of Nutrition, the Tropical Institute, and the Biochemical Institute (founding director A. N. Bakh). The Bureau of Applied Botany and Selective Breeding, founded in 1894, was expanded, and in 1923 the Timiriazev Biological Research Institute opened in Moscow under the direction of S. G. Navashin. The Ukrainian Institute of Biochemistry was founded in 1925 by A. V. Palladin. Numerous institutes and laboratories were later established by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The academy opened various branches of its biological, biomedical, and agricultural institutes; laboratories and experiment bases and stations were also organized.
The establishment of the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences in 1929 and the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in 1944 greatly furthered the development of the biological sciences. Existing subdepartments at higher educational institutions were expanded, and new ones were set up. National cadres of biological scientists and scientific collectives were formed in all the Union republics. Many scientists who were active before 1917 continued to make important contributions after the establishment of Soviet power.
Only after the October Revolution did research on genetics begin. The first scientific centers and schools in the disciplines of physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, cytology, histology, biocenology, ecology, protistology, helminthology, hydrobiology, and paleontology also emerged after the Revolution. Soviet biologists began the systematic study of the country’s plant and animal resources. A characteristic feature of Soviet biology is comprehensiveness of research, that is, the identification of the essential features and interrelationships of biological phenomena not only in general works on botany and zoology but also in the research of protistologists, parasitologists, helminthologists, morphologists, ecologists, microbiologists, and other specialists.
In the mid-1950’s the study of new areas of biology—molecular genetics and molecular biology—was pursued. Study of the phenomena of life on the subcellular and molecular levels required the research methods of physics and chemistry, including electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, the tracer atom method, ultracentrifuging, and various types of chromatolography. Biologists, using methods from allied sciences, have delved into new, previously unknown, areas of life to study the organic world at different levels of organization. Their work has necessitated refinement of the historical method for the interpretation of new information. Biology in the USSR uses the theory of development of the organic world as the theoretical foundation of all biological sciences.
D. V. LEBEDEV and IA. I. STAROBOGATOV
ZOOLOGY. Research in zoology in the USSR includes work on fundamental problems, including the general issues of taxonomy, ecology, evolution, and morphology. Work is also being done on fauna composition, the ecology of harmful and useful species, and formulation of the scientific foundations for the rational use and protection of natural resources. As the result of long years of work, the composition of the fauna of the USSR has been studied and described extensively. The Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR has published the monograph series Fauna of the USSR since 1935 and Guides to Fauna of the USSR (more than 200 volumes have been issued) since 1927. Fauna of the Ukraine and summaries of the fauna of other Union republics are also published.
Invertebrates. Research of theoretical and practical importance has been carried out in invertebrate zoology. The V. A. Dogel’ school of protozoologists greatly contributed to the taxonomy of protozoans. K. I. Skriabin’s school did a great deal of work on identification of the species composition of the helminthic fauna, producing multivolume monographs on trematodes, nematodes, cestodes, and other helminths. The study of helminthic plant parasites was initiated in the 1920’s by I. N. Filip’ev and was continued by E. S. Kir’ianova, N. M. Sveshnikova, and A. A. Paramonov and his students; their work was the basis for development of measures to control nematode plant diseases.
Many Soviet scientists have made valuable contributions to entomology. A. V. Martynov and E. G. Bekker, in addition to doing extensive research on insect taxonomy, helped elucidate the origin of the basic structural characteristics of insect bodies. M. S. Giliarov’s school studied the adaptation of insects (and their larvae) and other invertebrates to life in the soil. In addition to its theoretical importance, Giliarov’s research led to the emergence of a new scientific discipline—soil zoology—which has made possible a better understanding of the relationship between the soil and the yield of agricultural crops and the productivity of natural lands. Of major importance have been studies on the biology of insects that are agricultural pests, in particular locusts and shield bugs. Studies on the biology of parasites and the predators that feed on them constitute the basis for the development of biological and integrated methods of controlling harmful insects.
The school of parasitologists headed by E. N. Pavlovskii studied bloodsucking insects and synanthropic insects, as well as other bloodsucking arthropods, and their role in the distribution of a number of human and animal diseases (transmitted diseases). The Dogel’ school’s study offish parasites and the ecological and geographic patterns of their distribution played a large part in the development of Soviet parasitology. B. E. Bykhovskii, a representative of the Dogel’ school, worked out a system of monogenetic flukes. Because of the practical importance of parasitological research, much attention is given to the discipline at the academies of sciences of the Union republics, particularly in the Ukraine (A. P. Markevich) and Kazakhstan (I. G. Galuzo, S. N. Boev, and E. V. Gvozdev).
Vertebrates. The development of vertebrate zoology has been furthered by the comprehensive study of land vertebrates, notably the work of D. N. Kashkarov, the author of the first summaries of animal ecology in the USSR. Other topics of research have included the taxonomy, ecology, and distribution of birds; the paleontology of land vertebrates (P. P. Sushkin); the biology of freshwater fishes (L. S. Berg); the taxonomy of modern and fossil fishes (Berg); and the biology of birds of the USSR (G. P. Dement’ev, N. A. Gladkov). Much work has been done on the taxonomy, faunistics, ecology, and evolution of mammals (S. I. Ognev, V. G. Geptner, B. S. Vinogradov, V. E. Sokolov). Cetaceans (A. G. Tomilin, A. V. Iablokov) and commercially valuable animals (B. M. Zhitkov, A. N. Formozov) have also been studied extensively. Evolutionary ecology, founded by S. A. Severtsov, has developed significantly. There has also been intensive study of the ecological patterns of the evolution, ways, and possibilities of animal adaptation to changing environmental conditions (S. S. Shvarts and his school, N. P. Naumov).
Generalization of the patterns of distribution of animals of the USSR and adjacent seas led to intensified development of zoogeography, which has provided the scientific basis for the introduction of useful animals to certain regions, for example, the musk ox to arctic regions, the humpback salmon to the White Sea, a number of Far Eastern herbivorous fish to waters of the European USSR, and feed invertebrates to the Caspian Sea and various reservoirs. Soviet scientists have done valuable work in the zoogeography of internal waters. Development of the commercial resources of the sea and freshwaters required formulation of a theory of the productivity of bodies of water. The schools of L. A. Zenkevich and V. G. Bogorov played a large part in the study of marine productivity.
The findings of Soviet scientists during numerous marine expeditions contributed to the study of the productivity of the world ocean. Central to the research of the K. M. Deriugin school was the establishment of the scientific foundations for development of shelf resources. The fundamental generalization in this area, the theory of underwater landscapes, served as the scientific basis for establishing near-shore commercial enterprises without harming populations of valuable sea animals. In the 1920’s, S. N. Skadovskii studied the effect of environmental factors on aquatic organisms. G. G. Vinberg’s theory of the productivity of freshwater ecosystems, formulated in the 1930’s, became the generally recognized basis of international research in freshwater biology. The G. V. Nikol’skii school also studied the ecology, taxonomy, and distribution of fish, as well as the scientific bases of the fishing industry, particularly in internal waters.
The effects of human activities on bodies of water became a vital issue in the 1950’s, requiring development of the theory of the self-decontamination of bodies of water, study of the effect of pollutants on aquatic organisms, and exact forecasting of the consequences of hydroengineering projects and irrigation systems. A. S. Razumov, V. I. Zhadin, and the Vinberg school established the foundations for measures to keep the waters of the USSR clean and to make rational use of the resources of vast man-made bodies of water. In connection with the growing importance of environmental protection, Soviet scientists are devoting greater attention to the taxonomy and biology of mammals, birds, and reptiles, many of which are valuable for commercial or medicinal use. The six-volume Life of Animals (1968–71) has made zoological information available to the general public.
Comparative morphology and animal embryology. Comparative morphology and animal embryology constitute an important. field of biological study. Study of the evolutionary morphology of animals, which explains the patterns of evolution on the basis of a synthesis of comparative anatomical, embryological, and paleontological data, was begun in the 19th century by V. O. Kovalevskii. A. N. Severtsov did work in this area as early as the period 1910–20, but his major writings, summarizing the work of his school, came out in the 1920’s and 1930’s. Evolutionary morphology was developed further primarily by Severtsov’s students. I. I. Shmal’gauzen studied organism integrity, natural selection, and the origin of land vertebrates. M. M. Voskoboinikov and B. A. Dombrovskii showed the role of function in phytogeny. S. N. Bogoliubskii established a special line of study, the evolutionary morphology of breeding animals, and worked on the problem of breed formation. Study of the evolution of ontogeny led to identification of the leading role of function in individual development (A. A. Mashkovtsev), formulation of the stages of ontogeny (V. V. Vasnetsov, S. G. Kryzhanovskii, and B. S. Matveev), and investigation of the rate of individual development (S. V. Emel’ianov).
In the USSR the development of the evolutionary morphology and phytogeny of invertebrates was promoted by N. A. Livanov, V. N. Beklemishev, D. M. Fedotov, and Dogel’, who identified the oligomerization of homologous organs as one of the paths of progressive evolution. P. P. Ivanov’s theory of larval segments established the general rule of segmentation of the body of metameric animals. A. A. Zakhvatkin studied the origin of multicellular animals, and A. V. Ivanov discovered the pogonophore, a new type of animal. I. I. Ezhikov and M. S. Giliarov developed the theory of insect metamorphosis. Shmal’gauzen, Giliarov, and P. P. Baloban elucidated ecological regularities of the phytogeny of different animal groups. The foundations of evolutionary histology were laid by A. A. Zavarzin’s theory of parallelism in tissue evolution and N. G. Khlopin’s theory of divergent tissue evolution. The work of A. V. Rumiantsev promoted the development of tissue culture in the USSR.
Experimental animal embryology. D. P. Filatov conducted the first research on experimental animal embryology in the USSR. His school (T. A. Detlaf, G. F. Lopashov, and others) elucidated the patterns of embryonic development of organisms and analyzed the organogenesis of the nervous system, sensory organs, and extremities. Study of postembryonic development and its regulation by hormones (M. M. Zavadovskii) found practical application in inducing multiple births in sheep. Study of the phenomena of regeneration, especially in mammals (M. A. Vorontsova, L. Ia. Bliakher, L. D. Liozner, B. P. Tokin), has been applied in surgical practice. Advances have been made in the study of the patterns of realization of genetically determined characteristics in ontogeny (A. A. Neifakh and others).
Research. Research is conducted at various institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, including the Zoological Institute (founded 1931) and its zoological museum, the Institute of Oceanology (founded 1946), the A. N. Severtsov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Animal Ecology, and the N. K. Kol’tsov Institute of the Biology of Development. (The last two institutes were formed in 1967 from the A. N. Severtsov Institute of Evolutionary Animal Morphology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.) The academies of sciences of the Union republics also have zoological institutes. Zoological research is also carried out at special branch institutions, zoological museums, subdepartments of zoology at higher educational institutions, biological stations, and natural preserves.
HUMAN AND ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY. In the 1920’s and 1930’s, I. P. Pavlov and his school continued their study of higher nervous activity, formulating the basic rules of the formation and mechanisms of activity of the cerebral cortex. Pavlov studied various types of higher nervous activity, including that of anthropoids; he also investigated the specific mechanisms of human higher nervous activity. In 1923, A. A. Ukhtomskii, continuing the work of I. M. Sechenov and N. E. Vvedenskii, discovered the dominant, the principle of activity of the nervous system. The school of L. A. Orbeli, a student and associate of Pavlov, formulated the theory of the adaptotrophic role of the autonomic nervous system. In the 1940’s the theoretical foundations of evolutionary physiology were established (A. G. Ginetsinskii, E. M. Kreps). During the same period, Kh. S. Koshtoiants did important work on comparative physiology and the theory of excitation, and I. A. Arshavskii and A. A. Volokhov made advances in the physiology of aging. The foundations of ecological physiology were laid in the early 1960’s by A. D. Slonim, D. A. Biriukov, and others.
Elaborating Pavlov’s doctrine of the regulatory role of the central nervous system, Soviet physiologists were the first to reveal many of the mechanisms by which the central nervous system, in particular the cerebral cortex, affects the activity of the internal organs of humans and animals (K. M. Bykov, V. N. Chernigovskii, E. Sh. Airapetiants, I. T. Kurtsin). In the 1930’s major research was conducted on human vision and hearing (A. V. Lebedinskii, S. V. Kravkov, V. D. Glezer, G. V. Gershuni, A. L. Byzov) and on the physiology of blood circulation (V. V. Parin). After A. M. Ugolev’s discovery of parietal digestion in 1959, the molecular foundations of digestion and nutrition were studied extensively. The use of microelectrodes in neurophysiology made it possible to study bioelectric phenomena in individual nerve cells, facilitating more thorough investigation of the mechanisms of activity of individual neurons (P. G. Kostiuk and others). Since the 1950’s, M. N. Livanov and V. S. Rusinov have refined the electrophysiological methods of investigation that A. F. Samoilov helped develop and have made progress in explaining the formation of conditioned reflexes. Important problems of the physiology of higher nervous activity, for example, the relationship between conditioned reflexes and the evolution of acquired reactions, have been studied by a group of scientists led by E. A. Asratian and L. G. Voronin (from the 1950’s); similar problems have been studied by M. M. Khananashvili (1970’s). Of particular interest has been the work done on complex chains of reflexes and their genetic causality (L. V. Krushinskii, from the 1940’s) and on situational conditioned reflexes (P. S. Kupalov and colleagues, from the 1940’s). Physiological study of complex forms of behavior was begun as early as the 1930’s (N. A. Bernshtein, I. S. Beritashvili, P. K. Anokhin, and Slonim). Advances in the treatment of many internal illnesses have been made possible by extensive research on the physiology of the digestive, excretory, and circulatory systems, as well as on regulation of the tone of the peripheral blood vessels. The results of major theoretical studies in electrophysiology are used in the diagnosis of heart disease.
Research in physiology is conducted at various institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, including the I. P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology (founded 1950), the Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology (1960), and the I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry (1964). The Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR has major centers for the study of physiology, including the Brain Institute, (1927), the P. K. Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology (1974), and the Research Institute of General Pathology and Pathological Physiology (1974). The Union republic academies of sciences have institutes of physiology, and there are physiology divisions and laboratories at various biological and medical research institutes. Subdepartments of physiology are found at universities and medical institutes.
BOTANY. The plant world is investigated primarily as a component of the biosphere. The ultimate goal of botanical study is discovery of the scientific foundations for using and protecting the world’s resources. Major advances have been made in the floristics and taxonomy of higher (vascular) plants. The 30-volume Flora of the USSR (1933–64), whose compilation was begun by V. L. Komarov and was continued by B. K. Shishkin, summarizes the results of 200 years of floristic research. Similar works and plant guides have been compiled for Union and autonomous republics (Azerbaijan, Byelorussia, Georgia, Abkhazia, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Latvia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and the Ukraine) and for certain regions of the RSFSR (Western Siberia, the Caucasus, Kamchatka, Leningrad Oblast, Murmansk Oblast, Central Siberia). Publication of the floras of Armenia, the European USSR, Transbaikalia, Lithuania, the Soviet arctic, Middle Asia, Tadzhikistan, and Estonia is ongoing. In 1949 the description of trees found in the USSR was undertaken (completed 1965). Cultivated Flora of the USSR, begun by N. I. Vavilov, is currently being published, and Red Data Book: Wild Species of the Flora of the USSR That Need Protection has been published since 1975.
Soviet botanists have also conducted floristic research abroad—in Mongolia, Vietnam, China, Cuba, the Middle East, North Africa, and elsewhere. Monographs have been published on many important taxa (grasses, sedges, larch), and several thousand new species have been described, especially in Middle Asia, the Caucasus, Siberia, and the Far East. The results of systematic study of the flora of lower (sporebearing) plants of the USSR have been published in Flora of Sporebearing Plants of the USSR since 1952. Major studies in algology include investigations of the freshwater algae of the European USSR, the Caucasus, Middle Asia, Siberia, and the Far East, as well as investigations of the algae of the seas of the USSR. Guides to freshwater algae are being published (N. N. Voronikhin, M. M. Gollerbakh, and others). A. A. Elenkin’s monograph on blue-green algae of the USSR (1936–49) is a fundamental work. The importance of diatomaceous algae in geological exploration led to the publication of Diatom Analysis in 1949–50.
The mycologists V. F. Kuprevich, L. I. Kursanov, and others have published general handbooks, guides, and monographs devoted to groups of fungi having practical importance: Phytophthoraceae, Mucorales, Ustilaginales, Uredinales, Hyphomycetes, Melanconiales, Fusarium, Saccharomycetales, and Hymenomycetes. The study of fungi has been closely associated with work on phytopathology (N. A. Naumov, S.I. Vanin). The study of lichens was continued by Elenkin, the founder of domestic lichenology, and his school, as well as by Byelorussian and Ukrainian lichenologists (A. N. Oksner and others). Research in bryology expanded, with the publication in 1947 of K. I. Meier’s general guide to mosses. Works were also published on cormophytic mosses of the Ukraine, the Far East, and Byelorussia; sphagnum mosses of the USSR, the Ukraine, and Byelorussia; and liverworts of the Ukraine and the northern part of the European USSR.
Major contributions were made to the theory of taxonomy (the conceptions of species of V. L. Komarov and N. I. Vavilov) and to the development of modern taxonomic methods based on the findings of genetics, cytology, biochemistry, and other biological disciplines. New phylogenetic systems have been proposed for the entire plant kingdom (A. la. Vaga), lower plants (D. K. Zernov), and higher plants (B. M. Kozo-Polianskii, A. A. Grossgeim, and A. L. Takhtadzhian). The problem of the origin and geography of cultivated plants was solved by Vavilov and P. M. Zhukovskii. New useful wild plants yielding medicinal substances, essential oils, rubber, tannins, or livestock feed were discovered and studied thoroughly. The theory and methodology of botanical resource management are being developed by M. M. Il’in and Al. A. Fedorov.
Plant morphology. Fundamental investigations have been devoted to the evolutionary morphology of plants: the manifestation of the biogenetic law in plants (Kozo-Polianskii, 1937), the interrelationship of sexual (sporophyte) and asexual (gametophyte) generations (K. I. Meier, 1930’s-1950’s), the origin of land plants (Meier, 1930’s-1950’s), the modes of morphological evolution in higher plants (Takhtadzhian, from the 1940’s), flower evolution (N. V. Pervukhina), and carpology (N. N. Kaden and R. E. Levina). Studies in ontogenetic morphology have been devoted to teratology (V. L. Ryzhkov, from the 1930’s; Al. A. Fedorov, from the 1950’s) and traumatology (N. P. Krenke, from the 1920’s). In ecological morphology extensive research has been done on the various life forms of plants. A series of reference works on the descriptive morphology of vascular plants has been compiled by Fedorov, Z. T. Artiushenko, and M. E. Kirpichnikov.
In plant anatomy there have been studies on the development of the stems of dicotyledons (S. P. Kostychev), the mechanical tissue of plants as it relates to strength (V. F. Razdorskii, 1940’s and 1950’s), the anatomical structure of agricultural plants (V. G. Aleksandrov, P. A. Baranov, since the 1920’s), and wood anatomy.
The S. G. Navashin school has played a leading role in plant embryology. The structure and development of gametophytes (I. D. Romanov), the processes of fertilization (E. N. Gerasimova-Navashina), polyembryony, and embryo development have been studied. The coenocytic type of embryonic development was discovered by M. S. Iakovlev.
Botanical geography. A critical analysis of the methods and basic concepts of botanical geography has been carried out. Extensive geobotanical investigations have been closely tied to the economic development of new regions, the solution of problems concerning the rational use and protection of forests and natural pastures, and afforestation for the purpose of field protection. The theoretical basis of these investigations was the concept of phytocoenoses, which was largely developed by Soviet botanists. This concept was further elaborated in the doctrine of biogeocenoses (V. N. Sukachev, from the 1930’s), which is closely related to the concept of the biosphere. Work has been done on plant classification (V. D. Aleksandrova). (For more information on botanical geography and geobotany see Natural sciences: Physicogeographical sciences.)
Bibliographic manuals for botanical literature have been compiled. The manuals are general in scope or are devoted to the plants of a particular region, to specific botanical problems, or to certain plant groups (S. Iu. Lipshits, D. V. Lebedev). The six-volume Life of Plants (since 1974) is bringing botanical knowledge to the general public.
Research in botany is carried on at various institutions of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR including the V. L. Komarov Botanical Institute (1931), the Central Botanical Garden, the institutes and botanical gardens of the academy’s Siberian division, and several of the academy’s scientific centers and branches. Research is also conducted at institutions of the Union republic academies of sciences, the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, the botany subdepartments of higher educational institutions, and natural preserves.
PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. The work of K. A. Timiriazev, V. I. Palladin, and S. P. Kostychev provided the basis for the development in the USSR of the study of the vital activities of plants. Studies on winter-hardiness, drought resistance, and salt resistance (N. A. Maksimov, I. I. Tumanov, P. A. Genkel’) have been particularly valuable in the USSR, a country of diverse climatic, soil, and hydrologic conditions. Theoretical advances in the study of plant nutrition have been directed toward the problem of raising crop yields (D. N. Prianishinkov, D. A. Sabinin, la. V. Peive).
Since the 1950’s growing attention has been devoted to the study of plant metabolism and the submicroscopic components of cells. The photochemical stage of photosynthesis has been described, and the qualitative differences of its products have been identified. Soviet scientists have also shown the various ways that photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids) undergo biosynthesis and have formulated a theory linking photosynthetic activity to productivity (A. A. Rikhter, A. A. Nichiporovich, T. N. Godnev, A. A. Krasnovskii, A. A. Shlyk, V. B. Evstigneev). Projects are also under way to explain more fully the biochemical foundations of the physiological processes of respiration, nitrogen exchange, transport of metabolites and their reserves, and biosynthesis of substances of secondary origin (A. L. Kursanov, M. N. Zaprometov, O. V. Zalenskii, and B. A. Rubin). Advances have been made in studying the factors that determine the growth and development of plants—photoperiodism and the hormone systems (M. Kh. Chailakhian, O. N. Kulaeva). In the 1970’s new tobacco hybrids were obtained by joining the isolated protoplasts of plant cells raised in synthetic media (R. G. Butenko). This method opened up new possibilities of overcoming the incompatibility of plant tissue and obtaining distant hybrids.
Research is carried out at various institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, including the K. A. Timiriazev Institute of Plant Physiology (founded 1934), the Institute of Photosynthesis (1966), and the Botanical Institute. Plant physiology is also studied at the academies of sciences of many Union republics, at branch institutes, at the K. A. Timiriazev Agricultural Academy in Moscow, and at the laboratories and subdepartments of higher educational institutions.
MICROBIOLOGY. The name of S. N. Vinogradskii, the founder of general microbiology in Russia, is linked with the discovery of chemosynthesis, the identification of the first nitrogen-fixing bacteria, the study of the aerobic decomposition of cellulose, and the description of fundamentally new methods of studying soil microorganisms. Vinogradskii’s student V. L. Omelianskii studied the biology of the anaerobic bacteria that ferment cellulose, the biology of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the formation of methane by bacteria. In 1909, Omelianskii compiled the first Russian manual of general microbiology.
In the 1920’s, influenced by V. I. Vernadskii’s work on the geochemical activity of living organisms, the development of microbiology was associated with study of the distribution of microorganisms and their role in the cycle of matter in nature. Specialized disciplines and areas of study first appeared in the early 20th century. Geological microbiology explains the importance of microorganisms in the formation and destruction of geological rock and useful minerals and the use of microorganisms to obtain various metals from ores (G. A. Nadson, V. O. Tauson, and S. I. Kuznetsov). Another specialized area of study is the microbiology of fresh and salt waters (B. L. Isachenko, A. E. Kriss). Soil microbiology is concerned with the microorganisms that inhabit the soil and their role in soil fertility (M. V. Fedorov, N. A. Krasil’nikov, and E. N. Mishustin). Space microbiology developed in the 1950’s; it studies the effect of the extreme factors of space on microorganisms and investigates various methods of detecting life on Mars and other planets (A. A. Imshenetskii).
Not more than 10 percent of the total number of microorganism species are known to science. Use of capillary microscopy, proposed by B. V. Perfil’ev and D. R. Gabe in 1961, led to the discovery of microspecies with unique morphology and unusual developmental histories. The developing field of functional morphology studies the fine structural characteristics, the chemical composition, and the biochemical properties of subcellular structures of microorganisms (M. N. Meisel’). The rapid development of molecular biology, which uses microorganisms as its classical objects of study, has enriched man’s understanding of heredity, variability, and methods of biosynthesis of various substances. Study of the growth and development of microorganisms, particularly those that are cultured continuously (N. D. Ierusalimskii, I. L. Rabotnova), has had both theoretical and practical importance. Numerous monographs have summarized the findings of work done on definite taxonomic groups of microorganisms, including actinomycetes (N. A. Krasil’nikov), yeasts (V. I. Kudriavtsev), cellulose bacteria (A. A. Imshenetskii), lactic acid bacteria (E. I. Kvasnikov), photosynthesizing bacteria (E. N. Kondrat’eva), and chemoautotrophic bacteria (G. A. Zavarzin).
The early period of development of industrial microbiology, the 1920’s and 1930’s, is associated with study of yeasts used in the production of wine, beer, and other alcoholic beverages. Also studied during the period were the yeasts that produce acetone, butanol, vinegar, lactic acid, and citric acid, as well as those used in the production of sour milk products and baking yeasts. V. N. Shaposhnikov, who substantiated the theory of the two-phase nature of yeast processes, contributed to the development of industrial microbiology. Since the 1940’s the microbiological industry of the USSR has produced antibiotics, amino acids, vitamins, enzymes, steroid hormones, polysaccharides (including blood substitutes), and microbiological agents for control of agricultural pests. Feed protein is being produced by raising yeasts on hydrolyzate of wood, and the production of feed protein from petroleum products is being developed.
Development of the microbiological industry has resulted in intensified research in the genetics and breeding of useful microorganisms and study of their physiology and ways of biosynthesizing physiologically active substances. Research in various branches of microbiological technology has also intensified. Increasing attention is being given to the destruction of various materials and objects by microorganisms, which causes substantial economic loss.
Research is conducted at the Institute of Microbiology (founded 1934) and the Institute of the Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms (1965) of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. There are institutes of microbiology attached to the academies of sciences of the Union republics. Microbiology is also studied at branch institutes of medical, agricultural, and industrial microbiology, as well as in subdepartments and laboratories of universities and teaching institutes.
VIROLOGY. The first laboratory in the USSR specializing in the study of viruses was organized by V. L. Ryzhkov in 1930; Ryzhkov’s laboratory studied plant viruses. In 1935 the central laboratory for human viruses was established by L. A. Zil’ber. The first monograph on animal viruses was written by N. F. Gamaleia (1930); the first one on plant viruses was written by Ryzhkov (1933). In 1938, Ryzhkov and his associates isolated the pure virus that causes tobacco mosaic disease, making it possible to study the virus’s interaction with acridine and other dyes and to obtain derivatives of the virus. Ryzhkov’s work led to the notion that virus particles, or virions, are a form of the virus adapted for preservation in the outside environment. The first Soviet study of the effect of metabolites and antimetabolites on the reproduction of the tobacco mosaic virus was undertaken in the late 1930’s; the study was important for the chemotherapy of virus diseases. In the 1960’s and 1970’s the genetics of viruses and the replication of viruses by molecular biological methods were studied by V. I. Agol, D. M. Gol’dfarb, V. M. Zhdanov, B. F. Poglazov, T. I. Tikhonenko, and others. A school of researchers studying tumorigenic viruses was formed by Zil’ber, and L. M. Tarasevich founded a school of virologists specializing in insect viruses. P. N. Kosiakov and G. I. Abelev are carrying out theoretical studies of antiviral immunity (see).
Virological research is pursued at the D. I. Ivanovskii Institute of Virology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR (founded 1946) and at other scientific research institutes. There are subdepartments and laboratories of virology at universities and teaching institutes.
PALEONTOLOGY. Studies of Tertiary, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic fossil organisms found throughout the USSR were first undertaken in the 1930’s. A fundamental feature of Soviet paleontology has been the transition from paleofaunistic and paleofloristic research subordinated to the problems of biostratigraphy to study of the evolution of large groups of animals and plants and of the organic world as a whole.
One of the central questions in paleozoology is the evolution of vertebrates. Detailed studies of extinct fishes (D. V. Obruchev), amphibians, reptiles (A. P. Bystrov, I. A. Efremov, and L. P. Tatarinov), and mammals (A. A. Borisiak, lu. A. Orlov) have made it possible to construct a full picture of the development of vertebrates throughout almost the entire Phanerozoic. Soviet scientists have collected extensive information on Mesozoic reptiles in Mongolia. A. V. Martynov and B. B. Rodendorf furthered the development of paleoentomology. Investigations of the paleontology of marine invertebrates not only filled in gaps in the evolution of the primary groups of animals represented by fossils (foraminifers, coral polyps, brachiopods, cephalopods, bivalve and gastropod mollusks, graptolites, and echinoderms) but also made it possible to outline the paths of evolution and geographic distribution of the marine fauna of past ages. The work by N. I. Andrusov, A. G. Eberzin, and L. Sh. Davitashvili on the development of the fauna of the southern seas was especially important, throwing light on both geological (petroleum exploration) and evolutionary biological questions. Soviet paleoecologists (R. F. Gekker, N. N. Iakovlev) have studied the fauna of ancient basins with exceptional thoroughness. The development of life in very ancient (Precambrian) geological ages is currently being investigated (A. G. Vologdin, B. S. Sokolov).
Important topics of study in paleobotany have included the evolution of the most important plant groups (A. N. Krishtofovich, M. F. Neiburg, and others) and the history of the vegetative cover and distribution of vegetation (V. A. Vakhrameev, S. V. Meien). Spore and pollen analysis has been valuable in paleobotanical studies.
A correct understanding of the conditions of burial and preservation of organism remains in deposits is important for solving many problems in paleontology. A special branch of paleontology devoted to this subject, taphonomy, was founded by I. A. Efremov in 1950.
Research in paleontology is conducted at various institutions of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, including the Paleontological Institute (founded 1930), the Geological Institute (1930), the Botanical Institute, and the Zoological Institute. Important work is, also carried out at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics of the Siberian Department of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1957) and the Institute of Paleobiology of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR (1957), as well as at laboratories of a number of other academy institutes, at institutions of the Ministry of Geology of the USSR, and in the subdepartments of higher educational institutions.
BIOGEOCHEMISTRY. The basic concepts of biogeochemistry were formulated by V. I. Vernadskii in the 1920’s. (Vernadskii’s final fundamental work, The Chemical Structure of the Biosphere of the Earth and Its Surrounding Region, was published posthumously, in 1965.) According to Vernadskii, the main objective of biochemistry is the formulation of a theory of organization of the biosphere. Vernadskii investigated the role of organisms in the migration of chemical elements within the biosphere and in the formation of the life-supporting environment. He also studied the effect of the geochemical factors of the biosphere on the evolution of organisms.
Biogeochemistry is based on the idea of the unity of organisms and the geochemical environment. It has been established that living matter is the principal factor in the cycle of chemical elements in the biosphere. According to Vernadskii, the technosphere emerged as a result of the development of human society and technology in the biosphere. The biosphere, including the technosphere, is increasingly being absorbed by the noosphere—the highest stage of the biosphere—in which the forms of organization of society must intelligently control the development of life in unity with the geochemical environment, with the goal of maximum human use of the wealth of the biosphere without damaging its ecosystems. Vernadskii’s Soviet biogeochemical school was based on the ideas of biogeochemistry and the theory of the biosphere.
Paleobiochemistry, a branch of biogeochemistry, was developed by la. V. Samoilov. A. P. Vinogradov, who conducted basic research on the elementary chemical composition of marine organisms and on the geochemistry of rare and dispersed chemical elements in the soil, advanced the idea of the existence of biogeochemical provinces. Two new branches of biogeochemistry, geochemical ecology and the system of biogeochemical zoning, provide the theoretical and methodological basis for biogeochemical study of the biosphere. The threshold concentrations of chemical elements that determine the primary reactions of organisms in soils, feed, and food products (variability, impairment of metabolism, endemic diseases) have been studied. The geochemical ecology of many groups of organisms is currently being studied (V. V. Koval’skii and others).
Research on the biological importance of many trace elements has been summarized in monographs and monographic collections. The trace-element content in organisms has been analyzed, and the role of trace elements in metabolic processes has been studied. Various compounds of trace elements have been investigated as well. Biogeochemistry has major implications for the national economy (the use of micronutrient fertilizers, the supplementation of animal feeds with trace elements that increase productivity and prevent endemic diseases, and the use of trace elements in medicine and veterinary science).
Research is conducted primarily at the Biogeochemical Laboratory of the V. I. Vernadskii Institute of Geochemistry and Analytic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (founded 1947).
BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. The work of A. N. Bakh on the oxidation processes in plants and animals was very important for the development of biochemistry in the USSR; Bakh’s theories concerning the chemistry of enzymes found application in the production of food products of plant and animal origin. In 1924, A. I. Oparin set forth a hypothesis on the origin of life on earth, many points of which were confirmed later experimentally by Soviet and foreign scientists. This problem went beyond the framework of biochemistry and assumed importance for biology in general.
In the period 1925–29, A. R. Kizel’ disproved the widely accepted idea that a special protein was the foundation of the protoplasm of all cells. His discovery was the basis of subsequent study of the functional role of distinct cell components. Research on cell respiration enabled V. A. Engel’gardt to establish in 1930–31 a direct connection between respiration and the formation of esters of nonorganic phosphoric acid. Engel’gardt’s discovery was the groundwork of modern bioenergetics. In 1939, V. A. Belitser showed that phosphorylation is linked to the transport of electrons in the respiratory chain. The work of D. L. Talmud and S. E. Bresler, who in the early 1940’s studied the structure of protein globules in solutions, was of major theoretical importance in the biochemistry of protein. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed Talmud and Bresler’s hypothesis of the specific orientation of the hydrophillic and hydrophobic amino acid residues in protein molecules.
Biochemistry of plants and microorganisms. Advances have been made in studying anaerobic carbon exchange and respiration in plants. In the early 1920’s, S. P. Kostychev discovered new intermediate products of fermentation and studied the essential characteristics of protein exchange and nitrogen fixation. Major biochemical schools were formed by the students of K. A. Timiriazev, who worked on problems of biological oxidation (V. I. Palladin), nitrogen exchange (D. N. Prianishnikov, V. S. Butkevich), and exchange of arginine and urea. By direct preparative isolation of nucleic acids from different groups of organisms, Kizel’ and A. N. Belozerskii (and the latter’s school) proved conclusively that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is contained not only in the nuclei of animal cells but also in the cell nuclei of plants and microorganisms. Their discovery proved that the nucleic material in all living organisms is uniform in composition.
Investigations begun in the 1930’s by enzymatic processes in the living cell have been very important; it has been shown that the direction of the processes is determined largely by the spatial dissociation of enzymes and substrates in the protoplasm (A. I. Oparin, A. L. Kursanov, V. L. Kretovich). The degree of genetic autonomy of chloroplasts—special subcellular structures—has been revealed by studies of their enzyme apparatus, their mechanisms of protein biosynthesis, and the physicochemical characteristics of components of their protein-synthesizing apparatus (Kretovich, N. M. Sisakian).
Work has been done on problems of applied, primarily industrial, biochemistry. New methods have been developed for obtaining and purifying new antibiotics, for identifying favorable conditions for the synthesis of new antibiotics, and for producing biologically active compounds (vitamins, scarce amino acids, and nucleotides). Ways to improve the quality, storage, processing, and use of vegetable raw material are also under study. The achievements of technical biochemistry include the discovery of the biochemical foundations of nonseasonal fermentation of tobacco and subsequent processing and the development of new methods for producing organic acids from Indian tobacco. Biochemical control methods in tea production have been devised, and wine-making technology has been improved. Other achievements include the establishment of the biochemical foundations for storage and processing of agricultural products, formulation of new methods of extracting vitamins from vegetable, microbial, and animal raw material, and development of the scientific principles of obtaining and using enzymatic preparations in food processing and other light industries.
Biochemistry of animals and man. The students and followers of A. la. Danilevskii greatly furthered the development of animal and human biochemistry. In the 1920’s, V. S. Gulevich studied nonprotein nitrogen substances in muscle and discovered a number of new compounds, including carnosine and carnitine. His work was furthered by S. E. Severin and his school. Important work on the biochemistry of muscles and intermediary metabolism was begun in the 1930’s (la. O. Parnas and co-workers). In 1939, Engel’gardt and M. N. Liubimova discovered the fermentative activity of actomyosin (separation of energy-rich adenosinetriphosphoric acid) and developed a hypothesis regarding its role in muscular contraction. Their findings made possible experimental work on the use of chemical energy to perform mechanical work. Similar adenisinetriphosphatase activity was later found in numerous other contractive proteins.
In 1937, A. E. Braunshtein and M. G. Kritsman discovered transamination, one of the most important ways of amino acid synthesis, and established the role of pyridoxal phosphate in the functioning of the aminotransferases, that is, the enzymes participating in transamination. A. V. Palladin, G. E. Vladimirov, and D. L. Ferdman increased man’s understanding of the biochemistry of the nervous system and nerve-muscle interaction. In the 1940’s, E. M. Kreps and his associates studied the composition of nervous system lipids, in the phylogenetic and ontogenetic aspect and in the dynamic aspect during different functional states.
During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45 projects with practical application were pursued, specifically, research on blood coagulation and preservation (B. A. Kudriashov, G. E. Vladimirov, and S. E. Severin). By the 1950’s advances had been made in the study of blood biochemistry, the respiratory function of blood (B. I. Zbarskii and associates), hormones (N. A. Iudaev, V. S. II’-in, and A. M. Utveskii), and mineral substances. Trace elements were studied extensively—in particular, their distribution in an organism, their physiological role, their mechanism of action, and their regulating influence on fermentative reactions and metabolic processes (S. la. Kaplanskii and A. I. Voinar). The analysis of specific changes in human and animal physiological functions and metabolism under the weightless conditions of space flight was very important for the space research program in the USSR (V. V. Parin, O. G. Gazenko).
Since the late 1950’s many traditional biochemical problems have also been studied by molecular biology and bioorganic chemistry. The dividing lines between these disciplines are often arbitrary.
Molecular biology. Molecular biology became distinct from biochemistry in the mid-20th century with the development of new methods of investigation, but the fundamental work in the discipline was done in the 1930’s and 1940’s. Engel’gardt and Liubimova discovered the adenosinetriphosphatase activity of actomyosin (that is, its ability to hydrolyze adenosinetriphosphoric acid), and thus were the first to explain biological phenomena (muscular contraction) in molecular terms. Belozerskii carried out a series of important projects on nucleic acids in plants and bacteria.
In the 1950’s and 1960’s a number of specialized institutes were opened, furthering the development of molecular biology. The primary structure of certain transport ribonucleic acids (t-RNA) was established by A. A. Baev and others. Iu. A. Ovchinnikov and his associates decoded the primary structure of a number of proteins, including one of the transaminases (Braunshtein also worked on this). The spatial structure of pepsin was established (N. S. Andreeva and co-workers), as was that of various other proteins. Studies of the nucleotide composition of RNA’s of different origin led to the discovery of messenger RNA in bacteria (Belozerskii and A. S. Spirin). G. P. Georgiev and his associates discovered a new type of RNA—nuclear RNA—a high-molecular predecessor of the RNA of animal cells. The structure and functions of ribonucleoproteins containing informosomes were discovered in the cytoplasm and the nucleus and were studied in detail (Spirin and Georgiev). A partial self-assembly of ribosomes has been carried out, and the rules of their functioning during protein synthesis are being studied (Spirin and co-workers). A new means of regulating transcription processes has been described, and positive regulation through recognition of definite DNA segments by an RNA-polymerase enzyme has been discovered (R. B. Khesin and associates).
A number of important projects have been carried out in molecular genetics and the physicochemistry of biopolymers. Work is under way to apply the achievements of molecular biology in genetic engineering, virology, and oncology.
Research institutions. Research is conducted primarily at institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, including the A. N. Bakh Institute of Biochemistry (founded 1935), the I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry (1964), the K. A. Timiriazev Institute of Plant Physiology (1934), the Institute of Molecular Biology (1957), the M. M. Shemiakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (1959), and the Institute of Proteins (1967). There are institutes of biochemistry affiliated with Union republic academies of sciences. Research is also conducted at the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences and at various institutes of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, including the Institute of Biological and Medical Chemistry, the Institute of Experimental Endocrinology and Hormone Chemistry, the Institute of Nutrition, and the Institute of Experimental Medicine. Biochemistry is also studied in the institutes of many ministries (health, agriculture, food industry). Important research is conducted in the bio-organic chemistry laboratory at Moscow State University and in laboratories and subdepartments at other universities and teaching institutes.
BIOPHYSICS. The first Soviet school of biophysics was established by P. P. Lazarev, who directed investigations of the ionic theory of excitation of living tissue that he proposed in 1916. In the 1920’s, A. G. Gurvich studied the ultraviolet luminescence, or mitogenetic radiation, of biological systems; his studies aroused widespread debate. In the 1950’s and 1960’s the extremely weak luminescence of a number of animal and plant objects in the visible range of the spectrum was studied (Iu. A. Vladimirov, B. N. Tarusov and associates). S. V. Kravkov’s laboratory studied the accommodation and convergence of the eye and the sensitivity of the eye to different rays of the spectrum. A. N. Terenin’s laboratory examined the mechanisms of elementary photophysical processes, photochemical reactions, and protein luminescence. A. A. Krasnovskii discovered the reaction of reversible photochemical reduction of chlorophyll and its analogues.
In the 1970’s successful work was done in molecular biophysics (the physical and physicochemical properties of macromolecules and molecular complexes; M. V. Vol’kenshtein, L. A. Bliumenfel’d, Andreeva), the biophysics of the cell (physicochemical foundations of the functions of the cell and its organoids; G. M. Frank, Tarusov), the biophysics of control and regulatory processes (study and modeling of the regulatory and control systems of organisms; I. M. Gel’fand and others), the biophysics of muscular contraction (Frank and others), and the biophysics of the sense organs. Instruments and machines are being developed for intensive automatic investigation of biological structures (G. R. Ivanitskii and others).
Between 1919 and 1932 research in biophysics was carried on at the Institute of Biological Physics of the People’s Commissariat of Health of the RSFSR (known as the Institute of Physics and Biophysics after 1929). From 1932 to 1944 research was conducted at the A. M. Gorky All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine. In 1934 research in biophysics was undertaken at the Agronomic Physics Scientific Research Institute of the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Since 1952 the most important centers for the study of biophysics have been the Institute of Biological Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and other institutes affiliated with the Scientific Center for Biological Research of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Pushchino, Moscow Oblast. Biophysics is also studied at the academies of sciences of the Union republics, at the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, and in the subdepartment of biophysics at Moscow State University and other higher educational institutions.
RADIOBIOLOGY. In the first years of Soviet power, work in radiobiology was done primarily at roentgenological and radiological institutes and dealt with the problems of radiation therapy for cancer. In 1925, G. A. Nadson and G. S. Filippov discovered the mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation, which was confirmed by the work of Soviet and foreign scientists. The possibility of using ionizing radiation to raise the yield of agricultural crops was established. In connection with advances in the use of atomic energy in the 1940’s, radiobiology developed intensively, becoming an independent scientific discipline. The efforts of Soviet scientists were directed toward the prevention and treatment of radiation sickness (G. M. Frank, P. D. Gorizontov). Much attention was given to the biological and chemical protection of humans against the harmful effect of nuclear emissions; new active protective substances were proposed.
In the 1940’s and 1950’s the “hit principle” in radiobiology was formulated (N. V. Timofeev-Resovskii), the phenomenon of restoration of irradiated cells was discovered (V. I. Korogodin, M. N. Meisel’), and the role of radioactive substances in the development of radiation sickness was clarified. Functional impairments of the central nervous system resulting from radiation exposure were studied by A. V. Lebedinskii, M. N. Livanov, and others. Identification of the mechanisms of the initial processes occurring in exposed organisms led to a number of theoretical generalizations. A genetic theory of radiation sickness was elaborated by B. L. Astaurov. The idea of the biological effect of radiation as a result of the interaction of numerous changes in submicroscopic cell structures and metabolic processes related to them was reflected in the structural metabolic theory of the biological effect of radiation proposed by A. M. Kuzin in the 1960’s.
In the 1970’s research was conducted on molecular radiobiology (N. M. Emanuel’ and others), the radiobiology of the cell (V. I. Korogodin and others), radiation genetics (N. P. Dubinin, N. V. Luchnik, and others), the radiobiology of animals (G. S. Strelin, I. G. Darenskaia, and others), the radiobiology of plants (D. M. Grodzenskii and others), radiation immunology (R. V. Petrov, I. N. Klemparskaia, and others), radioecology (V. M. Klechkovskii, G. G. Polikarpov, and others), space radiobiology (Iu. G. Grigor’ev and others), and other areas of this rapidly developing science.
Research is conducted at the Institute of Biological Physics (founded 1952) and other institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, at the Leningrad Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (in the city of Gatchina), at institutes of the ministries of health and agriculture of the USSR, at the radiobiology centers of the Union republic academies of sciences, and in the subdepartments of many higher educational institutions.
CYTOLOGY. The beginning of cytology in prerevolutionary Russia was marked by A. S. Dogel’s research on the structure of nerve cells, N. K. Kol’tsov’s studies of fibrillary intracellular support structures, and S. G. Navashin’s investigations of chromosomes and double fertilization.
Major cytological schools developed in the USSR between the 1920’s and the 1940’s. D. N. Nasonov and his associates studied the functional morphology of the cell (Golgi apparatus, mitochondria), and cytogenetic research was conducted on plants (G. A. Levitskii, G. D. Karpechenko, and M. S. Navashin) and animals (B. L. Astaurov, P. I. Zhivago, A. A. Prokof eva-Bel’-govskaia). A. V. Rumiantsev and G. I. Roskin worked on cytochemistry. The field of cytophysiology emerged with the study of the reaction of cells to external influences (Nasonov, V. la. Aleksandrov), leading to the theory of paranecrosis as a nonspecific cell reaction and to the formulation of the protein theory of damage and stimulation. Cytogenetics has been developing vigorously since the early 1950’s: study of the fine structure of chromosomes is being linked to their function (Prokof’ev-Bel’govskaia and associates), and work is being done on the reproduction of cells and cellular structures. The use of new methods, for example, autoradiography, cytochemistry, and cytophotometry, makes it possible to investigate the dynamics of cell populations in the ontogeny of different tissues and the dynamics of the distribution and metabolism of proteins and nucleic acids in the nucleus and cytoplasm in different functional states of cells (A. A. Zavarzin, O. I. Epifanova, V. la. Brodskii).
The rules governing the growth, development, and transmission of hereditary information of normal and malignant cells in cultures are under study. Of particular note is the comparative analysis of the ultrastructural organization and cytochemistry of sensory cells (la. A. Vinnikov) and neurosecretion (A. L. Polenov). In the late 1950’s a new line of cell study emerged, cytoecology (V. la. Aleksandrov, B. P. Ushakov), which examines the role of the cellular level of organization of living matter in adaptation to environmental conditions. Important issues in cell physiology are the penetrability of cell membranes and the rules of distribution of matter between the cell and the environment (A. S. Troshin and others).
During the 1960’s and 1970’s, attention focused on cellular membranes and their role in the electrophysiology and metabolism of the cell (Iu. A. Ovchinnikov and others). Cytological methods have been used in plant and animal taxonomy (karyosystematics). Radiation cytology is developing; one of its tasks is to study the rules that govern DNA reparation after radiation damage to a cell. The central problem of research on procaryotic and one-celled eucaryotic organisms is to clarify the patterns of evolution of genetic systems at the cellular level of organization (A. M. Peshkova, M. N. Meisel’, Iu. I. Polianskii, I. B. Raikov).
The main research centers in cytology are the Institute of Cytology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1957) and the Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1957). Important work in cytology is also pursued at universities and medical and agricultural institutions of higher learning.
GENETICS. The development of genetics in the USSR in the 1920’s was fostered by Iu. A. Filipchenko’s research on human genetics and on the genetics of agricultural animals and plants. Many of the achievements of Soviet geneticists have had international importance. Particularly noteworthy was N. K. Kol’tsov’s hypothesis on the molecular structure and matrical principle of reproduction of chromosomes (“hereditary molecules”), which anticipated fundamental propositions of modern molecular biology and genetics. N. P. Dubinin and A. S. Serebrovskii studied the complex structure of the gene, proving experimentally its divisibility and developing a theory to explain its construction from subunits.
Valuable work was done by S. S. Chetverikov and D. D. Romashov on population genetics and on the links between genetics and evolutionary theory. Soviet geneticists discovered and comprehensively studied radiation mutagenesis (G. A. Nadson and G. S. Filippov) and chemical mutagenesis (M. N. Meisel’, 1928; V. V. Sakharov, 1933; M. E. Lobashev, 1934; S. M. Gershenzon, 1939; I. A. Rapoport, 1946). There have been important investigations of polyploidy (G. D. Karpechenko, A. R. Zhebrak, Sakharov). Analysis of the role of the nucleus and cytoplasm in the development and control of sex differentiation (B. L. Astaurov, V. A. Strunnikov) found practical application in silk growing.
N.I. Vavilov’s classical work on the theoretical foundations of plant breeding and on the theory of homologous series in hereditary variation was done in the 1920’s and 1930’s. I. V. Michurin devoted many years to the breeding of fruit trees. The theory of remote hybridization of plants is associated with the names of Michurin, Karpechenko., and N. V. Tsitsin. The genetic foundations of livestock breeding were developed by M. F. Ivanov, B. N. Vasin, D. K. Beliaev, and la. L. Glembotskii.
The development of medical genetics in the USSR in the 1930’s was fostered by the work of S. G. Levit and his associates on the inheritance of diabetes mellitus, ulcers, hypertension, and other disorders, as well as by the work of S. N. Davidenkov and his associates on hereditary disorders of the nervous system. The use of microorganisms and viruses as research objects and the application of methods from chemistry, physics, and mathematics led to the emergence and development of molecular genetics in the 1940’s and 1950’s.
As early as the 1930’s, Soviet geneticists used balloon flights to study the effect of natural radiation on heritability. Scientists later studied the effect of space conditions on organisms, laying the foundations of space biology, including space genetics. Soviet geneticists were world leaders in the study of heredity and variation during the 1920’s and 1930’s.
Beginning in the late 1930’s and especially after the 1948 session of the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, the development of genetics in the USSR decelerated. Genetic research was revitalized in the 1960’s, dealing in particular with the chromosome theory of heredity and the theory of mutations (N. P. Dubinin and others). With the inception and development of the methods of genetic engineering, new prospects are opening.
The main centers of genetic research are the Institute of General Genetics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1966), the Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Institute of Genetics and Cytology of the Academy of Sciences of the Byelorussian SSR (1965), and the Institute of Medical Genetics of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR. Genetics is studied at many other scientific research institutes and at biological teaching institutions.
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION. The development of the biological sciences in the USSR is promoted by the activities of scientific societies. Strengthening ties with foreign scientists is very important, as is participation by Soviet biologists in projects of the International Geophysical Year and the International Biological Program, as well as in international congresses and symposia. Within a framework of international cooperation, Soviet biologists study various aspects of environmental protection—in particular the protection of existing landscapes and biogeocenoses (ecosystems), especially those strongly affected by human activities. There are bilateral agreements between Soviet and foreign biologists concerning specific questions of biology.
PERIODICALS. The principal periodicals devoted to the biological sciences are Arkhiv anatomii, gistologii, i embriologii (Archives of Anatomy, Histology, and Embryology, since 1916), Biofizika (Biophysics, since 1956), Biokhimiia (Biochemistry, since 1936), Botanicheskii zhurnal (Botanical Journal, since 1916), Biulleten’ Moskovskogo obshchestva ispytatelei prirody: Otdel biologicheskii (Bulletin of the Moscow Society of Naturalists: Biological Division, since 1922), Vestnik zoologii (Zoology Herald; Kiev, since 1967), Voprosy virusologii (Problems of Virology, since 1956), Genetika (Genetics, since 1965), Gidrobiologicheskii zhurnal (Hydrobiological Journal; Kiev, since 1965), Zhurnal vysshei nervnoi deiatel’nosti im. I. P. Pavlova (I. P. Pavlov Journal of Higher Nervous Activity, since 1951), Zhurnal mikrobiologii, epidemiologii, i immunobiologii (Journal of Microbiology, Epidemiology, and Immunobiology, since 1924), Zhurnal obshchei biologii (Journal of General Biology, since 1940), Zhurnal evoliutsionnoi biokhimii i fiziologii (Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology, since 1965), and Zoologicheskii zhurnal (Zoological Journal, since 1916).
Equally important periodicals are Izvestiia Akademii nauk SSSR: Seriia biologicheskaia (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Biological Series, since 1936), Mikrobiologiia (Microbiology, since 1932), Molekuliarnaia biologiia (Molecular Biology, since 1967), Ontogenez (Ontogeny, since 1970), Paleontologicheskii zhurnal (Paleontological Journal, since 1959), Parazitologiia (Parasitology, since 1967), Prikladnaia biokhimiia i mikrobiologiia (Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, since 1965), Radiobiologiia (Radiobiology, since 1961), Rastitel’nye resursy (Plant Resources, since 1965), Trudy po prikladnoi botanike, genetike, i selektsii (Transactions in Applied Botany, Genetics, and Plant Breeding, since 1908), Uspekhi sovremennoi biologii (Advances in Modern Biology, since 1932), Fiziologicheskii zhurnal SSSR im. I. M. Sechenova (I. M. Sechenov Physiological Journal of the USSR, since 1917), Fiziologiia rastenii (Plant Physiology, since 1954), Tsitologiia (Cytology, since 1959), Tsitologiia i genetika (Cytology and Genetics; Kiev, since 1967), Ekologiia (Ecology; Sverdlovsk, since 1970), Uspekhi fiziologicheskikh nauk (Advances in the Physiological Sciences, since 1970), Referativnyi zhurnal: Biologiia (Journal of Biological Abstracts, since 1954), and Referativnyi zhurnal: Biologicheskaia khimiia (Journal of Biochemical Abstracts, since 1955).
IA. I. STAROBOGATOV, S. V. EMEL’IANOV, and L. IA. BLIAKHER (zoology); V. N. CHERNIGOVSKII (human and animal physiology); D. V. LEBEDEV (botany); A. L. KURSANOV (plant physiology); A. A. IMSHENETSKII (microbiology); V. L. RYZHKOV (virology); L. P. TATARINOV (paleontology); V. V. KOVAL’SKII (biogeochemistry); A. S. ANTONOV (biochemistry); G. P. GEORGIEV (molecular biology); A. M. KUZIN (biophysics, radiobiology); and A. S. TROSHIN (cytology)

Bibliography

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Lunkevich, V. V. Ot Geraklita do Darvina, 2nd ed., vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1960.
Mikulinskii, S. R. Razvitie obshchikh problem biologii v Rossii: Pervaia polovina XIX v. Moscow, 1961.
Zavadskii, K. M. Razvitie evoliutsionnoi teorii posle Darvina. Leningrad, 1973.
Iablokov, A. V., and A. G. Iusufov. Evoliutsionnoe uchenie. Moscow, 1976.
Bogdanov, A. P. Materialy dlia istorii nauchnoi i prikladnoi deiatel’nosti v Rossii po zoologii i soprikasaiushchimsia s neiu otrasliam znaniia, vols. 1–4. Moscow, 1888–92.
Plavil’shchikov, N. N. Ocherki po istorii zoologii. Moscow, 1941.
Filatov, D. P. Sravnitel’no-morfologichekoe napravlenie v mekhanike razvitiia, ego ob”ekt, tseli i puti. Moscow-Leningrad, 1939.
Kanaev, I. I. Ocherki po istorii sravnilel’noi anatomii do Darvina: Razvitie problemy morfologicheskogo tipa v zoologii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1963.
Kanaev, I. I. Ocherki po istorii problemy morfologicheskogo tipa ot Darvina do nashikh dnei. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966.
Bliakher, L. Ia. Istoriia embriologii v Rossii [vols. 1–2]. Moscow, 1955–59.
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Bazilevskaia, N. A., I. P. Belokon’, and A. A. Shcherbakova. Kratkaia istoriia botaniki. Moscow, 1968.
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Soil science. Modern genetic soil science was founded in Russia in the last quarter of the 19th century by V. V. Dokuchaev, who was the first to show that soil should be considered a special natural body with properties characteristic of animate and inanimate nature. Dokuchaev established the factors governing soil formation and the relationship between soils and other landscape components. He introduced the concept of the soil profile and worked out a comparative geographic method of investigation, thus laying the foundations of soil geography. Dokuchaev also did extensive work on applied aspects of soil science: assessing land resources and formulating a system of steps to counteract drought and soil erosion.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, P. A. Kostychev, V. R. Vil’iams, and G. A. Doiarenko successfully developed the agronomic approach to soil science by studying soil fertility and the interrelationship of soil and vegetation. K. K. Gedroits studied the exchange properties of the soil, thus laying the foundation of colloid soil chemistry; A. A. Izmail’skii, G. N. Vysotskii, and V. G. Rotmistrov studied water and heat conditions. The first textbook on soil science, written by N. M. Sibirtsev, was published in 1900. Extensive investigations of the soils of Russia were pursued. The principal centers for the study of soils were the Soil Commission of the Free Economic Society (organized 1888) and the Dokuchaev Soil Committee (1912).
Soil science developed rapidly after the October Revolution of 1917. The Soil Section of the Commission for the Study of Natural Productive Forces under the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was founded in 1918. In 1927, at the suggestion of V. I. Vernadskii, the section was reorganized as the V. V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute in Moscow and became the leading center for soil research in the country. F. Iu. Levinson-Lessing, B. A. Keller, A. E. Fersman, and D. N. Prianishnikov and institute directors K. D. Glinka and Gedroits took part in organizing the institute and defining its program of activities. In 1919 the Middle Asian Institute of Soil Science and Geobotany of the Middle Asian University opened in Tashkent; its first director was N. A. Dimo. Republic soil institutes were subsequently organized; they include the Georgian Research Institute of Soil Science, Agricultural Chemistry, and Reclamation (1946, Tbilisi), the Research Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry (1953, Kishinev), the Ukrainian Research Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry (1956, Kharkov), the Byelorussian Research Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry (1958, Minsk), and the Turkmen Research Institute of Soil Science (1972, near Ashkhabad). Other important centers for soil research include the All-Union Research Institute of Fertilizers and Soil Science (1931, Moscow), the All-Union Research Institute on the Protection of the Soil From Erosion (1970, Kursk) and the Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science of the USSR (1970, Moscow Oblast). Subdepartments of soil science have been set up at universities and agricultural institutes, and in 1974 Moscow State University established a department of soil science.
It was essential for the young socialist state to have a scientific foundation for land use, improve farming efficiency, and establish a base for cultivating various industrial and new food crops. On assignment from the State Planning Commission (Gosplan), a survey of what was known of the soils of the European USSR was prepared, and a zoning system for the region’s soils was developed by L. I. Prasolov (1922). The soils of the Volkhov River basin were studied by Prasolov and N. N. Sokolov from 1920 to 1926 in connection with the planning of the Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Plant, and a projection was made of changes that might occur in the soils as a result of construction of the dam. This work was the foundation of planning and forecasting techniques in soil research.
During the 1920’s the soils of Kazakhstan and Middle Asia (Dimo, E. N. Ivanova, A. N. Rozanov, and I. P. Gerasimov), Siberia and the Far East (K. P. Gorshenin, N. V. Orlovskii, and Iu. A. Liverovskii), and humid subtropical regions (S. A. Zakharov, M. N. Sabashvili) were studied. During this period research was conducted on the primary soils of the agricultural zone—the chernozems (Prasolov, A. M. Pankov, S. I. Tiuremnov), gray forest soils (Tiurin, A. A. Zavalishin), chestnut soils (Prasolov, N. I. Usov), podzols (A. A. Krasiuk, A. A. Rode, and N. L. Blagovidov), and salinized soils (Dimo, D. G. Vilenskii, and V. A. Kovda).
In the late 1920’s and early 1930’s a fundamental reorganization of agriculture took place, with the organization of kolkhozes and sovkhozes. Large-scale soil studies and soil mapping of these farms and of regions of projected reclamation (the Trans-Volga Region, Middle Asia, and Transcaucasia) were begun; they were completed by the mid-1970’s. Reclamation soil science developed as a result of the study of salinized and marshy soils. Practical problems led to the development of the theory of soil erosion and erosion control (Pankov, A. S. Kozmenko, N. I. Sus, S. S. Sobolev). The accumulated findings provided a basis for new theoretical generalizations: the identification of soil facies and provinces (Prasolov, Gerasimov) and the identification of different types of soil zonality (la. N. Afanas’ev). Under Prasolov’s direction, world areas of different types of soils were calculated, and the first analysis of the soil resources of the major countries was carried out.
In 1927, Vilenskii developed the idea of analogous series in soil formation, establishing the relationship between soil characteristics and the humidity of the air in different climatic zones. B. B. Polynov (1934) and his students developed ideas concerning the weathering mantle, the importance of weathering processes in soil formation, and the mineralogical composition of soils. I. N. Antipov-Karataev studied the mineral composition of fine soil fractions.
In the early 1930’s, Gedroits formulated the theory of the absorptive capability of soils and explained from a chemical point of view the processes of evolution of salinized soils from solonchaks to solonetzes and solods. A. N. Sokolovskii and A. F. Tiulin identified two groups of soil colloids on the basis of activity, thereby greatly advancing many aspects of soil science, including the colloid chemistry of soils. I. V. Tiurin, A. A. Shmuk, and V. V. Tishchenko (1930–38) established the specificity of composition of the soil’s organic matter and the role of such matter in the formation and life of soil. A. F. Lebedev and N. A. Kachinskii studied the physical properties of components of the soil and separate horizons of the soil profile, as well as the relationship between physical properties and characteristics of soil formation. Vil’iams further developed agronomic approaches to soil science, linking the discipline to crop cultivation (1931–35). Soil changes caused by human activity were studied by V. A. Frantsesson, N. P. Karpinskii, Blagovidov, and M. A. Orlov.
From the mid-1940’s to the mid-1960’s, soil classification and mapping expanded; the principles of large-scale soil mapping and the agronomic adaptation of soil maps were worked out. Soil scientists helped develop new lands, reclaim low-fertility soils, and refine the technology used in crop cultivation. Research on organic matter as the primary soil substance continued. The composition and structure of the molecules making up soils were determined precisely, and the mechanisms governing the relationship between organic and inorganic components were identified. The geographic rules governing the composition of organic matter and various soil processes caused by such matter were established (I. V. Tiurin, M. M. Kononova, and L. N. Aleksandrova). B. B. Polynov developed an integrated method of studying soils, water, rock, and vegetation. The rules of metabolism and energy exchange between soils and organisms were studied on the basis of Polynov’s work (N. P. Remezov, V. A. Kovda, N. I. Bazilevich); these rules explained many aspects of the formation and condition of soils and expanded the theoretical foundation for the use of fertilizers.
During this period, soil microbiology (N. A. Krasil’nikov, E. N. Mishustin) and soil zoology (M. S. Giliarov) became independent disciplines. New microbiological methods were developed that made it possible to identify various groups of microorganisms in the soil. The physicochemistry and chemistry of soils developed in the theory of exchange reactions and soil acidity (I. N. Antipov-Karataev, N. I. Gorbunov, Iu. A. Poliakov). A classification of the water regimes of soils was worked out (A. A. Rode, I. S. Vasil’ev, A. F. Bol’shakov), and the patterns of water movement in the soil and the availability of water to plants were studied (Rode, S. I. Dolgov, S. N. Ryzhov). The physical foundations of the thermal regime of soils were investigated, and a classification of types was formulated (A. F. Chudnovskii). Ideas on the physicomechanical properties of soils were elaborated (P. V. Vershinin, P. U. Bakhtin), methods of studying the mineralogy of fine soil fractions were improved, and extensive materials were collected, making it possible to identify the geography and a number of patterns in the formation of clay minerals (Gorbunov, N. G. Zyrin).
In reclamation soil science, study was devoted to the changes in salinized and peaty soils that resulted from reclamation procedures, for example, flushing and drainage (Kovda, Ryzhov, V. V. Egorov). Theoretical and practical questions concerning reclaiming solonetzes without irrigation were to a significant degree resolved (Antipov-Karataev, A. M. Mozheiko, K. P. Pak). The genesis of floodplain soils was investigated, and ways to reclaim such soils were developed (I. I. Pliusmin, V. I. Shrag, and G. V. Dobrovol’skii).
From the mid-1960’s to the mid-1970’s, new topics of study were formulated in soil science. The discipline’s close ties to agricultural chemistry became clearer, which greatly enriched both fields and created the geographic foundation for the rational use of fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals. One result of the joint efforts of soil scientists and agricultural chemists was publication of the unique 16-volume monograph Agricultural Chemical Description of the Soils of the USSR, edited by A. V. Sokolov (1962–76). Fundamental studies of the balance of the primary ash plant nutrients and nitrogen in crop cultivation were carried out, and new points of contact between soil science, agricultural chemistry, and plant physiology emerged (A. V. Sokolov, A. V. Peterburgskii, V. V. Tserling, and N. S. Avdonin).
The need to improve the agrophysical properties of soils has been recognized; improvement will significantly increase the yield of most agricultural crops and reduce tillage in the plowing horizon. Solving this problem is especially important in the nonchernozem zone, where soils must be prepared to eliminate unfavorable natural characteristics.
Reclamation forecasting systems for different soil zones and groups have been improved considerably owing to work in reclamation soil science. This work included study of the reclamation significance of the geological and geomorphological layout of the terrain, the state and dynamics of natural waters, the history of the landscape, the laws of geochemical reactions, and a knowledge of all soil properties, including “dormant” ones (Kovda, Egorov, V. M. Borovskii, and N. G. Minashina).
Important advances have been made in the classification and diagnosis of soils, and many monographs have appeared concerning soil types. The soil resources of the country and prospects for expanding arable land have been precisely determined. A soil appraisal system has been worked out, and materials have been prepared for a land inventory of the USSR (S. S. Sobolev, S. A. Shuvalov, N. N. Rozov, and F. la. Gavriliuk). The soils of the northern regions of the USSR have been studied, and prospects for their development have been identified. A study of the energy processes of soil formation was carried out (V. R. Volobuev, S. A. Aliev). A significant achievement of Soviet soil science was the compilation of a general map of the natural-agricultural zoning of the land resources of the USSR (Rozov, A. I. Shashko, V. P. Sotnikov, and Dobrovol’skii, 1975), which provides a basis for improved zonal systems of farming, optimum distribution of mineral fertilizers, and irrigation and drainage reclamation.
The tasks of soil science are steadily growing more complex. The exceptional diversity of natural conditions and soils in the USSR necessitates further territorial soil research. A search is under way for new, improved methods of studying the soil cover and depicting it on maps. Data from space research and exploration were first used for this purpose in 1971. Methods of remote determination of soil quality from different altitudes are being developed (Iu. A. Liverovskii, Iu. S. Tolchel’nikov).
In connection with the serious danger of a diminishing of the productive and hygienic role of soils, there will soon be a problem regarding the protection of soils from contamination that lowers soil fertility and leads to the accumulation of harmful substances in crops. Solving this problem, for example, by prohibiting pesticides that have a harmful effect on the soil or by applying more broadly biological methods of controlling crop diseases and pests, will make it possible to preserve the soil cover—the key component of the biosphere—for future generations.
Soviet soil science and its applied branches have become a productive force in the national economy. Achievements in general chemistry, physicochemistry, geochemistry, geology, geomorphology, and various biological disciplines are used in the development of the experimental branches of soil science. For its part, soil science has contributed and continues to contribute significantly to the development of the earth sciences and the biological sciences. Many other sciences are related to the agricultural sciences through soil science.
Soviet soil scientists conduct research abroad, studying soil resources and working out ways to use and improve them. Monographs have been published in the USSR on the soils of foreign countries (Gerasimov, S. V. Zonn, M. A. Glazovskaia, V. M. Fridland). The fact that the 1974 International Jubilee Congress of Soil Scientists, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the International Society of Soil Sciences, was held in the Soviet Union was recognition of the successes of Soviet soil science.
PERIODICALS. The journal Pochvovedenie (Soil Science) has been published since 1899. Articles on soil science also appear in Vestnik MGU (Journal of Moscow State University), Vestnik LGU (Journal of Leningrad State University), and hvestiia AN SSSR: Seriia biologii i geografii (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Biology and Geography Series), as well as in many agricultural journals.
(For a discussion of soil geography, see above: Physicogeographical sciences.)
V. V. EGOROV and V. M. FRIDLAND

Bibliography

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Dolotov, V. A., and A. I. Marchenko. Razvitie ucheniia o pochve v Rossii. Leningrad, 1963.
[Fridland, V. M.] “Izuchenie pochvennogo pokrova i razvitie pochvovedeniia.” Sovetskaia nauka i tekhnika za 50 let: Razvitie nauk o Zemle v SSSR. Moscow, 1967.
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Kovda, V. A., and G. V. Dobrovol’skii. “Stoletie russkogo pochvovedeniia.” Zemledelie, 1974, no. 11.
Agricultural sciences. The founder of Russian agricultural science was M. V. Lomonosov, who proposed the founding of the Class of Land Husbandry at the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1765) and the Free Economic Society, both of which played a large part in the development of Russian agronomy. The first experimental work in agriculture in Russia began at an agricultural school founded in 1790 by M. G. Livanov in the village of Bogoiavlenskoe, near the city of Nikolaev. The first experimental field was established in 1840 at the Gory-Goretsk Agricultural School (today the Byelorussian Agricultural Academy). A. T. Bolotov helped introduce crop rotation in Russia; he was also one of the first to study seed growing and breeding. I. M. Komov was the first Russian scientist to substantiate the crop rotation system (1788). M. G. Pavlov in the first half of the 19th century demonstrated the importance of soil processes in plant nutrition and effective fertilizer use, as well as the importance of switching from the three-field grain system to the intensive crop rotation system. A. V. Sovetov proposed a classification of crop cultivation systems in 1867 and demonstrated that forms of crop cultivation are dependent on socioeconomic conditions.
The theory of soil as an independent natural body that develops in interaction with the environment was formulated in the last quarter of the 19th century by V. V. Dokuchaev. The theory—the basis of genetic soil science—was further developed by Dokuchaev’s students and followers (V. R. Vil’iams, K. D. Glinka, P. A. Kostychev, N. M. Sibirtsev).
The birth of Russian agricultural chemistry is associated with the name of D. I. Mendeleev, who carried out experiments with fertilizer and promoted the use of inorganic and organic fertilizers in the 1860’s and 1870’s. A. N. Engel’gardt worked on the effectiveness of inorganic and organic fertilizers in the 1870’s and 1880’s. D. N. Prianishnikov’s studies of the processes by which plants assimilate ammoniacal nitrogen led to the industrial production of ammonia fertilizers. Prianishnikov also formulated the theory of plant nitrogen nutrition and studied the reserves of phosphorites necessary to produce phosphorus fertilizers. K. A. Timiriazev made a significant contribution to the science of plant physiology and the theory of plant nutrition; he carried out classical studies of photosynthesis.
Scientific plant breeding was initiated by D. L. Rudzinskii, who in 1903 organized a plant breeding station at the Moscow Agricultural Institute (today the K. A. Timiriazev Moscow Agricultural Academy); the first commercial varieties of grain crops, flax, and potatoes in Russia were bred at the station.
V. V. Dokuchaev, the founder of land reclamation science, studied the steppes of European Russia from 1891 to 1900. His expedition developed a system of measures to improve land cultivation practices and, in particular, to change the water regime in arid regions.
In the early 20th century studies were done on irrigation farming, hydroengineering, and the possibilities of bringing swamps into agricultural use (A. N. Kostiakov, V. V. Podarev, and others). Newly founded organizations for irrigation modules and hydrometric studies inventoried water resources and developed standards and procedures for their use.
The foundations of forestry were laid in the 18th century by A. T. Bolotov, S. P. Krasheninnikov, A. A. Nartov, and V. N. Tatishchev. Further research was conducted by D. M. Kravchinskii, A. F. Rudzskii, M. K. Turskii, and G. F. Morozov in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
World-renowned veterinary scientists include la. K. Kaidanov, the founder of veterinary education in Russia; L. Boianus, a veterinary anatomist of the first half of the 19th century; L. S. Tsenkovskii, the developer of the vaccine against anthrax (1883); and M. A. Novinskii, the forefather of experimental oncology (1880’s). Major works by Russian zootechnicians appeared in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. N. P. Chirvinskii studied the diet of farm animals and their patterns of growth and development. M. I. Pridorogin studied the external characteristics of agricultural animals, and P. N. Kuleshov investigated diet and breed improvement.
The founder of agricultural mechanics was V. P. Goriachkin, who in the late 19th and early 20th centuries worked out the theoretical calculations for constructing agricultural machines and implements and techniques for experimental research and machine testing.
In 1913 there were 44 experiment stations and 78 experimental fields engaged in agricultural research; most were located in the central agricultural regions of European Russia. Research was also conducted in the subdepartments of some higher educational institutions, for example, the Petrovskoe Agricultural Academy and the Novoaleksandriia Institute of Agriculture. Research was devoted primarily to the cultivation of field crops and the use of fertilizer.
The October Revolution of 1917 created conditions for rapid development of the agricultural sciences. In conformity with the decrees On Pedigree Stock Breeding (July 13,1918) and On Seed Growing (June 13, 1921), both signed by V. I. Lenin, work in agronomy and animal husbandry intensified. Major experiment stations, including the Voronezh, Moscow, Shatilov, and Engel’- gardt stations, conducted work in breeding and seed production as applied to different zones. The Experimental Division of the People’s Commissariat of Agriculture was organized in 1919, and congresses of agricultural testers were held in 1918, 1919, and 1921. The State (Central) Institute of Experimental Agronomy was founded in Moscow in 1922, and the All-Union Institute of Applied Botany and New Crops was established in Leningrad in 1924 (in 1930 its name was changed to the All-Union Institute of Plant Industry). The V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, founded in 1929, became the scientific and methodological center for the study of agricultural sciences.
By early 1975 the country had about 900 research institutions concerned with agriculture, including 310 scientific research institutes, with 63 branches and divisions. Research is also pursued at agricultural teaching institutes.
The development of the agricultural sciences was promoted by the organization of large socialist enterprises—kolkhozes and sovkhozes—which became the fundamental production base for scientific research and the introduction of scientific advances into production.
The decree Steps Toward Furthering the Effectiveness of Agricultural Science and Strengthening Its Ties with Production, issued by the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR on Aug. 26, 1976, outlined specific ways to increase the role of science in meeting the basic challenges of agriculture: ensuring continued growth and greater stability in production of grain and other products, establishing guaranteed yield zones, and improving the efficiency of land cultivation and animal husbandry and the quality of agricultural output.
AGRONOMY. Study of the species, varietal, and ecological diversity of the world’s cultivated plants, begun in the late 19th century by E. Regel’, was continued in the 1920’s. Many formerly unknown species were identified. N. I. Vavilov formulated the law of homologous series in the hereditary variability of organisms (1920), pointing the way in the search for new initial forms for plant breeding. I. V. Michurin made a significant contribution to man’s knowledge of the laws controlling plant heredity. Creatively developing the classical research of outstanding Russian agronomists, Soviet scientists worked to improve land use and raise soil fertility. They made valuable recommendations concerning soil tillage and technology for raising agricultural crops; the control of weeds, pests, plant diseases, and soil erosion; and the use of protective afforestation, irrigation, and drainage.
Researchers have suggested adoption of crop-rotation systems for different zones, taking account of local conditions and production specialization and concentration. The All-Union Institute of Grain Farming developed a soil-protective system of farming, which provides for the use of minimum tillage and the retention of stubble on the surface (A. I. Baraev and others). The system prevents wind erosion and promotes increased grain yield. It is used primarily in the steppe regions of Kazakhstan and Western Siberia; in 1975 it was employed on more than 29 million hectares (ha). In 1951, T. S. Mal’tsev worked out new methods of tillage without a moldboard for regions of the Urals. Questions concerning protective afforestation were theoretically substantiated at the All-Union Research Institute for Land and Forest Reclamation. For most of the arid southern zones yields were significantly increased by means of protective afforestation combined with advanced agricultural techniques.
Agricultural chemistry. Research in agricultural chemistry conducted between 1945 and 1975 proved the effectiveness of fertilizers in the primary agricultural zones. Methods of application have been developed, and regions of effective use of new forms of inorganic fertilizers have been determined. Optimum ratios of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in compound fertilizers for the primary crops have been established by zones of the country. Procedures have been recommended for the effective use of trace elements (P. A. Vlasiuk, M. V. Katalymov, and la. V. Peive).
Research institutes have forecast agriculture’s inorganic fertilizer requirements until 1990, including liming needs. Recommendations have been made by the All-Union Institute of Fertilizers and Soil Science for fertilizer use in 22 zones of the country. Agricultural chemical soil surveys have been carried out throughout the USSR, and agricultural chemical land-use diagrams have been drawn up that make it posible to use fertilizers more effectively. The Central Institute of Agricultural Chemistry Servicing was set up in 1969, with branches in the primary natural zones for the purpose of improving agricultural chemical services and exercising methodological leadership and control over the agricultural chemistry service. A system of rational use of organic fertilizers has been recommended by the All-Union Institute of Fertilizers and Soil Science. Since the 1940’s the isotope method of investigation has been employed (I. I. Gunar, V. M. Klechkovskii, V. V. Rachinskii, P. M. Smirnov), making it possible to discover rhythmic phenomena in the absorption and transport of nutrients by plants. New methods of applying fertilizer, especially topdressing, in the cultivation of sugar beets, potatoes, and other vegetables have been studied and recommended for production (N. S. Avdonin and others).
Soil microbiology, the foundation of rational fertilizer use, is studied at the All-Union Institute of Agricultural Microbiology. Soil-climatic regions for effective use of peat Nitragin-Rizotrofin for fast-growing nodular bacteria have been determined, and a new technology has been worked out for producing and applying the fertilizer (1965–75). Microbial preparations have been developed—for example, yeast for ensiling feeds, pest killers for controlling rodents, Bitoksibatsillin for controlling the Colorado potato beetle and moths, Pektolitin to accelerate flax retting, and Vertoks to breed cotton for wilt resistance.
Agronomic physics. Agronomic physics, which was established as a modern branch of agronomy by A. F. Ioffe, is very important for the development of agricultural science. In the mid-1970’s research was under way on new physical methods of improving conditions for raising plants, new ways of predicting changes in the living environments, and new methods of mathematical modeling and of obtaining programmed yields (Institute of Agronomic Physics). Achievements include methods of using polymer materials in plant growing (I. B. Revut and others) and methods of quickly obtaining high yields of vegetable and grain crops with four to six harvests a year under artificial conditions (in growing chambers at optimal temperature, humidity, and illumination; B. S. Mashkov and others). Instruments are being built that make it possible to study processes occurring in the soil and in plants.
Selective breeding. Major advances have been made in plant breeding. The principal scientific institution that studies questions of plant growing, breeding, and the genetics of agricultural plants is the All-Union Institute of Plant Industry, which was organized by N. I. Vavilov. The theoretical foundations of plant breeding developed by Vavilov and the plant collection gathered by the institute (more than 250,000 specimens from all countries) have made possible the creation of new, highly productive strains of agricultural crops. Each year the institute distributes more than 100,000 seed samples to breeding centers and varietal testing institutions. Using the institute’s collection in practical plant breeding, various other research institutions (for example, the Mironovka Institute of Wheat Breeding and Seed Production, the Krasnodar Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture, and the All-Union Institute of Plant Breeding and Genetics) have created more than 100 varieties of winter and spring wheat. Bezostaia 1 and Mironovskaia 808 constitute 50–80 percent of the country’s plantings of winter wheat.
Between 1970 and 1975 new, highly productive wheat varieties were developed under the direction of plant breeders, including F. G. Kirichenko, P. V. Kuchumov, P. P. Luk’ianenko, V. N. Mamontova, and V. N. Remeslo. Intensive winter wheat varieties, with yields to 70–80 quintals/ha, have been regionalized; these include Il’ichevka, Kavkaz, Mironovskaia iubileinaia, and Odesskaia 51. Varieties noted for outstanding winter-hardiness and drought resistance have been introduced. New varieties of winter wheat occupied 6.2 million ha in 1975, which was about 32 percent of the total varietal plantings of the crop. New varieties of spring wheat, for example, Pirotriks 28 and Saratovskaia 42, have been developed. New varieties of diploid and tetraploid winter rye with yields to 50–55 quintals/ha have received high praise; these include Saratovskaia 4, Nemchinovskaia 50, Khar’-kovskaia 60, and Chishminskaia 3.
A new grain crop, triticale, developed by crossing wheat and rye, is arousing great scientific and practical interest (V. S. Pisarev, A. F. Shulyndin). In winter-hardiness it is similar to rye, but it contains 1–3 percent more protein than wheat and has comprehensive immunity to diseases. The yield of grain reaches 75 quintals/ha; the green feed yield is as much as 500 quintals/ha. New varieties of barley and oats that resist lodging and diseases, as well as new legume and groat crops, have been developed.
G. S. Galeev, B. P. Sokolov, M. I. Khadzhinov, and other corn breeders have developed high-yield double interline, varietal line, and simple corn hybrids (for example, Krasnodarskii 303 PG, Orbita, and Dneprovskii 50). The record grain yield from such hybrids is 153 quintals/ha. High-lysine hybrids, containing 45–60 percent more lysine than ordinary hybrids, have also been developed. Highly productive wilt-resistant cotton varieties—Tashkent 1 and Tashkent 3—have been introduced into production (S. Mirakhmedov and others); in 1975 they occupied 1.8 million ha, constituting 62 percent of the varietal plantings of cotton. Varieties of fine-fiber cotton have also been developed. Monospermous sugar beet varieties (E. S. Vrazhets, O. K. Kolomiets) and polyhybrids (A. L. Mazlumov, N. A. Savchenko) have been developed, surpassing conventional varieties in sugar yield by 3–4 quintals/ha. Varieties of flax noted for outstanding fiber quality have been produced at the All-Union Institute of Flax Growing.
Virtually the entire area planted to sunflower is occupied by varieties bred by V. S. Pustovoit and L. A. Zhdanov at the All-Union Institute of Oil Crops. The oil content of the seeds of these new varieties is 52–54 percent, 16–18 percent greater than the seeds of old varieties. Potato specialists at the Institute of Potato Farming of the Ministry of Agriculture of the RSFSR, the Byelorussian Institute of Potato Farming, and elsewhere have worked out methods for raising potato yields in different regions. High-yielding potato varieties (up to 400–450 quintals/ha with a starch content up to 28 percent) have been developed.
Vegetable breeders at the All-Union Institute of Vegetable Breeding and Seed Growing have worked out the principles of selecting parent pairs and a technique for obtaining hybrid and heterotic seeds. They have bred high-yielding inter-varietal hybrids of cucumbers, onions, and cabbage, as well as special varieties for hotbeds and hothouses, for regions of the Far North, and for the canning industry. Technology has been proposed for raising and harvesting vegetables at large specialized farms where planting is done in both open and sheltered ground.
Many new varieties of fruit and berry crops are being raised. The technology has been developed for laying out orchards and vineyards with an eye to subsequent intensification of the sector, as has technology for raising and harvesting fruit and berry crops and grapes in large commercial orchards and vineyards (All-Union Institute of Fruit Growing).
Feed production. Major studies of feed production have been carried out at the All-Union Institute of Feed Crops and at other research institutions. New, highly productive varieties of feed crops have been developed, and the technology for raising them is being improved. Effective methods of increasing the productivity of natural feedlands and establishing perennial crop meadows and pastures have been recommended. New methods of feed preparation have been introduced into production: making haylage and grass meal, pressing artificially dried hay, and briquetting and granulating. The bulk green material of grain and feed crops harvested in the milk and waxy phases can be processed in these ways. Production of feed protein by microbiological and chemical synthesis has been proposed. The scientific principles for obtaining feed protein substances from petroleum hydrocarbons have been worked out (P. E. Ladan and others).
Plant protection. Studies by scientists concerned with plant protection (N. N. Bogdanov-Kat’kov, M. S. Voronin, N. M. Kulagin, E. N. Pavlovskii, A. A. Iachevskii) have identified the pests and diseases of agricultural crops by zones. Agrotechnical, chemical, and biological methods of controlling plant diseases and pests have been proposed; their intensive use significantly cuts losses and retains the quality of output. Special attention is being devoted to refining biological methods. Industrial technology for the mass reproduction of entomophages has been developed; in 1975 five factories that breed Trichogramma were operating. Successful work has been done on plant immunity to disease and on insect tolerance. Sunflower varieties resistant to moths and broomrape, potatoes resistant to late blight and canker, and flax resistant to rust have been developed at the All-Union Institute of Plant Protection and the All-Union Institute of Biological Methods of Plant Protection.
LAND RECLAMATION SCIENCE. During the years of Soviet power a network of zonal and republic scientific research and planning and design institutes concerned with land reclamation has been established. The institutes have done much hydrogeological, geological, and geological-engineering surveying and have pursued special reclamation studies. Their work has led to the reclamation of vast areas of land.
Between 1965 and 1975 reclamation methods and irrigation equipment and procedures were significantly improved. Sprinkling, including pulse-action sprinkling, was introduced in large areas, and production testing is now under way for fine-spray sprinkling, which economizes water use. Also being tested is surface watering with telescoping pipes, which ensures even distribution of water by furrows (A. D. Aleksandrov, B. A. Shumakov, B. B. Shumakov). Long-range sprinklers, mobile pumping stations, and devices to clean irrigation canals have been designed at the All-Union Institute of Irrigation Mechanization and Technology. Improved designs for land reclamation systems have been introduced, for example, automated systems of two-way regulation (drainage and irrigation) for excessively moist regions, such as the nonchernozem zone, and covered systems with networks of canals and mechanized water-lifting devices for regions of irrigation farming (All-Union Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation, Middle Asian Institute of Irrigation). Tiered systems of catchwork irrigation that use runoff meltwaters are extensively employed, as are new ways of controlling water seepage from canals and reservoirs through the use of linings of watertight materials and film screens. The scientific foundations of regulating the salinity of irrigated lands and of flushing saline soils using horizontal and vertical drainage (S. F. Aver’ianov, 1959) have been developed. The possibilities of using polymeric materials for closed drainage are being studied.
Research is under way on comprehensive, effective use of the water resources of the USSR and on means of protecting them from pollution (Central Scientific Research Institute for the Integrated Use of Water Resources, All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Protection of Waters). The results of scientific research and of planning and surveying work in land reclamation and water management have been generalized in the Master Plan for the Development of Land Reclamation Until 1985 and in a forecast for the period through the year 2000.
FORESTRY. Study of the forests of the North, Siberia, the Far East, the Urals, Middle Asia, and the Caucasus was begun in the 1920’s. This work resulted, in 1955, in compilation of a map of all the forest resources of the USSR. Studies conducted between 1930 and 1960 of the growth and development patterns of plantings (M. M. Orlov, N. V. Tret’iakov, M. E. Tkachenko) provided the theoretical basis for evaluating forest ecology and for compiling tables of the course of growth of the primary wood species. The theory of biogeocenosis, which considers the forest in its unity with environmental conditions, was formulated by G. F. Morozov and V. N. Sukachev between 1920 and 1940. A scientific classification of forest types was established by Morozov and Sukachev on the basis of a comprehensive study of forests in different natural zones. Research in forest soil science by P. S. Pogrebniak and N. P. Remezov served as the scientific basis for improving the quality and productivity of forests.
Between 1965 and 1975 important topics of study included the biology of primary forest species and the patterns of their growth and development. There was further development of the selective breeding, seed growing, and genetics of forest species (A. V. Al’benskii, G. P. Ozolin, S. S. Piatnitskii, and A. S. Iablokov); the raising of forest productivity (A. D. Bukshtynov, A. A. Molchanov, V. P. Timofeev, and I. D. Iurkevich); and the regeneration of forests (A. B. Zhukov and I. S. Melekhov). Work is also being done on forestation for the purpose of creating shelterbelts for fields (V. N. Vinogradov). Improved technology is being developed for clear cutting, forest maintenance (D. I. Deriabin, A. V. Pobedinskii, and others), and forest management (N. P. Anuchin and others).
Comprehensive, integrated methods of controlling forest pests and diseases and new procedures for using bacterial preparations in protective forest plantings, depending on different ecological and biological factors, have been recommended and are being introduced (A. I. Vorontsov and A. I. Il’inskii). Special disciplines, for example, xylology, forest fire prevention, and aerial forest valuation, are developing. Optimum conditions for forest life are being determined, and the goals of environmental protection, based on numerous theoretical studies (V. G. Nesterov), are being set forth. A forecast has been made of the use and replenishing of the forest resources of the USSR until the year 2000.
The leading scientific research institutions are the Forest and Timber Institute of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (founded 1958), the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Forestry and the Mechanization of Lumbering (1932), the All-Union Research Institute for Land and Forest Reclamation (1931), and the Forestry Laboratory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1958).
ZOOTECHNY. In the 1920’s and 1930’s the first surveys were made to find promising regions for livestock raising. This work provided the foundation for planned location of sectors and regionalization of breeds. Local breeds of farm animals were studied, and ways to improve them were outlined (M. F. Ivanov, A. A. Kalantar, P. N. Kuleshov, E. F. Liskun). Research on the feeding of farm animals was continued by E. A. Bogdanov, under whose direction the Soviet feed unit was established in 1922.
M. F. Ivanov deserves substantial credit for working out the scientific methodology for developing new animal breeds, especially those with outstanding qualities, for example, Askaniia Merino sheep and the Ukrainian Steppe White Hog (certified 1934). Between 1935 and 1975 highly productive cattle breeds were developed, including the Sychevka, Lebedin, Kostroma, Alatau, Kazakh White-faced, Black and White, Spotted, and Caucasian Brown (A. S. Vsiakikh, S. la. Dudin, N. F. Rostovtsev, S. I. Shteiman). Almost the entire herd of fine-wooled and semifine-wooled sheep is composed of 16 new breeds, among them Askaniia, Caucasian, Stavropol’, Altai, Kazakh Fine-wooled, Kazakh Archar-Merino, and Dagestan (V. A. Bal’mont, A. V. Vasil’ev, N. A. Vasil’ev, I. T. Kotliarov, G. R. Litovchenko, M. N. Lushchikhin). Highly productive hog breeds have also been developed, for example, the Breitovo, Livny, Urzhum, Ukrainian Spotted Steppe, Northern Caucasus, Siberian, and Kemerovo (L. K. Greben’, P. E. Ladan, A. I. Ovsiannikov). Among the well-known horse breeds are the Russian Trotter, Soviet Draft, Vladimir, Toria, Budennyi, and Tersk. There are breeds, breed groups, and lines of chickens, geese, ducks, and turkeys with outstanding production characteristics.
Work is going forward to improve breeds, lines, and crosses of animals to meet the requirements of commercial livestock raising. Cattle-breeding centers were set up in the nonchernozem zone of the RSFSR in 1975 for this purpose; they work with Kholmogory, Yaroslavl, Black and White, Sychevka, and other breeds. D. A. Kislovskii, E. F. Liskun, and E. la. Borisenko have made major contributions to the theory of breeding farm animals.
Formulation of the scientific foundations of artificial insemination of farm animals was a major achievement of zootechny (I.I. Ivanov, V. K. Milovanov). Techniques were developed to freeze the sperm of stud animals (1947; Milovanov, I. I. Sokolovskaia, and I. V. Smirnov) and to inseminate animals artificially; these techniques are used in the USSR and many other countries. In Karakul sheep raising a technique has been developed to raise the fertility of the animals artificially (1929–44, M. M. Zavadovskii).
The composition and nutritional value of feeds have been studied by I. S. Popov and M. F. Tomme, and feed tables have been drawn up that establish feed rates (1930–60). Since the 1950’s the fundamentals of protein, carbohydrate, vitamin, amino acid, and mineral nutrition for animals have been studied by A. P. Dmitrochenko, P. D. Pshenichnyi, and others. Antibiotics, trace elements, and growth stimulants have been proposed by scientists for use in livestock raising (V. V. Koval’skii, N. I. Leonov, K. M. Solntsev, and others).
Industrial technology has been developed for the protection of poultry products, milk, beef, pork, and lamb at specialized livestock farms and industrial complexes (1971–75); in addition, procedures for managing animals in different zones of the country have been worked out. Methods of commercial crossing of farm animals have been scientifically substantiated and recommended for use.
The leading scientific research institutes in livestock raising are the All-Union Institute of Livestock Breeding (1929), the All-Union Institute for the Raising and Genetics of Agricultural Animals (1969), the All-Union Institute of Sheep Raising and Goat Raising (1932), the Institute of Poultry Raising (1931), the Institute of Hog Raising (1930), and the All-Union Institute of Feed Crops (1930).
VETERINARY SCIENCE. New, improved methods of preventing, diagnosing, and treating noninfectious and infectious diseases have been developed. The introduction of advances by Soviet veterinary science made it possible to eliminate glanders, rinderpest, and epidemic pneumonia in cattle. The occurrence of classical swine fever and erysipelas in hogs, certain illnesses caused by blood parasites, and many other animal diseases has been kept to a minimum. The Soviet helminthological school formed by K. I. Skriabin, which developed a new approach in regard to the essential features of helminthic diseases, is world renowned. Fundamental research in helminthology is carried on by the K. I. Skriabin All-Union Institute of Helminthology. The domestic school of epizootologists formed by S. N. Vyshelesskii made a major contribution to the theory of infectious pathology and the organization of practical steps to control glanders, rinderpest, peripneumonia, rabies, anthrax, and other diseases. Soviet veterinary protozoologists (A. A. Markov, V. M. Iakimov) have proposed a set of prophylactic and therapeutic steps for protozoan diseases. Procedures have been developed by scientists for diagnosis of infectious diseases in the slaughterhouse and for sanitary evaluation of products of animal origin. Studies have been made of toxicoses and the development of pathological processes and reactivity of animal organisms. Highly effective vaccines have been developed against swine fever, paratyphoid of young hogs, Ieptospirosis, braxy in sheep, Newcastle disease in poultry, erysipelas in swine, and trichophytosis. Many other medicinal substances, including serums, diagnostic drugs, anthelminthics, and active disinfectants, have been developed and used successfully. Many new techniques and types of equipment for veterinary work have been proposed.
With the intensification and industrialization of livestock raising, hygiene requirements have been defined for managing animals in large complexes, and methods have been developed for large-scale veterinary processing and accelerated diagnosis of diseases. The All-Union Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine has proposed a method of comprehensive hog vaccination that makes the animals insusceptible to three or four diseases and cuts the number of treatments from six to two. The mass immunization of livestock and poultry with aerosol vaccines and serums makes preventive treatment of animals at large farms much easier and much more economical. This method was developed by the All-Union Institute of Veterinary Virology and Microbiology.
MECHANIZATION OF AGRICULTURE. During the 1920’s and 1930’s the paramount challenge for the technical reequipping of agriculture was the design of wheeled and crawler tractors of various power ratings and self-propelled frames and the development of mounted and semimounted implements. The next task was to introduce industrial forms of organization for production processes, as well as comprehensive mechanization, electrification, and automation (V. N. Boltinskii, V. A. Zheligovskii, A. N. Karpenko, P. N. Listov, V. M. Sablikov). Tractor-machine units of increased speed are being built. Systems of machines and standard technological schemes have been introduced that, taking account of zonal characteristics, make possible the determination of the most expedient technology for production and full mechanization. Equipment has been built to electrify production processes in agriculture, and equipment and methods have been designed for full and partial automation of production at livestock farms. Conveyor-belt processing of grain and new water-lifting systems have been introduced into production, as has new machinery for gathering, preparing, and distributing feeds. Agriculture is also using new types of machines for gathering and processing manure, milking cows, primary processing of milk, and electrical shearing of sheep.
The leading research institutions are the All-Union Institute for the Mechanization of Agriculture and the All-Union Institute of Electrification of Agriculture.
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION. International cooperation is characteristic of all branches of agricultural science. Joint projects and expeditions are organized, the achievements of science and progressive experience are studied, and scientific information is exchanged. Soviet scientists take part in international congresses, symposia, and conferences. Active ties have been set up, in particular within the Standing Commission on Agriculture of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), based on the plan of cooperation among COMECON members in carrying out scientific and technical research in agriculture and forestry. Ties have also been established within the framework of bilateral scientific cooperation envisioning joint projects. Longterm research programs are being carried on with scientific institutions in the socialist countries, as well as in the United States, Canada, Italy, France, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, India, Mexico, and other countries.
Research in collaboration with the COMECON countries is being conducted on many problems, including raising soil fertility (the Soil Institute), breeding agricultural crops (All-Union Institute of Horticulture), the effective use of fertilizers and their effect on soil fertility with prolonged use (All-Union Institute of Fertilizers and Soil Science), the nutrition of agricultural animals and feed production (All-Union Institute of Livestock Breeding), and improving methods of interline hybridization, crossing agricultural animals, and using hybrid vigor in livestock raising (All-Union Institute for the Raising and Genetics of Agricultural Animals). The Coordinating Center for Pesticides is working out a standard computerized system for predicting and signaling the appearance of agricultural crop pests and diseases. The All-Union Breeding and Genetics Institute has established a nursery of breeding material for grain crops; wheat and barley varieties from all the socialist countries are represented. With this material scientists have developed new selection forms and high-yielding wheat and barley varieties and hybirds. The All-Union Institute of Horticulture, in cooperation with scientific institutions in Bulgaria, Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Poland, Rumania, and Czechoslovakia, is testing and using world plant resources to breed agricultural crops for different ecological conditions. The institute’s collection is used by plant breeders from many countries. Between 1971 and 1975 the institute sent out 15 expeditions to collect genetic plant resources in 25 countries of Asia, Africa, Europe, and Australia; it carries on seed exchange with 50 countries.
The scientific institutions and individual scientists of the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences are permanent members of several international scientific agricultural organizations, including the European Association for Research on Plant Breeding, the European Association for Animal Production, the International Association of Agricultural Economists, the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, and the International Association of Agricultural Librarians and Documentalists. Many Soviet scientists have been named honorary doctors and foreign members of agricultural academies and universities and have been awarded government orders by foreign countries. The V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences has elected 37 scientists from 24 countries as foreign members. The academy’s Central Scientific Agricultural Library carries on an exchange of scientific publications and other information with institutions and scientists in more than 40 countries. In 1974 a book exchange was maintained with 1,093 foreign organizations.
PERIODICALS. More than 120 agricultural periodicals are published in the USSR. The following are among the most important: Vestnik sel’skokhoziaistvennoi nauki (Journal of Agricultural Sciences, since 1956), Sel’skokhoziaistvennaia biologiia (Agricultural Biology, since 1966), Pochvovedenie (Soil Science, since 1899), Zemledelie (Agriculture, since 1939), Selektsiia i semenovodstvo (Plant Breeding and Seed Production, since 1929), Zashchita rastenii (Plant Protection, since 1956), Kartofel’ i ovoshchi (Potatoes and Vegetables, since 1956), Korma (Feeds, since 1966), Gidrotekhnika i melioratsiia (Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation, since 1949), Lesovedenie (Forestry, since 1967), Zhivotnovodstvo (Animal Husbandry, since 1939), Ovtsevodstvo (Sheep Raising, since 1955), Svinovodstvo (Hog Raising, since 1930), Veterinariia (Veterinary Science, since 1924), Mekhanizatsiia i elektrifikatsiia sotsialisticheskogo sel’-skogo khoziaistva (Mechanization and Electrification of Socialist Agriculture, since 1930), and Ekonomika sel’skogo khoziaistva (Agricultural Economics, since 1926).
P. P. LOBANOV

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Itogi i perspektivy razvitiia sel’skokhoziaistvennoi nauki v SSSR (collection of articles). Moscow, 1969.
Lobanov, P. P. Dostizheniia naukisel’skokhoziaistvennomu proizvodstvu. Moscow, 1974.
Medical sciences. The science of medicine, which took shape in Russia at the turn of the 19th century, developed on the basis of natural science materialism. The idea of the integrity of the organism and its inseparable link with the environment prevailed. The leading role of the nervous system in vital activity was emphasized, as were the method of clinical observation and the individual approach in the treatment of the patient. The work of E. O. Mukhin and I. E. Diad’kovskii greatly influenced the development of the physiological aspect of clinical medicine. The development of preventive medicine was associated with M. la. Mudrov, S. G. Zybelin, and D. S. Samoilovich. In the mid-19th century, the work of G. I. Sokol’skii (who, along with the French physician J. B. Bouillaud, was the first to describe rheumatic endocarditis) led to the introduction of objective methods of patient examination, such as percussion and auscultation. Further research on the clinical aspects of internal diseases by S. P. Botkin, G. A. Zakhar’in, A. A. Ostroumov, and V. P. Obraztsov and many of their students and followers brought Russian medicine into the forefront.
The anatomical school of P. A. Zagorskii and the surgical school of I. F. Bush developed in the first half of the 19th century. Their close ties resulted in a new trend in anatomical-surgical investigation—topographic anatomy. The development of the trend was dominated by I. V. Buial’skii, author of the Anatomical Surgical Tables and creator of the “ice anatomy” method, and N. I. Pirogov, who in the mid-19th century made topographic anatomy the foundation of surgery, proposed original anesthesia techniques and methods of plastic surgery, and worked out the fundamentals of military field surgery. In 1847, F. I. Inozemtsev performed the first operation in Russia in which ether was used.
N. M. Ambodik-Maksimovich, the founder of obstetrics in Russia, contributed new principles to the organization of obstetric and neonatal care. V. F. Snegirev and his students made major contributions to the development of gynecology. The emergence of pediatrics as an independent discipline is associated with S. F. Khotovitskii and N. A. Tol’skii, who established a school of pediatrics, which included N. F. Filatov and N. P. Gundobin.
The first subdepartment of nervous diseases was established in 1869 at Moscow University by A. la. Kozhevnikov, founder of the school of neuropathology and psychiatry. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the clinical work and scientific discoveries of V. M. Bekhterev, V. A. Bets, V. K. Rot (Roth), S. S. Korsakov, V. Kh. Kandinskii, and V. P. Serbskii, among others, placed Russia among the world leaders in neuropathology and psychiatry. The Russian school of hygiene, experimental in its approach and dominated by the emphasis on social medicine, was founded by A. P. Dobroslavin and F. F. Erisman. A. M. Filomafitskii, A. I. Polunin, V. V. Pashutin, E. Metchnikoff, and A. B. Fokht made outstanding contributions to the development of experimental medicine. In 1902, A. A. Kuliabko was the first to “revive” a human heart 20 hours after death.
However, medical science in prerevolutionary Russia was virtually devoid of a material and technical basis. There existed no center to plan and coordinate medical research. Scientific work was conducted at only a few places, such as the Military Medical Academy (until 1881 the St. Petersburg Medical and Surgical Academy), the subdepartments of the medical schools at the universities of Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Kharkov, Tomsk, Warsaw, Dorpat, and Novorossiisk, and the bacteriological stations of the provincial capitals of Tambov, Tomsk, Ufa, Samara, and Perm’. There were only a few research institutions, including the bacteriological institutes in Kharkov (founded 1887) and Moscow (1895), the Institute of Experimental Medicine in St. Petersburg (1890), and the Odessa Health and Bacteriological Station (1886).
Immediately after the establishment of Soviet power, steps were taken to create the necessary conditions conducive to the creative development of medical science. Because the Soviet public health system is state operated, the development of research institutions and the organization of research were planned, and research results were quickly introduced into practice at therapeutic-preventive and public health epidemiologic facilities.
The first research institutes and laboratories were also established immediately, in the period 1918–21. They included the central station for serum and vaccine control, the Saratov Mikrob Institute, the Crimean Institute of Epidemiology, Microbiology, and Public Health Medicine, and chemical-pharmaceutical, dermatological-venereological, roentgenological, and radiological institutes. New medical newspapers and journals were published, as well as the works of V. M. Bekhterev, N. P. Kravkov, and other leading scientists. In 1921 the decree of the Council of People’s Commissars On the Conditions Supporting the Scientific Work of Academician I. P. Pavlov and His Associates was adopted; signed by V. I. Lenin, it is a striking example of the solicitude for the needs of scientists. In 1920 the State Institute of Public Health, the first research institution for comprehensive studies, was founded. In addition to institutes concerned with various aspects of practical health (for example, the institute for vaccine and serum control headed by L. A. Tarasevich), it included various theoretical institutes headed by leading scientists, such as the institutes of experimental biology (N. K. Kol’tsov), biochemistry (A. N. Bakh), and microbiology (V. A. Barykin).
In the 1920’s and 1930’s, the Soviet government found the means to establish new research institutes, particularly the institute of eye diseases (1922) in Kazan, the institutes of the protection of mother and child (1922), social medicine (1923), and occupational diseases (1921) in Moscow, the institutes of traumatology (1921) and surgical neuropathology (1926) in Leningrad, the Pasteur Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology (1924) in Leningrad, the institute for labor protection (1925) in Moscow, the Pasteur Institute in Minsk (1925), and the institutes of health resort science (1926), blood transfusion (1926, the first such institute in the world), and brain study (1927) in Moscow. In 1932 the A. M. Gorky All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine was founded in Moscow. It is concerned with developing medicine as a science, the comprehensive study of the human organism, and the development of new methods of testing, treating, and preventing diseases based on advances in biology, physics, and chemistry.
By 1941, there were 233 medical research institutes, many of them in the Union republics, which were provided with all that was required for the successful development of medical science and the training of national scientific cadres. About 20,000 scientific workers were conducting research at these institutes.
The Great Patriotic War (1941–45) proved to be a major test of the capabilities of medical science, which successfully met the practical scientific challenges and made important contributions to the Soviet people’s victory. Military medicine made outstanding advances in working out the system of medical support for troops, the system of treatment by stages (E. I. Smirnov), and the public health epidemiologic service for the army (T. E. Boldyrev, F. G. Krotkov, and others). Of particular importance was the work on the pathology and surgical treatment of wounds and sequelae. Important research was carried out on blood transfusion (S. I. Spasokukotskii, S. S. Iudin, A. N. Filatov, and V. N. Shamov) and shock (I. R. Petrov and others). Reconstructive surgery made great advances (N. N. Burdenko, N. A. Bogoraz, Iu. lu. Dzhanelidze, and others). Doctors of internal medicine studied diseases characterized by an unusual clinical course or increased prevalence under wartime conditions, such as alimentary dystrophy, vitamin deficiency, hypertension, and nephritis.
During this period, the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR was founded (1944), which, in addition to coordinating important wartime research, immediately embarked on a program to solve the most important medical problems of the forthcoming period of reconstruction. In 1978 the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR had 40 scientific research institutions. A system for coordinating medical research emerged in the USSR, based on learned councils and problem commissions of the Academy of Medical Sciences formed at leading research institutions. The academy is concerned with the general planning, coordination, and supervision of medical research pertaining to problems of national importance and to the evaluation of research results. The scientific medical council of the Ministry of Health of the USSR, working closely with the Academy of Medical Sciences, exercises methodological leadership in the introduction of medical advances into public health practice.
Soviet medical science makes use of the latest advances in natural science and engineering, continuing and further developing the best traditions of Russian medicine. The material and technical basis of medical science has been created during the Soviet years.
The large number of scientific societies and the broad dissemination of research results have promoted medical research. In 1977 there were 35 all-Union medical societies and hundreds of republic and city societies; ninety medical journals were published. The Great Medical Encyclopedia (two editions) and other medical encyclopedias have been published, totaling more than 7 million copies. The growth in the number of research institutions and scientific personnel has fostered advances in medical science, which have received world recognition.
Continued advances by medical science are closely linked with research on fundamental problems of biology and medicine using new methods, such as X-ray structural analysis, electron microscopy, and the use of tagged radioactive compounds and cybernetics systems. Technical progress has led to the use of extremely delicate procedures in the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases, procedures that previously had been possible only in physiological experiments. The use of mathematical methods and electronic computer technology in the study of physiological phenomena has succeeded in resolving many practical problems and has made it possible to investigate step by step the mechanisms of nervous and psychological phenomena in the human being. The use of new instruments and devices with high resolution and precision and automatic recording has greatly accelerated the pace of research and has made it possible to delve more deeply into the essential features and regularities of physiological and pathological processes in the organism and to develop and apply new methods of diagnosis and therapy.
(For information on international cooperation in medicine, see.)
HYGIENE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AND MICROBIOLOGY. The emphasis On prevention in Soviet medicine found expression, above all, in the development of the science of hygiene, especially social medicine. Outstanding representatives of the field, such as N. A. Semashko, Z. P. Solov’ev, and V. A. Obukh, worked out the theoretical foundations of the Soviet public health system in the 1920’s and outlined the steps necessary to maintain and improve the health of the population. Carrying out V. I. Lenin’s directives, they based their work on the Marxist view of the paramount importance of social conditions in the occurrence and prevention of diseases.
The increased number of tasks and the development of more complex research methods led to the differentiation of hygiene into a number of disciplines. The study of the hygiene of water and water supply and of problems related to the cleaning up of populated points formed the basis of the laws on the protection of bodies of water, the air, and the soil from pollution, as well as the basis of the development of health standards for drinking water quality, city layout, and the planning of industrial enterprises (G. V. Khlopin, A. N. Sysin, and others). The study of the effects of production factors on human health made it possible to establish health standards and the maximum tolerable concentrations of toxic substances in different environments, as well as standards for noise and vibration levels. A system of state measures was developed to ensure working conditions favorable to human health and to reduce instances of occupational disease (A. A. Letavet and others). The intensification of agriculture led to the emergence of rural hygiene as a distinct scientific problem. Health requirements for the working conditions of machine operators and other agricultural workers and the public health organization of rural populated points were substantiated. Research on the effects of toxic chemicals made it possible to control the conditions and opportunities for their use. The studies of M. N. Shaternikov, P. N. Diatroptov, O. P. Molchanova, and A. A. Pokrovskii, among others, scientifically substantiated the rational dietary norms for different population groups and led to the development of the theory and principles of the balanced diet.
The formation and development of school hygiene was associated with N. A. Semashko, D. D. Bekariukov, and A. V. Mol’-kov.
In the 1970’s, research in the biochemistry of the diet acquired particular importance; it seeks to identify the role of certain essential food substances in the vital activities of organisms and to understand the regularities and mechanisms of food assimilation. Intensive research was conducted on acclimatization and the health-related aspects of environmental protection. The complex and combined action of harmful substances on the organism came under study, as did their carcinogenic, allergenic, and gonadotrophic effects and their adverse effect on fetal development. The results of the investigations formed the basis of conservation legislation and planned state public health measures.
The key issues of medical microbiology, parasitology, epidemiology, and the theory of controlling infectious and parasitic diseases were studied. The regularities of the epidemic process and the theory of the interaction of social and biological factors in the development of epidemics were worked out (L. V. Gromashevskii, P. F. Zdrodovskii, and others), as were the doctrine of the natural focality of transmitted and parasitic diseases (E. N. Pavlovskii) and the theory of the extermination of helminths and the elimination of sources of infection (K. I. Skriabin). The work of E. I. Martsinovskii, V. N. Beklemishev, P. G. Sergiev, and others led to the eradication of malaria in the USSR. Geographic pathology, a new branch of medicine, began developing intensively in the 1950’s (A. P. Avtsyn and others).
Various aspects of medical microbiology were studied by N. F. Gamaleia, V. D. Timakov, V. L. Troitskii, and N. N. Zhukov-Verezhnikov. Of key importance were the studies in the epidemiology of cholera, plague, and other highly dangerous infections (D. K. Zabolotnyi and others), the discovery of the viral character of Russian spring-summer encephalitis (1937) and hemorrhagic fever, and the clarification of the types of flu viruses (L. A. Zil’ber, V. M. Zhdanov, A. A. Smorodintsev, V. D. Solov’ev, M. P. Chumakov, and others). Microbiologists devoted particular attention to the development of new methods for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases. Vaccines were developed against tularemia, anthrax, brucellosis, poliomyelitis, encephalitis, and other diseases.
Immunology, which first developed within the framework of medical microbiology, emerged as an independent discipline in the period between the 1920’s and 1940’s in the course of applied research, such as the development of vaccines and serum drugs. Important contributions were later made in the development of the theoretical aspects of immunology, including the study of the mechanisms of natural resistance and natural antigenicity, the physicochemical foundations of immunological reactions and the cellular foundations of immunogenesis, and the analysis of postvaccine immunity. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, advances were made in the study of antiviral immunity, radiation immunology, and immunopathology (V. I. Ioffe, P. N. Kosiakov, and others). The research on antitumor immunity and autoimmune disorders won international recognition (L. A. Zil’ber and others).
THEORETICAL MEDICINE. Soviet scientists have made substantial contributions to the development of theoretical medicine. The work of I. P. Pavlov’s school of physiology occupies a special place (see above: Biological sciences). Anatomists worked out the functional trend in the study of morphology. V. P. Vorob’ev proposed methods of investigating the microstructure and innervation of organs without impairment of physiological connections. V. N. Tonkov demonstrated the high adaptability of blood vessels to changing conditions and established the effect of the nervous system on the formation of new blood vessels and the development of collateral blood circulation. In the 1940’s and 1950’s, his student B. A. Dolgo-Saburov worked out the morphological foundations of interoception, and D. A. Zhdanov and others formulated the modern theory of the lymphatic system and collateral lymph circulation. The work of V. N. Shevkunenko (1920’s and 1930’s) was instrumental in the study of age-related changes in organs and systems and topographic anatomy. In the 1940’s and 1950’s, different types of interneuronal connections were identified (N. I. Grashchenkov, S. A. Sarkisov, and A. D. Zurabashvili), and basic research was conducted in the histophysiology of serous, synovial, and brain membranes (M. A. Baron).
Intensive research was conducted in the field of genetics. In particular, Soviet medical geneticists were the first to determine the frequency of occurrence and distribution of various hereditary diseases and to develop a biological screening program to identify the hereditary effects of metabolism. The frequency of occurrence of chromosomal aberrations in newborn infants was determined after the study of spontaneous and chemogenic muta-genesis. A quantitative model was devised to induce chromosomal aberrations in a human lymphocyte culture. Studies were organized to test chemical and other environmental factors encountered in everyday life and at work for danger of mutagenesis.
The angiostomy and organostomy proposed by E. S. London (1919) proved to be effective research methods in biochemistry. Research was conducted on the chemistry of enzymes and vitamins, the physiology of hormones (N. A. Iudaev), and clinical biochemistry (S. E. Severin, V. N. Orekhovich, B. M. Zbarskii, and S. R. Mardashev).
Pharmacology developed as an experimental science. The work of N. P. Kravkov marked the beginning of the pharmacology of pathological states based on the study of the effects of various drugs on an animal organism with an experimentally induced pathological process. The close relationship between pharmacology and chemistry made it possible to develop new drugs, in particular, cardiac glycosides. G. F. Gauze, Z. V. Ermol’eva, and Kh. Kh. Planel’es (J. Planelles), among others, made major contributions to the development of new antibiotics and other antibacterial drugs. The study of the pharmacology of the nervous system and the development of psychopharmacology are linked with the work of the schools of S. V. Anichkov and V. V. Zakusov. Soviet scientists worked out original ideas about the action of drugs and new principles for the directed synthesis of pharmacologically active drugs. They formulated the synaptic theory of the action of neurotrophic drugs and revealed the neurochemical mechanisms of their action on the cellular and molecular levels.
In pathology, the development of the clinical anatomical trend, represented by the schools of A. I. Abrikosov and I. V. Davydovskii, played a large practical role. The nosological and functional aspects of research, based on the idea of the organism’s integrity, were worked out. The studies of Soviet scientists on the pathomorphism of tuberculosis and rheumatism (V. T. Talalaev, M. A. Skvortsov, and A. I. Strukov), the pathology of cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis (N. N. Anichkov, S. S. Khalatov, and others), and the theory of the role of connective tissue in the reactivity of the organism and the theory of cytotoxins (A. A. Bogomolets), received international recognition, as did the studies on the trophic functions of the nervous system (A. D. Speranskii and A. M. Chernukh) and the theory of the mechanisms of aging.
CLINICAL MEDICINE. Soviet clinical medicine has been characterized by the study of the patient in the social milieu and by the implementation in practice of the ideas of the physiological school, which is closely linked with preventive medicine. In addition, it has been distinguished by research to uncover the causes and mechanisms of the occurrence and development of diseases for the purpose of substantiating pathogenetic and etiological therapy and for early diagnosis and prevention.
In cardiology, fundamental studies were conducted on hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, rheumatism, and blood circulation disorders (G. F. Lang, N. D. Strazhesko, D. D. Pletnev, V. F. Zelenin, A. L. Miasnikov, V. N. Vinogradov, A. I. Nesterov, E. I. Chazov, and Z. Ianushkevichius). In the late 1960’s and in the 1970’s, Soviet cardiologists established a fundamentally new mechanism of occurrence of pathological states, one caused by the suppression of potential cardiac pacemakers and by the high frequency of stimulations. It was demonstrated that the excitability of the heart muscle and its intracellular potentials are largely determined by the intracardiac nervous system. A previously unknown self-regulatory mechanism for the contractive function of the heart was discovered, the impairment of which plays a significant role in the development of heart failure. The existence of a special neuron system was established that increases arterial pressure rapidly in response to a stream of afferent impulses transmitted to the brain by special fibers. Experimental and clinical research demonstrated the importance of immunological processes in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. It was established that the prolonged stimulation of the hypothalamus leads to the development of stable hypertension, which is particularly marked when the function of the thyroid gland is suppressed. New methods were worked out for the treatment of arterial hypertension, making it possible to stabilize malignant hypertension. Methods of diagnosing and treating myocardial infarction and its complications were developed, and their use has significantly reduced the mortality rate from the disease.
Successful studies were carried out in gastroenterology (the school of M. P. Konchalovskii, V. Kh. Vasilenko, and others), nephrology (S. S. Zimnitskii, M. S. Vovsi, and E. M. Tareev), hematology (M. I. Arinkin, A. N. Kriukov, and I. A. Kassirskii), and pulmonology (B. E. Votchal and others).
The primary factors in the development of surgical techniques were advances in anesthesia and the prevention of postoperative complications, the development of new instruments and equipment, and the development of methods of blood transfusion and organ and tissue transplantation. Soviet scientists developed methods of local anesthesia (A. V. Vishnevskii), the surgical treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidneys, and urinary tract (I. I. Grekov, S. P. Fedorov, A. V. Martynov, and many others), and new surgical procedures in ophthalmology (M. I. Averbakh, V. P. Filatov, N. A. Puchkovskaia) and otorhinolaryngology (the work on otosclerosis by A. I. Kolomiichenko, N. A. Preobrazhenskii, S. N. Khechinashvili, and others). Techniques were developed for heart surgery and the surgery of the main vessels (A. N. Bakulev, B. V. Petrovskii, P. A. Kupriianov, A. A. Vishnevskii, N. M. Amosov, V. I. Burakovskii, E. N. Meshalkin, and others), as were surgical techniques for the treatment of tuberculosis and other diseases of the lungs (L. K. Bogush, V. I. Struchkov, F. G. Uglov, and others). Research in epidermatoplasty, the transplantation of cadaverous skin and corneas (A. N. Filatov), and kidney transplants (Iu. Iu. Voronoi, Petrovskii, and others) were important contributions to transplantation. Scientists are studying the possibility of transplanting the liver and other organisms and developing an artificial heart. Research has been carried out on tissue incompatibility and tolerance in connection with solving the problems of organ transplantation.
Soviet scientists were the first to study various problems of the resuscitation of the organism (S. S. Briukhonenko, V. A. Negovskii, and others). Anesthesiologists worked on ways of ensuring the safety of the patient at all stages of surgical treatment and studied the problems of artificial hypothermia, neuroleptanalgesia, defibrillation of the heart, artificial respiration, and hyperbaric oxygenation. Particularly noteworthy achievements by Soviet scientists were the development of the theory of the effect of artificial blood circulation on the organism and the method of combining artificial blood circulation and hyberbaric oxygenation, which has made it possible to greatly increase the therapeutic effects and safety of heart surgery.
Traumatology and orthopedics developed through advances in surgical techniques and the development of original methods of treatment and prosthetics (G. I. Turner, R. R. Vreden, N. N. Priorov, and M. V. Volkov). The development of the theory of the tuberculosis of bones and joints proved to be a valuable scientific contribution by Soviet scientists (P. G. Kornev and T. P. Krasnobaev). Neurosurgery, which in the USSR was founded by A. L. Polenov and N. N. Burdenko, developed successfully. Procedures for the surgical treatment of diseases of the autonomic nervous system and disorders of cranial blood circulation were developed, as well as new methods (1970’s) for the surgical treatment of brain tumors previously considered inoperable, such as tumors of the pituitary gland.
Oncology developed as a clinical, theoretical, and experimental science. Studies were conducted on the causes, mechanisms, and patterns of development of tumors, and methods were worked out for surgical and conservative therapy (N. N. Petrov, P. A. Gertsen, N. N. Blokhin, L. M. Shabad, and others). Successful research was carried out in the immunology of malignant tumors, and an original virogenetic theory of carcinogenesis was formulated by L. A. Zil’ber. In the 1960’s and 1970’s, substantial attention was devoted to the study of the role of viruses in the etiology of various forms of leukemia and to the development of combination therapy for malignant tumors.
Fundamental studies by V. M. Bekhterev, L. O. Darkshevich, M. B. Krol’, L. S. Minor, E. K. Sepp, N. V. Konovalov, and E. V. Shmidt were devoted to the study of the pathology of the nervous system, that is, neuropathology and psychiatry. M. I. Astvatsaturov and S. N. Davidenkov laid the foundations of genetic research in Soviet neurology. In the 1970’s, neurogenetics obtained new data on the impairment of metabolism in extrapyramidal hereditary diseases; ways of determining the carriers of pathological genes were discovered, as were ways of detecting early and mild forms of hereditary diseases. The formation of the independent disciplines of children’s neurology and child psychology was made possible by the work of G. I. Rossolimo, V. P. Osipov, and V. A. Giliarovskii. Significant contributions were made by studies devoted to the psychiatry of “minor” or borderline disorders (P. B. Gannushkin and others) and to the problems of schizophrenia and organic and vascular-related psychoses (T. I. Iudin, O. V. Kerbikov, A. V. Snezhnevskii, and others). In the 1960’s and 1970’s, a new clinical-pathogenetic classification of schizophrenia was proposed, and the role of cellular immunopathological mechanisms in the development of schizophrenia was identified, as were significant impairments of the function of the cellular membranes. Also studied were the age-related characteristics of schizophrenia and problems related to the integration of the patient back into society.
In obstetrics and gynecology, of particular importance was the research on various aspects of the physiology of childbirth and the control of childbirth, the psychoprophylaxis of pain during childbirth, the prevention of eclampsia and postnatal complications, and surgical techniques in gynecology (A. P. Gubarev, V. S. Gruzdev, M. S. Malinovskii, L. S. Persianinov, and others). Soviet pediatrics devoted considerable attention to the care and nutrition of the healthy child and to the study of the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the child’s organism; it also was concerned with the development of methods for the treatment and prevention of infectious childhood diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system, rheumatism, pneumonia, and rickets; further, it was concerned with the characteristics of the clinical course and treatment of hereditary diseases and the diseases of early childhood (A. A. Kisel’, G. N. Speranskii, M. S. Maslov, V. I. Molchanov, A. F. Tur, Iu. F. Dombrovskaia, and others). Equally important was the study of methods for the surgical treatment of diseases in children (the S. D. Ternovskii school).
Problems studied by gerontology and geriatrics included the biology of aging, the relationship between primary changes during aging and changes in the genetic apparatus and the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, and the mechanisms of development and the characteristics of the pathology of the old and very old (D. F. Chebotarev and others). The work begun by V. I. Voiachek, founder of a major school in otorhinolaryngology, on the study of the physiology and pathology of the vestibular and cochlear apparatus promoted the development of aviation and space medicine.
In the 1970’s medical research continued to focus on the study of the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases, viral diseases, and malignant tumors and on the development of the methods for their early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Research also continued on working out ways of protecting the environment.
PERIODICALS. More than 100 medical journals are published in the USSR. The principal periodicals are Arkhiv patologii (Archives of Pathology, since 1935), Biulleteri eksperimental’noi biologii i meditsiny (Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, since 1936), Vestnik Akademii Meditsinskikh nauk SSSR (Journal of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, since 1946), Klinicheskaia meditsina (Clinical Medicine, since 1920), Vestnik Khirurgii im. 1.1. Grekova (I. I. Grekov Surgical Herald, since 1885), and Terapevticheskii arkhiv (Archives of Internal Medicine, since 1923).
Equally important are Zhurnal mikrobiologii, epidemiologii, i immunologii (Journal of Microbiology, Epidemiology, and Immunology, since 1924), Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova (S. S. Korsakov Journal of Neuropathology and Psychiatry, since 1901), Patologicheskaia fiziologiia i eksperimental’naia terapiia (Pathophysiology and Experimental Internal Medicine, since 1957), Gigiena i sanitariia (Hygiene and Sanitation, since 1936), and Gigiena truda i professional’nye zabolevaniia (Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Diseases, since 1957).
Also important are Meditsinskii referativnyi zhurnal (Medical Abstracts Journal, since 1957), Akusherstvo i ginekologiia (Obstetrics and Gynecology, since 1922), Pediatriia (Pediatrics, since 1922), Voprosy onkologii (Problems of Oncology, since 1955), Kardiologiia (Cardiology, since 1961), Kosmicheskaia biologiia i meditsina (Space Biology and Medicine, since 1967), Problemy endokrinologii (Problems of Endocrinology, since 1955), Farmakologiia i toksikologiia (Pharmacology and Toxicology, since 1938), and Khirurgiia (Surgery, since 1925).
B. V. PETROVSKII, V. D. TIMAKOV, P. N. BURGASOV, I. P. LIDOV, and A. M. STOCHIK

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Aviation science and technology. A number of aircraft of original design were built in prerevolutionary Russia. la. M. Gakkel’, D. P. Grigorovich, V. A. Slesarev, and others designed their own aircraft between 1909 and 1914, and I. I. Sikorsky built his huge four-motor airplane Russkii Vitiaz’ in 1913. Experience in the use of aircraft in World War I demonstrated aviation’s potential and contributed to its rapid development. In addition to foreign (principally French and British) aircraft, domestically designed aircraft were also used in Russia. Between 1913 and 1918, Sikorsky developed several versions of the heavy four-engine plane Il’ia Muromets, which was put into series production. The low production capacities of the semicottage aircraft plants, the necessity of purchasing aircraft abroad, and the absence of a domestic engine-building industry adversely affected the overall state of aviation in Russia.

Theoretical research and experimental work in aerodynamics and aircraft strength were conducted in the early 20th century. The fundamental work of N. E. Zhukovskii had a significant influence on the development of aviation science (it was Zhukovskii who derived an equation for determining lifting force and created propeller theory). S. A. Chaplygin laid the foundations of the aerodynamics of high velocities and developed airfoil theory. Zhukovskii’s and Chaplygin’s work and the work of their students (A. N. Tupolev, B. N. Iur’ev, V. P. Vetchinkin, K. A. Ushakov, G. M. Musinianets, and G. Kh. Sabinin) made it possible to begin designing aircraft on a sound scientific basis.

In the years immediately following the triumph of the October Revolution of 1917, aircraft plants began producing airplanes based on models captured in the war; at the same time licenses were acquired for the manufacture of aircraft of foreign firms. The Communist Party and Soviet government paid considerable attention to the development of aviation. The Air Force Board (Collegium) was created within the People’s Commissariat for Military and Naval Affairs, and the Department for the Use of Aviation in the National Economy was organized within the collegium in April 1918 upon a directive from V. I. Lenin. The Main Directorate (Central Board) of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Air Force was created in May, and in June the Council of People’s Commissars issued a decree on the nationalization of aviation enterprises. In the same year, the Central Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), headed by Zhukovskii, was founded in Moscow. The institute became the scientific base for aircraft construction. The Moscow Aviation Technicum was established in 1919 and became the N. E. Zhukovskii Air Force Engineering Academy in 1922. In February 1923 the Council of Labor and Defense under the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR adopted the decree On the Assignment of Technical Supervision of Airlines to the Main Administration of the Air Force and on the Establishment of the Council for Civil Aviation. The decree lent impetus to the planned construction of the socialist Civil Air Fleet. In 1925 an aeromechanics division was created within the department of mechanics of the Moscow Higher Technical School; the division subsequently expanded to become an independent department, then the Higher School of Aeromechanics, and finally, in 1930, the Sergo Ordzhonikidze Moscow Institute of Aviation. The first design offices for aircraft construction were organized in the 1920’s under Tupolev (at the Central Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Institute) and N. N. Polikarpov and Grigorovich (at the Duks Plant). The ANT-1 (1923), 1–1 (1923), and AK-1 Latyshskii Strelok (1924) were the first Soviet airplanes manufactured.

Airplane structures at that time were of wood, and wings and tail surfaces were covered with fabric. The transition from wood to metal represented an important step in the development of aviation. A special commission on the manufacture of metal aircraft was established (staffed by Tupolev, I. I. Sidorin, V. M. Petliakov, A. I. Putilov, I. I. Pogosskii, and others). Despite the difficulties encountered in establishing all-metal aircraft production in the 1920’s, the first all-metal airplane, the ANT-2, was built in 1924, and the ANT-3, the first series-produced airplane made of a new, special Duralumin-type alloy, was constructed in 1925.

The creation of an aviation industry was one of the main tasks of the first five-year plan (1929–32). The following divisions were separated from the Central Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Institute to undertake scientific research: the aviation materials division, which later became the All-Union Institute of Aviation Materials; and the propeller and engine division, which, after merger with the aviation division of the Scientific Research Institute of Motor Vehicles and Automotive Engines, became the Central Institute of Aircraft Engine Construction. In addition to the large design offices of Tupolev and Polikarpov, smaller offices were operated under K. A. Kalinin, Grigorovich, Putilov, A. S. Iakovlev, V. B. Shavrov, G. M. Beriev, and others. Soviet pilots in domestically designed aircraft made long-distance flights that won acclaim for the Soviet Union; among them were V. P. Chkalov, M. M. Gromov, V. K. Kokkinaki, M. V. Vodop’ianov, and V. S. Grizodubova.

In the 1930’s major advances took place in the aviation industry. Flight data were significantly improved, and the problems of flutter and recovery from a spin were solved. Polikarpov’s creation of the 1–16 airplane initiated the widespread use of the monoplane design for fighters. Other advances introduced included retractable landing gear, closed cockpit canopies, turbo-chargers to increase altitude ratings, high-lift wings, improved propeller-engine units, cannon firing through the propeller arc, countersunk riveting, and new high-strength materials. The designers at the Central Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Institute continued the work begun in 1925 and 1926 on the development of helicopters (producing the TsAGI 1-EA). Several single-rotor prototypes were built under the general supervision of Iur’ev and, later, I. P. Bratukhin (including the Omega), and future programs were outlined for the development and improvement of helicopters and the creation of aircraft suitable for service.

In 1939 the Central Committee of the ACP(B) and the government adopted the decree On the Renovation of Existing Aircraft Plants and the Construction of New Plants, and the People’s Commissariat of the Aviation Industry was organized. Aircraft design was assigned to the design offices of A. A. Arkhangel’skii, S. V. Ilyushin, S. A. Lavochkin, Artem I. Mikoyan, Petliakov, and P. O. Sukhoi. As a result of theoretical and experimental research in wind tunnels and other installations, more advanced shapes were developed for many aircraft components to provide low drag, good handling, and improved takeoff and landing characteristics. New models with excellent flight performance included the LaGG-3, MiG-3, and IaK-1 fighters, the Pe-2, Pe-8, Su-2,11–4, SB bombers, and the 11-2 ground attack plane.

In the late 1930’s design offices (which later became independent experimental organizations) headed by A. A. Mikulin, V. la. Klimov, S. K. Tumanskii, A. D. Shvetsov, V. A. Dobrynin, and others were established at major engine plants. These collectives concentrated their efforts on the development and refinement of new designs for aircraft engines, and the Central Institute of Aircraft Engine Construction provided scientific and technical assistance in design planning. By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, fighter aircraft had reached speeds of 600–650 km/hr and a service ceiling of 11–12 km; bombers, recorded speeds of 550 km/hr, a range of 3,000–4,000 km, and bomb loads of 4 tons.

During the war, despite the difficulties that arose because of evacuation, the aviation industry successfully supplied aircraft to the front. New models included light, maneuverable, well-armed fighters, ground attack planes, and bombers (such as the Iak-3, La-5, 11–6, 11–8, Pe-3, and Tu-2). In the development of designs for new aircraft, due attention was focused on the demand for series production and the allowance for subsequent modifications based on the requirements of combat use and service conditions. In supporting the needs of the front, the aviation industry supplied the army with 35,000 combat aircraft in 1943 alone.

After the war a transition was made from piston-engine to jet aircraft in both military and civil aviation. In the USSR the development of air-breathing jet engines had begun in the late 1930’s. (B. S. Stechkin established the design theory of air-breathing jet engines.) In 1943 and 1944, A. M. Liul’ka designed the first Soviet turbojet engine. Experiments with liquid-propellent rocket engines were also carried out, highlighted by the flights of the RP-318 rocket plane (S. P. Korolev) in 1940 and the BI-1 airplane (A. la. Berezniak and A. M. Isaev) in 1942. Flight tests of the 1–250 plane (from Mikoyan’s experimental design office) and the Su-5 plane, equipped with a supercharged engine, began in 1945. However, these two experimental design trends were not developed further because of the high specific fuel consumption in liquid-propellent rocket engines and the limited potential of supercharged engines. The use of turbojet engines contributed to rapid advances in aviation, and creation of the MiG-9 and Iak-15 planes in 1946 marked the first practical application of jet engines in Soviet aviation. The series production of the MiG-15 jet began in 1947.

In the postwar period, research was also being conducted to reduce structural weight, improve aircraft aerodynamics, and reduce losses to cooling. The creation of swept-wing designs was a major step forward in the development of jet aviation. The achieving of near-sonic flow velocities, with a continuous transition from subsonic to supersonic velocities, in a wind tunnel with a working section having perforated walls was of great importance to the development of aviation science (Central Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Institute, 1947). The results of research on the aerodynamics of swept wings and low-aspect-ratio wings and on the stability and controllability of airplanes with new wing shapes and empennage configurations particularly influenced practical applications. Coupled with the use of turbojet engines, such advances made it possible initially to reach speeds approaching Mach 1 and subsequently to achieve even greater speeds. The La-160 (1947) was the first Soviet experimental plane with a swept wing (capable of speeds up to 1,050 km/-hr). The La-176, with which the speed of sound was reached in 1948, had a swept wing of extreme angle (45°).

In the late 1940’s and early 1950’s, M. V. Keldysh, S. A. Khristianovich, G. I. Petrov, M. D. Millionshchikov, and L. I. Sedov worked on the investigation of high velocities. The research of V. V. Struminskii, G. P. Svishchev, A. A. Dorodnitsyn, G. S. Biushgens, and other scientists made it possible to develop new shapes for wings, control surfaces, and empennages for high-speed subsonic aircraft. A. I. Makarevskii, V. N. Beliaev, A. M. Cheremukhin, and others conducted research on the strength of aircraft structures.

Various new airplanes were designed in the early 1950’s: the II-28 tactical bomber; the Iak-25 all-weather interceptor-fighter; and the M-4, M-6 (V. M. Miasishchev), Tu-16 long-range strategic bombers. New helicopter designs included those of M. L. Mil’ (Mi-1 and Mi-4) and N. I. Kamov (the Ka-15, Ka-16, and others), succeeded in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s by the Mi-6, Mi-8, and Mi-10 and in the late 1960’s by the Mi-12, Ka-25, and Ka-26. In the 1950’s, as a result of advances in aerodynamics and engine construction, aviation entered the supersonic era. New wind tunnels and installations specially constructed for the study of supersonic diffusers and nozzles and the conducting of flutter tests were used to carry out research on the rational design of supersonic airplanes. The required aerodynamic characteristics were achieved by using thin-section delta wings and highly swept wings. The first Soviet series-produced supersonic plane, the Mig-19, was capable of speeds up to 1,450 km/hr. Scientists undertook to solve the problem of what came to be known as the heat barrier and other problems presented by prolonged flight at hypersonic speeds. In 1954 titanium was used for the first time in wing structures and other assemblies subject to thermal stresses, and the techniques of fabricating titanium structures were mastered at this time.

The 1950’s and 1960’s were marked by further improvements in the flight performance of combat aircraft. The improvements were achieved as the result of advances made by Soviet aviation science in gas dynamics, aerodynamics, strength, control systems design, and production processes; the creation of new structural materials; and the development of engine construction, instrument-making, and various related branches of industry. Supersonic airplanes were equipped with powerful, light, economical engines designed by teams directed by Tumanskii, Liul’ka, Dobrynin, N. D. Kuznetsov, P. A. Solov’ev, and A. G. Ivchenko. The latest examples of military aviation technology demonstrated at the Tushino (1961) and Domodedovo (1967) air shows included several supersonic aircraft: the MiG-21 fighter, the multipurpose Iak-28, the Su-7 fighter-bomber, and the M-50 strategic missile-carrying bomber (Miasishchev). VTOL planes and light fighters with in-flight variable wing geometry were also shown for the first time. By the mid-1960’s, airplanes were capable of speeds of 3,000–3,500 km/hr, service ceilings in excess of 30 km, and ranges of more than 10,000 km (with in-flight refueling, even greater ranges were attainable).

In the 1950’s quantitative and qualitative changes were also registered in civil aviation. The rate of growth in the volume of passenger operations handled by jet airplanes began increasing in 1958, and the civil air fleet expanded. In 1958, for example, 88 percent of all operations were handled by piston-engine planes; in 1965 the same volume of operations was handled by jets. The flight performance and economic indicators of passenger planes, particularly flight speed (which approximately doubled) and calculated capacity (which increased 400–500 percent), were significantly improved. By the early 1960’s seven types of jet passenger planes were in operation in the USSR. The Tu-104 passenger plane, equipped with Mikulin engines, made its maiden flight in 1955, and between 1957 and 1961 there appeared the 11–18, An-10, and An-24 (equipped with Ivchenko engines), the Tu-114 (with Kuznetsov engines), and the Tu-124 and Tu-134 (with Solov’ev engines). One of the world’s largest transport planes, the An-22 (Antei), designed by O. K. Antonov, was built in 1964. An important trend in improved reliability and flight safety for passenger aircraft was marked by the use of warning devices and limiters, the installation of reserve and backup units in aircraft control systems, and the introduction of automatic systems for instrument landings. Much attention was also devoted to improving takeoff and landing characteristics and to incorporating emergency restraining systems at airports.

In the early 1970’s the new Tu-154,11–62M, Tu-134A, and Iak-40 airliners were introduced on Aeroflot routes, and in December 1975 the Tu-144 supersonic passenger plane made its first scheduled flight. The 11–86 “airbus,” one of the largest passenger planes in the world, was first flown in late 1976. The development of passenger aviation and the establishment of airline routes serving the entire country were accompanied by intense development of special-purpose aviation, including agricultural, fire-fighting, and meteorological aviation and airborne medical services.

Major design teams today are headed by O. K. Antonov and R. A. Beliakov (at the A. I. Mikoyan Experimental Design Office), V. M. Miasishchev and G. V. Novozhilov (S. V. Il’iushin Experimental Design Office), A. A. Tupolev (A. N. Tupolev Experimental Design Office), A. S. Iakovlev and M. N. Tishchenko (M. L. Mil’ Experimental Design Office), V. A. Lotarev (A. G. Ivchenko Experimental Design Office), A. K. Konstantinov (G. M. Beriev Experimental Design Office), and S. V. Mikheev (N. I. Kamov Experimental Design Office). The decree On the Main Trends in the Development of the USSR National Economy for 1976–80 provides for experimental and scientific research to design new airplanes and helicopters with flight performance and economic indicators that will meet the long-range requirements of civil aviation.

PERIODICALS. The results of research in the field of aerodynamics and aircraft strength appear in publications of the Central Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Institute: Trudy (Works) and Uchenye zapiski (Scientific Notes). Problems in the development of air transport, the economics and technological progress of civil aviation, and the use of aviation in the national economy are covered in the journal of the Ministry of Civil Aviation of the USSR Grazhdanskaia aviatsiia (Civil Aviation, published since 1931). Innovations in aviation technology and combat applications are discussed in the journal of the Soviet Air Force Aviatsiia i kosmonavtika (Aviation and Astronautics, 1918).

A. A. ARKHANGELSKII

Bibliography

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Rocketry and space exploration. Powder rockets were used successfully for combat by the Russian Army in the 19th century (A. D. Zasiadko, K. I. Konstantinov, and others). In the mid-19th century Russian inventors and designers began working on the possibility of applying the principle of reaction propulsion to aircraft (I. I. Treteskii, N. M. Sokovnin, N. A. Teleshev). The aircraft they proposed used the atmosphere as a supporting medium and were designed only for flights in the lower atmosphere.
N. I. Kibal’chich’s aircraft was based on an entirely different principle: lifting force was created by means of a powder rocket engine whose functioning was practically independent of the composition of the surrounding medium. The “air-sailing device” that he proposed in 1881 was essentially the first design in Russia for a rocket-powered craft that was fundamentally suited to flight in airless space.
K. E. Tsiolkovskii was the first to prove scientifically the feasibility of using a reaction engine for flight in space. In his article “Investigation of Interplanetary Space by Means of Rocket Devices” (1903) and in subsequent works, he substantiated the technical feasibility of space flight, pointed out ways of developing rocketry and space exploration, and suggested designs for liquid-propellant rockets and rocket engines. The technical ideas advanced by Tsiolkovskii are used today in designing modern rocket engines, missiles, and allied devices. In addition to Tsiolkovskii, N. E. Zhukovskii (beginning in 1882), I. V. Meshcherskii (beginning in 1897), and other scientists also conducted research devoted to problems in the theory of reaction propulsion. By the end of the 19th century, more than ten designs for reaction-propulsion aircraft had been proposed in Russia (including those of F. R. Geshvend and A. P. Fedorov).
After the October Revolution of 1917, experimental work in rocket technology began in 1921 at the Gas Dynamics Laboratory, where rockets fueled by smokeless powder were developed and flight-tested beginning in 1928 (N. I. Tikhomirov, V. A. Artem’ev, G. E. Langemak, B. S. Petropavlovskii). Work on electric and liquid-propellant rocket engines (V. P. Glushko) was begun at the laboratory in 1929. From 1926 to 1929, Tsiolkovskii conducted further research on space exploration. V. P. Vetchinkin worked on the problem of the dynamics of rocket flight, many problems in the theory of space flight and rocketry were given new solutions in the works of U. V. Kondratiuk (1919–29), and F. A. Tsander worked on the development of interplanetary flight and spacecraft design (1924–33). The Group for the Study of Jet Propulsion was founded in Moscow in 1932; in 1933, under the direction of S. P. Korolev, it carried out the first launches of Soviet liquid-propellant rockets designed by M. K. Tikhonravov and Tsander. In late 1933 the Jet Scientific Research Institute was formed by a merger of the Gas Dynamics Laboratory and the Group for the Study of Jet Propulsion. An extensive research program was initiated at the new institute, culminating in the creation of many experimental guided and unguided ballistic and winged missiles with liquid-propellant, solid-propellant, hybrid, and combination rocket engines and air-breathing jet engines. The development of solid-propellant rocket projectiles, begun at the Gas Dynamics Laboratory, was completed between 1937 and 1939 (Langemak, Artem’ev, I. T. Kleimenov, and others). Designs were worked out for self-propelled launchers for multiple solid-propellant rockets—Katiusha rockets (I. I. Gvai, V. N. Galkovskii, A. P. Pavlenko, and others), and prototypes were constructed.
It was in the prewar period that the fundamental trends in rocketry took shape in the Soviet Union: the creation of low-temperature and high-temperature liquid-propellant and solid-propellant rockets. During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, the Katiusha rocket was in series production, and a number of new types of launchers were developed (V. P. Barmin, V. A. Rudnitskii, A. N. Vasil’ev, and others) for the Soviet Army and Navy. Work was also carried out toward the construction of liquid-propellant rocket boosters for series-produced combat aircraft (Glushko, Korolev).
Modern rocketry was created during the first postwar five-year plans (1946–55). The need for development in this branch of technology and production was noted at the first session of the second convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in March 1946. The development of prototypes of new rocket designs had to be carried out simultaneously with the fulfillment of many organizational tasks. Together with the expansion and renovation of existing plants, a number of large scientific research institutes, design offices, plants, and test ranges were built, and various institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Central Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Institute, and other science centers were assigned allied research work. Within a short time, through the application of knowledge gained within the USSR and abroad, the first Soviet guided ballistic missile (the R-l), with a range of approximately 300 km, was built and successfully launched—on Oct. 10,1948.
In the late 1940’s, 13 scientific research institutes and design offices and 35 plants were at work on problems in the design and manufacture of rockets. The R-l was used as the basis for developing several versions of high-altitude scientific research geophysical rockets. A systematic program for the study of the upper strata of the atmosphere with rocket probes, which came to be called “academic” rockets, was initiated in 1949. A commission established under the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and chaired by A. A. Blagonravov was charged with determining the scope of the program and supervising practical measures for its implementation. The first launch of a special vertical-launch rocket probe took place in 1951, and live animals (two test dogs) were used for the first time in test flights. MR-1 meterological rockets were developed in the same year. The planned study of the upper atmosphere became the first step on the path toward preparing a complex system of research on outer space and toward conquering the cosmos. The 1RA-E, V2A, V5V, and other rockets were used in the research program.
In connection with the work undertaken in the early 1950’s to develop intercontinental ballistic missiles and launch vehicles, on May 15, 1955, a decision was made to construct the Baikonur Space Center—one of the largest space centers in the Soviet Union. The world’s first intercontinental ballistic missile (the R7) was tested on Aug. 21,1957, and on October 4 of the same year a modified R7 was used to place the first artificial earth satellite in orbit, marking the beginning of the space age. The launching of the first artificial earth satellite showed that the proper approaches had been taken in solving such problems of space flight as flight ballistics and the design of rocket engines, control systems, and automation systems for launch vehicles. A fundamental achievement of Soviet space exploration was marked by the attainment of orbital velocity (approximately 8 km/sec). Biological research and investigations of cosmic rays and solar shortwave radiation were conducted in space for the first time on board the second artificial earth satellite (launched Nov. 3, 1957). At this time a new branch of science—space physics—was formed. The third artificial earth satellite, and the first unmanned scientific station, was launched on May 15,1958. This marked the first time man was able to make direct measurements of the earth’s magnetic field, the soft corpuscular radiation of the sun, the chemical composition and pressure of the atmosphere, electron density in the ionosphere, and the distribution density of meteoric matter around the earth, and for the first time in the USSR solar batteries were used as a power source.
After the successful launches of the first artificial earth satellites and the development of research on near-earth space, one of the most important steps in space exploration was the preparation for manned flights into space (for this purpose, five unmanned orbital spacecraft were put into earth orbit between May 15, 1960, and Mar. 25, 1961). On Apr. 12, 1961, I. A. Gagarin, aboard the spacecraft Vostok, became the first man to make a flight into space, thus marking the dawn of an era in which man was to make a direct penetration into space. With each subsequent manned launch, the total flight time lengthened and the volume of work carried out by the cosmonauts increased. A 24-hour orbital flight was made by G. S. Titov, and the group flight of the cosmonauts A. G. Nikolaev and P. R. Popovich lasted three days. Flights lasting several days were made in June 1963 by V. F. Bykovskii and the first woman cosmonaut, V. V. Tereshkova. At the same time development work was being carried out on the multiplace Voskhod spacecraft, the first tests of which were conducted in October 1964 by V. M. Komarov, K. P. Feoktistov, and B. B. Egorov. Voskhod 2, piloted by P. I. Beliaev and A. A. Leonov, was launched in March 1965; during the flight the cosmonauts carried out the first experiment in which man left a spacecraft in orbit.
The need for meticulous development of the technique of maneuvering in space led to the creation of spacecraft capable of making specified maneuvers (apart from landing). Such spacecraft (the Polet 1 and Polet 2) were launched in 1963 and 1964. The development of space technology depended in all stages on research conducted in the mechanics of space flight and applied celestial mechanics. Research was also carried out on the dynamics of spacecraft motions, navigation and control, and ballistics design. Several astronomical constants were revised on the basis of data from ground observations of the motion of artificial satellites.
Rocket flights to the moon and other planets were begun in the USSR on Jan. 2,1959, when the first unmanned space probe left the earth’s gravitational field, passed within approximately 7,500 km of the lunar surface, and went into a heliocentric orbit, becoming the first artificial solar satellite. This was the first time that escape velocity (approximately 11.2 km/sec) was attained by a spacecraft. By Jan. 1, 1977, 24 unmanned space probes in the Luna series had been launched into space. They were used to take the first photographs of the far side of the moon, achieve the first soft landing, transmit back to earth panoramic photographs of the lunar surface, return samples of lunar soil to earth (three times), and place the Lunokhod 1 and Lunokhod 2 self-propelled research vehicles on the moon. One of the Luna probes became the first artificial lunar satellite.
Extensive material needed to ensure the reliability, design development, and control of unmanned space probes and their radio communication with earth during long-range and long-duration flights was collected by a series of unmanned probes launched toward Venus (beginning in 1961) and Mars (beginning in 1962) and by the Zond series of spacecraft (1964–70). Electric rocket plasma engines were tested in the orientation system of the Zond 2 probe, and high-quality images of the lunar surface were obtained with the Zond 3, Zond 6, Zond 7, and Zond 8 unmanned space probes. The Mars 2 and Mars 3 unmanned space probes carried out a series of scientific investigations of outer space en route from the earth to Mars; upon achieving orbit around Mars, they also provided data on Mars itself and on the conditions of space in the vicinity of the planet. The capsule that separated from the Mars 2 probe was the first to reach the planet’s surface, and the descent vehicle of Mars 3 made a soft landing and subsequently transmitted signals from the surface of Mars. In 1973 a simultaneous flight of four unmanned space probes was made for the first time along an interplanetary trajectory; the Mars 5 probe became the third Soviet artificial satellite of Mars, and the Mars 6 unmanned probe reached the Martian surface.
Major successes have been achieved in the study of Venus. Previously, regular ground observations of the planet had been conducted, but the primary characteristics of the atmosphere, surface, and cloud cover of Venus remained unknown. The development of spacecraft thus offered new research opportunities. In 1967 the Venera 4 unmanned space probe made the first direct investigations of the planet’s atmosphere (a model of the atmosphere was subsequently developed); in 1969 Venera 5 and Venera 6 again probed the atmosphere of the planet and made it possible to determine more accurately its physical and chemical characteristics. In 1970, Venera 7 made the first soft landing on Venus and transmitted data from the planet’s surface. The experiment conducted with Venera 8, which landed on the side of Venus illuminated by the sun, was the first to investigate successfully the planet’s soil in the landing area and determine the physical characteristics of the surface layer and the distribution of illumination with respect to altitude. The first television images of the planet’s surface were obtained from the Venera 9 and Venera 10 unmanned probes, which became the first artificial satellites of Venus. The intensive investigations of Venus, Mars, and the moon laid the foundation of a new science—comparative planetology.
Soviet scientists have conducted research on near-earth space with many artificial earth satellites of the Kosmos series (first launched Mar. 16, 1962), the Elektron space system (1964), heavy satellites of the Proton series (1965–68), and the Prognoz high-apogee satellites (first launched in 1972). One of the tasks assigned to the first satellites of the Kosmos series was space research on the possible radiation danger to manned flights. On the basis of measurements made of the fluxes of charged particles, the flight trajectory of spacecraft was studied in detail and radiation maps were compiled for various altitudes. A research program on the ionosphere was conducted, and data were obtained on ion and electron densities and ion and electron temperatures. The data were of great importance to the study of the properties of ionospheric plasma and to the solution of problems of communication between spacecraft.
The study of galactic and solar cosmic rays, their energy values, and other parameters in the vicinity of the earth has been under way for a long time. Research on the earth’s infrared and ultraviolet radiation, which is necessary to solve various geophysical problems and to develop satellite orientation systems, is also being conducted. A series of satellites have been launched under the program of a worldwide magnetic survey. The wealth of geophysical and space research carried out by means of rocket and space technology has prompted the intensive development of a new scientific field—the physics of solar effects on the earth, which studies the mechanisms by which the sun affects processes in near-earth space and the earth’s atmosphere and biosphere.
In the mid-1960’s development work was begun on the Soyuz multiplace manned spacecraft, which was designed to maneuver, rendezvous, and dock in earth orbit. Since 1967, 23 Soyuz spacecraft have been orbited, including 21 carrying cosmonauts. A new stage in the development of manned space exploration began on Apr. 19, 1971, with the launch of the first heavy orbital space station—Salyut. The development and operation of Soyuz and Salyut spacecraft have made it possible for specialists to conduct long-term experiments in space and have contributed to solutions of important national economic and scientific problems. As of Sept. 1, 1978, 44 Soviet cosmonauts had made flights aboard 37 spacecraft (including one suborbital flight) and six Salyut orbital space stations. Many cosmonauts have made two flights each, and V. A. Shatalov, A. S. Eliseev, P. I. Klimuk, and V. F. Bykovskii have made three flights each.
Several kinds of two-, three-, and four-stage launch vehicles of various payload capacities (from several hundred kilograms to tens of tons in earth orbit) had been developed to carry out the Soviet space program. They include the Vostok (in operation since 1960), Kosmos (since 1962), and Proton (since 1965), which have been launched from several space centers in the Soviet Union. The launch vehicles have been operated with various modifications.
Powerful liquid-propellant rocket engines of reduced size have been developed to impart orbital and escape velocities to launch vehicles. The creation of such engines was made possible by the realization of elevated pressures inside combustion chambers through the use of basic design configurations that practically eliminate losses to driving turbopump units. The development of launch vehicles and liquid-propellant rocket engines has contributed to the development of thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, gas dynamics, the theory of heat transfer and strength, the metallurgy of high-strength and heat-resistant materials, the chemistry of fuels, measuring technology, and vacuum and plasma technology.
The requirements of the space program have made it necessary to design complex automatic devices under the stringent limitations imposed by the payload capacities of launch vehicles and the environmental conditions of space. This has provided additional incentive to develop an entirely new branch of technology—microelectronics—and to design lightweight electronic systems. New methods of assembling electronic equipment, miniaturization, and the reduction of weight and power consumption have been developed to permit the use of such equipment in space. Rapid progress in control theory has contributed to the solution of extremely complex problems of flight dynamics and rocket stabilization. Various complexes of automatic control systems and extremely precise gyroscopic and gyroscopic-inertial systems using digital and analogue controllers have been developed. Other achievements of space technology include systems that permit extremely accurate orientation of a spacecraft, life-support systems, equipment for soft landings, and solar batteries.
The need for communications and remote control over great distances has led to the development of high-quality, high-precision communications systems, which in turn have contributed to the development of the technology used in tracking and measuring moving spacecraft at interplanetary distances, thus opening up new areas of application for artificial earth satellites. Soviet scientists were the first to develop space television and space communications systems. Telemetry systems capable of handling large quantities of data have made it possible to monitor reliably the operation of spacecraft and to transmit scientific data from the spacecraft to earth.
Artificial earth satellites are of great practical importance in the national economy. The Molniia 1 (first launched in 1965), Molniia 2 (1971), Molniia IS and Molniia 3 (1974), and Raduga (1975) communications satellites, the Ekran television satellite (1976), and the Orbita network of ground receiving stations have made it possible to effect television transmissions and multichannel radio communication and establish international telephone communication. A special system for the reception, on-line processing, and dissemination of incoming meteorological information (the Meteor system) has also been created. Space technology is also used in geographical, geological, and geophysical research and mineral prospecting. Satellites are used to monitor pollution levels in the atmosphere and oceans as well as for navigation, agriculture, and forestry.
International cooperation in space research has been developing since 1957. In 1966 the Council on International Cooperation in the Investigation and Use of Outer Space (Interkosmos) was established under the Academy of Sciences of the USSR by a decision of the Soviet government; the council is charged with coordinating the activities of various ministries and departments in the development and implementation of international programs. The USSR carries out its largest programs of joint projects with countries of the socialist community; it also conducts joint programs with such countries as France, the USA, and India. Sixteen satellites in the Interkosmos series were launched between 1969 and 1976, and more than ten French and Soviet-French scientific experiments have been carried out with the aid of Soviet space technology (Lunokhod, Mars, Prognoz, and Oreol). In April 1975 the Indian satellite Ayabhata was launched by a Soviet booster vehicle. In July 1975 the first international experiment involving manned spacecraft of the USSR and the USA was carried out in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), which marked an important step in the development of international cooperation in the investigation and use of space for peaceful purposes. On the basis of an agreement reached in 1976, citizens of other socialist countries (Czechoslovakia, Poland, and the German Democratic Republic) took part in 1978 in space flights together with Soviet cosmonauts aboard Soviet spacecraft and orbital stations as part of the Interkosmos program.
Many scientific institutions of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR participate in the development and implementation of the program for studying near-earth space, the moon, and the planets of the solar system. They include the P. N. Lebedev Institute of Physics; the Institute of Applied Mathematics; the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere, and Radio-wave Propagation; the A. F. Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute; the Institute of Problems of Control; and the Institute of Space Research (founded in 1965).
M. V. Keldysh has made an outstanding contribution to work on theoretical problems of space exploration, the solution of fundamental problems concerning the implementation of the Soviet space program, and the development of new methods and means of investigating space. S. P. Korolev was the Soviet pioneer in the conquering of space. In 1957 the first missile-space complex was established under his direction and the first artificial earth satellite was launched. Not confining his activities to the creation of launch vehicles and spacecraft, Korolev provided overall technical supervision of projects in the first space programs and initiated the development of a number of applied scientific fields that today ensure further progress in the creation of new launch vehicles and spacecraft.
The work of M. K. Iangel’, an outstanding designer of spacecraft, rocket systems, and space systems, was of great importance to the development of means of studying near-earth space. Iangel’ and the collective that he directed made a significant contribution to the planning and development of a basis for international cooperation among the socialist countries in satellite research. Development of the Luna, Venera, and Mars series of unmanned space probes, begun under Korolev’s direction, was successfully continued by G. N. Babakin, who created subsequent designs of these very complex automated spacecraft. The establishment and development of Soviet liquid-propellant rocket manufacture and the creation of propulsion systems for modern rockets used in space owe much to one of the pioneers in rocketry and space technology—V. P. Glushko. Powerful liquid-propellant rocket engines developed under Glushko’s supervision are used today in all Soviet launch vehicles.
A. M. Isaev made a major contribution to the creation of liquid-propellant rocket engines for space stations and spacecraft; S. A. Kosberg did the same for the upper stages of launch vehicles. N. A. Piliugin has contributed to the development of the control systems used in many launch vehicles, and V. P. Barmin has assisted in developing launch complexes for many launch vehicles. The work of V. N. Chelomei has been of great importance to the general development and advancement of space technology.
Iu. A. Ishlinskii, B. N. Petrov, G. I. Petrov, and other scientists have made significant contributions to the development and implementation of the Soviet space program. A. P. Vinogradov has done important work in the study of the moon and planets, and V. V. Parin, N. M. Sisakian, O. G. Gazenko, and others have helped implement the country’s program of biomedical space research.
The scale of the work conducted in space exploration in the USSR can be assessed from the number of Soviet artificial satellites of the earth, sun, moon, Mars, and Venus, which totaled approximately 1,100 as of Jan. 1,1977.
PERIODICALS. Theoretical works in astronomy and space physics, biology, and medicine as well as descriptions of devices used in space research and spacecraft designs are published in two scientific journals of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Kosmicheskie issledovaniia (Space Studies, published since 1963) and Vestniki AN SSSR (Journal of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1931). Problems in space science and technology are covered in the journals Zemlia i Vselennaia (Earth and Universe, 1965), Priroda (Nature, 1912), and Aviatsiia i kosmonavtika (Aviation and Astronautics, 1918).
B. V. RAUSHENBAKH and G. A. NAZAROV

Bibliography

Aleksandrov, S. G., and R. E. Fedorov. Sovetskie sputniki i kosmicheskie korabli, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1961.
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Glushko, V. P. Razvitie raketostroeniia i kosmonavtiki v SSSR. Moscow, 1973.
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Pionery raketnoi tekhniki: Vetchinkin, Glushko, Korolev, Tikhonravov: Izbr. trudy 1929–1945 gg. Moscow, 1972.
Energy science and technology. In prerevolutionary Russia, scientific research directed toward harnessing the country’s vast energy resources was uncoordinated, often prompted by the initiative and efforts of individual scientists and engineers. For example, in 1910 and 1911, G. O. Graftio drew up plans for the Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Plant, and in 1913, G. M. Krzhizhanovskii proposed building a large hydroelectric power plant on the Volga near Samara. Shortly before the October Revolution of 1917, Krzhizhanovskii also wrote several papers in which he substantiated the importance of constructing large regional electric power plants that used locally available fuel and hydroelectric power and of interconnecting such plants to form large electric power systems through high-voltage networks. Because of the technological backwardness of tsarist Russia, many projects and proposals were never realized. The only large regional electric power plant built in Russia before the October Revolution of 1917 was the Elektroperedacha Plant in Moscow Oblast (1914); constructed under the supervision of R. E. Klasson, the plant was the world’s first peat-burning steam power plant.
The advanced ideas of Russian power engineers were implemented only after the October Revolution. The Soviet scientific school of power engineering, founded by G. M. Krzhizhanovskii in the 1920’s, took its origin from the historic GOELRO plan—the first creative experiment in long-range national economic planning based on electrification. The works of Krzhizhanovskii, E. A. Russakovskii, and A. E. Probst marked the beginning of research on complex problems of power engineering, such as the unified national energy balance, principles of the development of electric power systems, principles of power engineering and the electrification of branches of the national economy, and energy resources and their integrated use within the framework of the development of the energy industry, industry in general, transportation, and agriculture. The Atlas of Energy Resources of the USSR (1933–35) was published under the editorship of A. V. Vinter and Krzhizhanovskii. Research was conducted on the rational structure and economical use of complex electric power systems, and methods were devised for studying the power production and economics of operating modes and parameters for different types of electric power plants in electric power systems. Other problems investigated included district heat supply and the role of district heat and power plants as a component of electric power systems.
Central problems concerning the integrated electrification of the national economy were studied in conjunction with the problems of supplying industrial and agricultural regions with electricity generated from locally available energy resources. Of major importance to the energy industry was the creation of the method of integrated studies, which came to be widely applied; the method considers each element of the energy industry in its interaction with other elements and with the environment. In the 1960’s, theoretical work on the national Integrated Electric Power Grid was completed, which proved of great importance to the planned electrification of the national economy.
The use of computers and computational mathematical methods has made it possible to develop energy science in the direction of systems research. Within such a framework, studies have been conducted on the general principles of the development of the energy industry as the aggregate of large energy systems in a hierarchical structure, and the problems of optimal systems control (planning, design, and operation) with incomplete initial information have been investigated. Multivariate calculations have been used to select optimum structures for systems and optimum proportions for the development of the country’s overall fuel and energy complex, together with the development of an integrated gas supply system and a petroleum supply system. Long-range forecasting methods have also been devised.
ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY. The development of the Soviet electric power industry has been characterized by an uninterrupted trend toward the centralization of electric power supply and the creation of large electric power plants, interconnected to form electric power systems and operated on locally available energy resources; five such systems had been completed by 1928, 28 by 1937. By 1935 the Moscow Electric Power System had become the largest in Europe, combining condensation electric power plants and district heat and power plants operating chiefly on coal and peat extracted near the city. Two hydroelectric power plants (the Ivan’kovo and Skhodnia plants) have been connected to the system since 1937. By 1935 the Leningrad system included all types of plants—hydroelectric power plants and fossil-fuel-fired steam power plants (condensation and district heat and power plants operating exclusively on locally available fuel).
As electric power systems grew in capacity and the length of power transmission lines increased, the problems of systems stability and the need to increase the reliability of parallel operation of electric power plants became topics of immediate concern. Intensive investigation of the problems was initiated in the USSR in 1926 and 1927. In the 1930’s a number of published works were devoted to methods of calculating stability (S. A. Lebedev, P. S. Zhdanov, and others).
The voltages carried by power transmission lines increased with increases in the capacity of electric power systems. In the 1930’s voltages of 110, 150, and 220 kilovolts (kv) were introduced, overhead power transmission lines and transformer substations were built, and protective equipment was designed. With the growing complexity of electric power systems and the construction of extended power transmission lines, great importance was attached to research involving the use of computational electrical models, especially dynamical models, which make it possible to reproduce complex physical processes and phenomena. Work on the modeling of electric power systems was carried out at the Power Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (since 1961, the G. M. Krzhizhanovskii Scientific Research Power Institute) in Moscow from 1936 to 1941, thereafter at the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute and, beginning in 1944, at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute.
Beginning in the mid-1940’s, the study of the problem of interconnecting large regional electric power systems by means of high-voltage (330-, 400-, and 500-kV) power transmission lines came to occupy an important place in scientific research. By 1976 the total length of electric power supply systems carrying voltages greater than 35 kV exceeded 600,000 km. Advances in the field of electric power transmission made it possible to undertake solutions to the problem of interconnecting electric power systems and creating the national Integrated Electric Power Grid. For this purpose various research topics were pursued between 1945 and 1960 at the G. M. Krzhizhanovskii Scientific Research Power Institute. They included development of a method for determining technical and economic efficiency of the interconnection of electric power systems; methods of calculating the extent of use of the capacity of hydroelectric power plants, including the use of graphics to illustrate electric power system loads; development of a method for determining the load conditions of the Integrated Electric Power Grid of the European part of the USSR; investigation of problems of structure and energy balance associated with the interconnection of the electric power systems in the Central Economic Region and the Volga Region; and consideration of prospects for the development of a Siberian integrated electric power system.
In the late 1960’s the Integrated Electric Power Grid of the European part of the USSR was completed, and large interconnected power systems were established in Siberia and Middle Asia. The world’s largest integrated electric power grid became operational in the USSR in the mid-1970’s. It interconnects more than 70 regional electric power systems and operates in conjunction with the electric power systems of the member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON). The aggregate installed capacity of the electric power plants in the system exceeds 150 gigawatts (GW), and the capacity of all electric power plants in the USSR totals approximately 220 GW.
The Soviet electric power industry leads the world in several fields. The principal trends in its development are concentration in the generation of electricity and an increase in the carrying capacity of high-voltage power transmission lines. By 1976 the USSR had more than 60 large fossil-fuel-fired steam power plants and hydroelectric power plants with capacities between 1 and 6 GW, with a total installed capacity amounting to nearly one-half of the country’s entire energy capacity.
Fossil-fuel-fired steam power plants now exhibit excellent technical and economic characteristics. The specific consumption of a standard fuel per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated by such plants is approximately 340 g. A distinctive feature of the Soviet electric power industry is the extensive construction of district heat and power plants, which provide consumers not only with electricity but also with thermal energy derived from the heat of spent steam. The combined energy production at district heat and power plants effects an annual saving of up to 25 million tons of standard fuel (11 percent of all fuel used to generate electricity). Great importance is attached to the use of cheap coal from the Kansk-Achinsk, Ekibastuz, and other deposits as fuel for steam power plants.
The achievements of the Soviet electric power industry have been made possible by fundamental alteration of scientific concepts of power engineering and of the design of turbines and generators, boiler units, transformers and conversion equipment, power transmission lines, and hydraulic engineering installations. Work on the outfitting of electric power plants and systems with modern equipment is conducted at many scientific research institutions and design organizations. As a result of the efforts of scientists, engineers, and technicians, special hydroelectric turbine-generator units with a unit capacity in excess of 500 megawatts (MW), turbine units (800 and 1,200 MW) and steam boilers with a capacity of 2,500 tons per hr have been built in the USSR. Plans have been laid for the construction of extremely long high-voltage lines (1,150 kV AC and 1,500 kV DC) to link the electric power systems of Middle Asia and Siberia with the Integrated Electric Power Grid of the European part of the USSR. In addition to improving traditional methods of transmitting electricity, Soviet scientists are working out radically new techniques for transmitting large quantities of electric power.
Solutions are being worked out to various problems associated with the direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity. Theoretical and experimental research carried out in the period 1962–65 resulted in the creation of a model power installation for such conversion in 1965, and the first Soviet experimental industrial unit, using a magnetohydrodynamic generator rated at 20–25 MW, was first operated successfully in 1971. The next such unit to be built had a capacity of 12.5 MW and went into operation in March 1975.
A characteristic feature of contemporary power engineering is the development of such promising fields as fission and fusion power engineering. The solution of the problem of developing the nuclear power industry is of great scientific, technical, and economic importance because of the dwindling coal, petroleum, and gas reserves used to fuel steam power plants and the increasing cost of extracting such fuels. In the 1970’s there has been a clear trend toward accelerated development of the nuclear power industry, whose contribution to the total amount of electricity generated in the world is steadily increasing.
Problems associated with new methods of converting thermal and chemical energy to electricity, the harnessing of the internal heat of the earth and solar radiation, and the development of methods and means for storing large amounts of electricity all occupy an important place in the electric power industry. Much attention is being focused on the automation of individual electric power plants and electric power systems. Future progress in the industry will stem largely from applications of cybernetics in energy systems and the development of automated electric power control systems (V. A. Venikov and others). Significant contributions to the development of modern electric power engineering have been made by I. A. Glebov, M. P. Kostenko, L. A. Melent’ev, V. I. Popkov, V. M. Tuchkevich, D. G. Zhimerin, N. N. Kovalev, N. S. Lidorenko, and N. V. Razin.
The most important research on problems of electric power engineering is conducted at the G M. Krzhizhanovskii Scientific Research Power Institute, the Scientific Research and Development Institute for Energy Systems (Energoset’proekt, Moscow), the V. I. Lenin All-Union Electrical Engineering Institute (Moscow), the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Direct Current, and the Siberian Power Engineering Institute of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Novosibirsk).
HYDRAULIC POWER ENGINEERING. Harnessing of the country’s vast hydroelectric resources commenced after the October Revolution of 1917. In June 1918 the Council of People’s Commissars adopted a decision to begin construction of the first Soviet hydraulic power engineering project—the 58-MW Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Plant. The problems of hydroelectric construction occupied an important place in Lenin’s GOELRO plan. Preparation of the plan included summarization of the results of research conducted by the most prominent Russian scientists and engineers specializing in the use of hydroelectric resources and formulation of the basic tenets and principles of the rational use of water power (economy, integrated use, flow regulation, high-pressure operations, and operation within a system). The principles have retained their fundamental importance in all stages of the development of Soviet hydraulic power engineering.
Six hydroelectric power plants with a capacity greater than 1 MW had been built by the end of the 1920’s. Construction of the plants was also responsible for the establishment of Soviet hydroelectric machine building. The M. I. Kalinin Moscow Plant built the first small-capacity hydroturbines; medium-size and large units were manufactured at the Leningrad Metal Works. The first mixed-flow turbine, with a capacity of 370 kW at a head of 14 m (for the Okulovka Hydroelectric Power Plant), was also produced in 1924 at the Leningrad Metal Works. Its average capacity was 12 times greater than that of the hydroturbines built before 1917.
The plan for the Dnieper Hydroelectric Power Plant was drafted by a group of scientists under the supervision of I. G. Aleksandrov, and the plant’s construction in 1932 represented an outstanding achievement of Soviet hydraulic construction. Each of the power plant’s turbines significantly exceeded the unit capacity of the largest electric power plants in prerevolutionary Russia and more than equaled the total installed capacity of the Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Plant. The plant’s concrete dam was one of the greatest structures ever produced by hydraulic power engineering. The plant was the first in the USSR to use a voltage of 154 kV for power transmission, and some of its hydroelectric equipment was unique for the time.
The planning and construction of the Dnieper Hydroelectric Power Plant entailed scientific research on the hydraulics of structures, the study and reinforcement of rock beddings, the theory of gravity dam design, the hydraulics of turbines, and the production processes and strength of concrete. The architectural design of the plant building and the entire plant complex is a prime example of the organic unity of architecture and construction technology.
The possibility of integrated use of the major rivers of the East European Plain—the Volga, Kama, and Svir’—was first examined during the first five-year plans in connection with the development of the national economy. The problem of harnessing the hydroelectric resources of the rivers was extremely complex since the necessary hydraulic engineering installations had to be erected on clay and sand. At the time there had been no experience anywhere with hydraulic construction on such beddings. Research on the theory of hydraulic structures, seepage and static calculations, and the stability of soil and structures made it possible to develop and build dams of a new type, suitable for siting on sandy and clayey beddings for heads up to 30 m. Foreign specialists previously had considered such construction impossible.
The G. O. Graftio Nizhniaia Svir’ Hydroelectric Power Plant, equipped with 29-MW adjustable-blade (Kaplan) hydroturbines with a rotor diameter of 7.4 m (the largest built at that time), went into operation just prior to the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45. The plant was the first in the world to be built on compressible clayey soils with a very low coefficient of shear. Soviet hydraulic engineers successfully dealt with the difficulties of constructing the dam on a morainal bedding by using an original inclined layout for the hydroelectric plant. Model tests conducted during construction served as the basis for N. N. Pavlovskii’s new experimental method of electrohydrodynamic analogies.
The harnessing of the immense energy potential of the Volga River marked an important stage in the development of hydraulic power engineering. Use of the Volga for the needs of the energy industry, navigation, and water supply began in the period 1932–37 with the construction of the Moscow Canal and its two medium-power hydroelectric plants (the Ivan’kovo and Skhodnia plants) and two low-power plants (the Karamyshev and Pererva plants). The construction of two hydroengineering complexes on the Volga near Uglich and Rybinsk was undertaken immediately after construction of the Ivan’kovo Hydroelectric Power Plant.
After the Great Patriotic War, Soviet hydraulic power engineering achieved a new level of development. With the introduction of automation at electric power plants, plant labor productivity increased by 50 percent over the prewar level. Regional electric power plants were totally automated, and remote control and automation was introduced in electric power systems; by the end of 1952 the changeover to remote control had been completed at 60 percent of all hydroelectric power plants. The most important hydroelectric project in the period 1946–58 was the construction of the hydroelectric power plants in the Volga-Kama system. The Goryn’ and Kama hydroelectric power plants were built during the period, and in 1958 the V. I. Lenin Volga Hydroelectric Power Plant first operated at full power (2.3 GW). In the same year the first units of the Volga Twenty-second Congress of the CPSU Hydroelectric Power Plant went into operation.
Hydraulic construction on the Volga required extensive scientific research and the development of new technological concepts and designs. The new hydroengineering complexes developed allow the passage of great quantities of water through hydraulic structures. For example, the Volga Twenty-second Congress of the CPSU Hydroelectric Power Plant was designed for a flow rate of 64,000 cu m/sec; this supplies tremendous energy, part of which must be dissipated upon passage through the structures. Special turbines with a rotor diameter in excess of 9 m were installed at the new power plants. The Dnieper Cascade was augmented with the Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant, and construction of the Kremenchug and Dneprodzerzhinsk hydroelectric power plants was begun. Four new hydroelectric power plants were constructed for the Sevan Hydroelectric System in Armenia. The harnessing of the vast reserves of water power in eastern Kazakhstan and Siberia was also begun with the construction of the following hydroelectric power plants: the Irkutsk plant on the Angara, the Novosibirsk plant on the Ob’, and the Ust’-Kamenogorsk plant on the Irtysh. Work commenced on the construction of the Bratsk Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Angara and the Bukhtarma Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Irtysh.
The development of hydraulic construction in the Soviet Union has illuminated a number of problems related to river flow, methods of flow regulation, and the harnessing of hydraulic energy. Engineering calculation methods were developed for extensive use in the design, construction, and operation of hydraulic engineering installations. Harnessing of the hydroelectric resources of the Angara and Enisei rivers, which has been under way since the early 1960’s, has been made possible by the construction of high dams on rock beddings—the most important trend in technological progress in this field. Research has been conducted on a number of problems of hydrodynamics associated with the necessity of dumping large quantities of water during floods. Work has also been carried out on problems of the thermal conditions of concrete dam structures.
Between 1959 and 1965,11.4 GW of electricity was made available through the operation of new hydroelectric plants; the total power generated by hydroelectric power plants reached 22.2 GW by 1965. Fourteen hydroelectric power plants with a capacity in excess of 1 GW were completed, including the Bratsk Hydroelectric Power Plant (whose power reached 3.825 GW by the end of 1965), the Volga Twenty-second Congress of the CPSU Hydroelectric Power Plant (2.53 GW), the V. I. Lenin Volga Hydroelectric Power Plant (2.3 GW), and the Votkinsk Hydroelectric Power Plant (1 GW). Work also began on the construction of 18 new hydroelectric power plants, including the Nurek (2.7 GW), Inguri (1.02 GW), and Chirkei (1 GW) plants. The new hydroelectric power plants generally contributed to the national economy in a wide variety of ways (as in the case of the Nurek, Toktogul, and Charvak hydroelectric projects).
Hydroelectric construction continued on a large scale between 1966 and 1970. The period was marked by the construction of large, high-head hydroelectric power plants—with dam heights up to 250–300 m and high-power generator units. The scale of technological progress can be assessed from the 6-GW Krasnoiarsk Hydroelectric Power Plant, equipped with 508-MW hydroturbines. The plant’s dam incorporates an inclined plane of original design, which carries ships across a 100-m rise. Work has also begun on construction of the Saian-Shushenskaia (6.4 GW), Ust’-Ilimsk (4.3 GW), and several other large hydroelectric power plants.
High dams are typical of hydroelectric construction on the mountain rivers of the Caucasus and Middle Asia, for example, the Inguri arch dam (271 m), the Toktogul gravity dam (215 m), and the Nurek rock-and-earth dam (312 m). The high seismicity of the construction sites required the development of new methods of dam construction.
The main trends in hydroelectric construction in the 1970’s have been the priority use of the most efficient hydroelectric resources in the eastern regions of the country, especially on the Angara and Enisei rivers, which are a source of inexpensive electricity for energy-intensive industries; the construction of hydroelectric power plants with a relatively low annual use of installed capacity and a number of pumped-storage electric power plants in the Northwest European USSR, the Central Economic Region, and the southern sections of European Russia; the integrated use of hydroelectric resources in areas whose major industries are not energy-intensive; and the accelerated harnessing of hydroelectric resources in regions with limited fuel resources (Transcaucasia, Karelia, and areas of the Far North).
The most important trends in the industrialization of the construction of hydroelectric power plants are the transition to thin-wall and prestressed reinforced-concrete dam structures, particularly the use of buttressed arch and honeycomb dams; the extensive use of locally available materials; and the integrated mechanization and automation of production processes.
Research on important problems in hydraulic power engineering is conducted at the S. la. Zhuk Gidroproekt Institute (Moscow), the B. E. Vedeneev All-Union Scientific Research Hydraulic Engineering Institute (Leningrad), the A. V. Vinter Tbilisi Scientific Research Institute of Hydraulic Structures, and the G. M. Krzhizhanovskii Power Engineering Institute.
THERMAL POWER ENGINEERING. The first successes of Soviet thermal power engineering were associated with implementation of the GOELRO plan, which called for the construction of 22 fossil-fuel-fired steam power plants to be operated on locally available fuel (peat, Moscow coal, Donets anthracite duff, and Kuznetsk coal).
The power projects undertaken required a number of theoretical and applied studies in heat engineering. In the early years of Soviet power, A. A. Radtsig carried out much work aimed at summarizing available experimental data and compiling formulas and tables for determining the thermodynamic properties of steam. After 1935, work in this area was carried out at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, and in 1938 the elaboration of a physically substantiated equation of state for steam was completed (M. P. Vukalovich and I. I. Novikov). The research provided a foundation for the compilation of the first Soviet tables of steam properties (1941). Beginning in the 1930’s, experimental studies of the physical properties of water and steam were carried out systematically in Moscow at the F. E. Dzerzhinskii All-Union Scientific Research Heat Engineering Institute (VTI) by D. L. Timrot. As a result of the research, the viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and specific volume of steam were determined for pressures up to 51.5 meganewtons per m2 (MN/m2) and temperatures up to 660°C. Thermodynamic studies were also conducted on other heat-transfer fluids. Beginning in the late 1930’s experimental work aimed at determining the thermal conductivity of pure liquids, solutions, gases, steels, and other materials was carried out at the VTI, Moscow State University, the Power Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, and other scientific research institutes.
In the 1920’s steam boilers with a capacity of up to 20 tons per hr at a steam pressure of up to 1.5 MN/m2 were produced by the Leningrad Metal Works, the Lenin Neva Machine-building Plant, and the Krasnyi Kotel’shchik Plant in Taganrog. It was in the 1920’s that M. V. Kirpichev created the theory of thermal modeling, which provided a method of studying the thermal and aerodynamic processes that occur in steam boilers. The method was used to determine the optimum conditions for the flow of flue gases over the heated surface of steam boilers. Increases in the unit capacity of boilers necessitated the development of mechanized fireboxes, such as the shaft-chain fireboxes designed by T. F. Makar’ev (Central Boiler and Turbine Institute; TsKTI) for the combustion of lump peat and the chain fireboxes used for hard coal. The further development of thermal power engineering led to the creation of chamber-type fireboxes for the combustion of powdered fuel—brown coal, hard coal, and anthracite duffs, which had previously been considered unusable by-products of coal extraction. Chamber-type furnaces designed at the VTI, by the Moscow Regional Administration of Power Management (Mosenergo), and by A. A. Shershnev (at the Central Boiler and Turbine Institute) were developed to burn milled peat, which had replaced lump peat. The development of boiler-making was accompanied by scientific research on the physical processes that occur in boiler units.
The first experimental studies of heat transfer by convection were begun in the 1920’s; they included research on heat transfer at a solid-fluid interface during the flow of a fluid in pipes and channels, an important topic in technology. The experimental study of problems of heat transfer during the laminar and turbulent motion of various fluids was conducted in the 1930’s at the VTI, the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, and the Power Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Theoretical research on heat transfer during turbulent motion was carried out at the Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, resulting in the establishment of principles for the calculation of heat transfer in pipes during the motion of a gas having a speed as high as the speed of sound. Extensive research on heat transfer and the hydraulic resistance of pipe bundles was conducted beginning in the 1930’s at the Central Boiler and Turbine Institute and the VTI (V. M. Antuf ev, G. S. Beletskii, L. S. Kozachenko, N. V. Kuznetsov, and V. N. Timofeev). Research on heat transfer at a solid-fluid interface during vapor condensation and boiling was carried out at the Power Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (G. N. Kruzhilin).
In the field of heat transfer by radiation, some of the first research devoted to the development of methods of calculating angular coefficients for a number of two- and three-dimensional problems was that of T. T. Usenko (1920). Theoretical studies on the problems of heat transfer by radiation were later undertaken at the Power Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, where experimental research was also carried out on models of fireboxes. Practical methods of calculating heat transfer in furnaces were worked out at the VTI and the Central Boiler and Turbine Institute. The primary results of research on heat transmission between heat-transfer fluids were summarized by M. A. Mikheev. A standard method of thermal design of boiler units and, later, a method of aerodynamic design were created on the basis of numerous research projects at the Central Boiler and Turbine Institute and the VTI.
In the 1930’s boilermaking moved toward a significant increase in the rating of boiler units (up to 160–200 tons/hr) and an increase in steam parameters—pressures up to 34 MN/m2 and temperatures up to 420°C. The screen-shaped heating surfaces were increased in area, the convective surfaces were decreased in area, and double or single boiler drums were used where previous designs called for from three to five drums. Increases in the steam pressure of the vaporizing surface and the steam volume of the upper boiler drum necessitated a search for ways to reduce the amount of moisture lost from the boiler with steam, which caused overheating of superheater pipes, as well as ways of improving the water regime in boilers and ensuring reliable water circulation in the boilers.
The problem of designing efficient separation devices was solved in 1937 and 1938 in the course of bench tests conducted jointly by the Central Boiler and Turbine Institute (K. A. Blinov, Iu. V. Zenkevich, E. I. Sukharev), the VTI (A. A. Kot, Kuznetsov), and the State Trust for the Organization and Rationalization of Regional Electric Power Plants and Systems (Orgres; G. E. Kholodovskii). The tests made it possible to use boiler water with a salt content several times higher than previously used, to eliminate salt contamination of steam superheaters, and to obviate the use of evaporators at fossil-fuel-fired steam power plants with drum boilers. A theoretical study by N. la. Malofeev (Central Boiler and Turbine Institute) determined rational schemes for steam distribution in superheater pipes. Research conducted at Orgres (A. A. Sidorov) and the VTI (Iu. M. Kostrikin, F. G. Prokhorov, Kot, I. F. Shopkin) centered on devising normal water regimes for boilers.
A flow-through boiler with single-pass forced circulation, capable of operating efficiently at high steam pressures (greater than 140 MN/m2), was designed at the Bureau for Construction of Flow-through Boilers under the supervision of L. K. Ramzin; it was the only boiler at the time that could be operated at supercritical pressures. The first such boiler, rated at 200 tons/hr and 140 MN/m2 at 500°C, was installed in 1933 at the Mosenergo TETs-9 heat and power plant. E. I. Romm proposed a staged evaporation scheme and gave the first theoretical substantiation of its operation (1938). In 1946, Kholodovskii elaborated the theory of staged-evaporation boilers.
An important result of the development of Soviet heat engineering in the 1940’s was the transition in practice to the production of steam with superhigh parameters; for example, the VTI operated a heat and power plant with an experimental boiler unit running at 29.3 MN/m2 at 600°C. In 1950 the Podol’sk plant produced the first high-capacity drum boiler for operation at high steam parameters and a flow-through boiler equipped with shaft mills. Other plants also initiated production of boilers designed for operation at elevated steam parameters.
The transition to high and superhigh steam parameters required further theoretical studies. In 1951 studies were begun on the problems of the molecular transfer of energy and the fundamental features of the processes of heat and mass exchange. The early 1950’s saw further progress in power machine building. The Leningrad Metal Works produced a single-shaft condensing turbine with an output of 150 MW at 3,000 rpm, 16.6 MN/m2, and 550°C.
By the end of the 1950’s the installed capacity of fossil-fuel-fired steam power plants in the USSR had increased by 120 percent. This was achieved as a result of the construction of electric power plants with 100-, 150-, and 200-MW units in the form of boiler-turbine blocks with steam parameters of 12.7 MN/m2 and 565°C. In 1963, 300-MW power blocks running at 24.5 MN/m2 and 560°/565°C were put into operation.
The adoption of larger power units with unit capacities of 500 and 800 MW for fossil-fuel-fired steam power plants with a total capacity of 4–6 GW began in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s (in the regions of the Ekibastuz and Kansk-Achinsk coal basins). The construction of still larger plants with immense 1.2-GW power units is envisioned. The main casing of the first such power unit at the Kostroma State Regional Electric Power Plant was installed in 1975.
The use of gas-turbine installations in thermal power engineering is economical because of a significant increase in the percentage of gas figured in the fuel balance of the USSR and the high efficiency characteristic of gas. The first work on gas-turbine installations in the USSR was carried out in the early 1930’s (G. I. Zotikov, V. V. Uvarov), and the first Soviet gas turbine was designed at the same time under the supervision of V. M. Makovskii. The principal trend in the development of gas turbine design and construction has been to increase unit capacities and improve the production processes used for high-temperature steels. The economic impact of the introduction of gas-turbine electric power plants depends on the power of the units and the gas temperature at the turbine inlet. At a power of 50 MW and an inlet gas temperature of 650°-750°C, gas-turbine installations become competitive with the best steam units. Combination steamgas installations, development of which was initiated at the Central Boiler and Turbine Institute in the period 1945–47 (A. N. Lozhkin, A. A. Kanaev), are even more economical. In the mid-1970’s, 200-MW steam-gas units went into operation at the Nevinnomyssk State Regional Electric Power Plant.
District heat supply has been developed extensively in the USSR, which leads all other countries with respect to the thermal loads and unit capacities of district heat and power plants, the specific output of heat, and the total length of heat networks. Powerful central heat sources handle approximately 75 percent of the entire heat load of cities and industrial regions; district heat and power plants account for nearly one-half of the heat supplied.
With the development of thermal power engineering in the USSR, numerous scientific collectives were formed and expanded. Major contributions to modern thermal power engineering have been made by V. P. Glushko, N. A. Dollezhal’, V. A. Kirillin, M. A. Styrikovich, S. A. Khristianovich, A. E. Sheindlin, and G. N. Kruzhilin. The principal research on problems of thermal power engineering is conducted at the G. M. Krzhizhanovskii Scientific Research Power Institute, the F. E. Dzerzhinskii All-Union Scientific Research Heat Engineering Institute (VTI), the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, the I. I. Polzunov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute (Leningrad), the Institute of Thermal Power Engineering of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (Kiev), and the All-Union Scientific Research and Planning Institute of the Energy Industry and the Teploenergoproekt Institute (both in Moscow). Research is also conducted at a number of power machine-building plants.
NUCLEAR POWER INDUSTRY. The development of the nuclear power industry as an independent branch of energy production began in 1954, when the world’s first atomic power plant, the 5-MW Obninsk Atomic Power Plant, was put into operation in the city of Obninsk, Kaluga Oblast. Work on the design of the plant was carried out under the overall supervision of I. V. Kurchatov and was completed in the extremely short period of 4½ years. The experience gained in the construction and operation of the Obninsk Atomic Power Plant was summarized in a report presented by the Soviet Union in 1955 at the First International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, and it demonstrated the feasibility of efficiently using new energy sources for peaceful purposes. The experience served as the basis for the subsequent successful development of the nuclear power industry in the USSR.
The period from 1954 to the end of the 1960’s was characterized by the design, construction, and operation of individual pilot atomic power plants of relatively small power. Experimental testing resulted in the selection of several types of thermal reactors and atomic power plants whose technology and economy were best able to meet the needs of large-scale nuclear power production. For example, the channel-type uranium-graphite reactor (with a graphite moderator and coolant water flowing under pressure through channels in the core) used at the Obninsk Atomic Power Plant served as the basic design for the first (1964) and second (1967) power blocks of the I. V. Kurchatov Beloiarsk Atomic Power Plant, which were rated at 100 and 200 MW, respectively. During this period, the water-cooled, water-moderated tank reactor (VVER type) underwent the most extensive development. The water used as a neutron moderator simultaneously removes heat from the fuel elements housed in a steel vessel. Pilot commercial reactors of this type were installed in the first and second power blocks of the 50th Anniversary of the USSR Novovoronezhskii Atomic Power Plant. Put into operation in 1964 and 1969, the power blocks are rated at 210 and 365 MW, respectively.
The successful operation of pilot commercial power blocks in the first atomic power plants and the considerable experience gained therefrom made significant advances possible in nuclear power engineering. By the early 1970’s the industry had progressed to the point where it was capable of designing and operating commercial power blocks comparable with electric power plants operating on solid fossil fuels with respect to output of electric power and the utilization of installed capacity. In the period 1971–75, 440-MW water-moderated water-cooled reactors (model VVER-440) were put into operation at the third and fourth power blocks of the Novovoronezhskii Atomic Power Plant. Atomic power plants equipped with two 440-MW reactors went into series production at this time. The next step in the development of reactors of this type will be the construction of atomic power plants with two 1,000-MW model VVER-1000 reactors. One such reactor is now being completed (1978) at the Novovoronezhskii Atomic Power Plant; after it is put into operation, the total plant capacity will reach 2.5 GW. Two 1,000-MW power blocks are planned for the first stage of the Kalinin Atomic Power Plant.
Work on developing and refining channel-type uranium-graphite reactors has led to the creation of a 1,000-MW single-loop boiling-water (RBMK type) reactor. Such reactors have been installed in the first (1973) and second (1975) power blocks of the V. I. Lenin Leningrad Atomic Power Plant and at the Kursk Atomic Power Plant. The Ignalina Atomic Power Plant (Lithuanian SSR), equipped with RBMK-1500 reactors, is now under construction (1978), and a power block with a 2.4-GW RBMK-type reactor is in the design stage. Proposals for further increases in the country’s nuclear power capacity in the period 1976–80 were based on the planned construction of atomic power plants with VVER-440, VVER-1000, RBMK-1000, and RBMK-1500 reactors.
Decisions of the Twenty-fifth Congress of the CPSU for the period 1976–80 called for the continued construction of atomic power plants with 1–1.5-GW reactors; in addition, atomic power plants with a total capacity of 13–15 GW (approximately one-fifth of all electric power introduced during the five-year plan) are to be put into operation in order to maintain an accelerating development of the nuclear power industry in the European part of the USSR. Attainment of these goals will be facilitated by the initiation of series production of thermal reactors and associated turbine units for atomic power plants having a minimum unit capacity of 1 GW and by the development of equipment packages for thermal power blocks with capacities up to 1.5 GW.
One of the most important trends in the development of the nuclear power industry has been the more efficient use of natural uranium and thorium reserves. In modern thermal reactors, only a few percent of the total energy available in the nuclear fuel is put to use. The spent fuel can be reused repeatedly through the removal of fission products and contaminants, which reduces the consumption of natural uranium by a factor of 2–3. However, in practice the problem can be solved only by the accumulation of a sufficient quantity of spent fuel. Fast breeder reactors make possible significant increases (by a factor of several tens) in the efficiency of use of nuclear raw materials. In reactors of this type, as the nuclear fuel is consumed, fuel is also produced by drawing 238U into the energy cycle. After the construction of experimental and pilot reactors, a pilot commercial atomic power plant with a 350-MW fast breeder reactor (type BN-350) was put into operation in 1973 in the city of Shevchenko, Kazakh SSR. A 600-MW fast breeder reactor (BN-600) for the third power block of the Beloiarsk Atomic Power Plant is under construction. An accelerated program of construction and operation of reactors of this type was planned for the period 1978–80.
In addition to research in the use of nuclear reactors for the production of electricity, in the USSR great importance is attached to the problem of harnessing nuclear energy to provide thermal energy for residential and industrial use, water desalination, high-temperature manufacturing processes (as in metallurgy), chemical production, and other national economic uses. The dual-purpose atomic power plant currently operating in the city of Shevchenko is the world’s first nuclear power unit with a fast breeder reactor combined with a large desalination plant (120,000 cu m of distillate per day). Construction work has been completed on the first atomic-powered district heat and power plant—the 48-MW Bilibino plant—which supplies consumers with electricity and heat. Experience gained from the operation of the plant will make it possible to undertake preparatory work on the extensive harnessing of nuclear energy for district heat and power supply and to solve the most important problem of small-scale power engineering—that of providing power to inaccessible and remote regions of the country. Small, block-type nuclear power installations are also being developed for regions located far from existing power systems. A large-block, transportable atomic power plant, the TES-3, with a 1.5-MW water-moderated water-cooled reactor, was put into operation in 1961. It is used as a research facility for developing similar installations. Construction of the experimental 750-kW ARBUS nuclear power plant, equipped with organic coolant and moderator, has been completed, and plans are finished for the ABV-1.5 atomic power plant, equipped with a 1.5-MW water-cooled water-moderated nuclear reactor.
In addition to the development of steam-turbine power installations, work is being carried out on the development of reactor units for the direct conversion of thermal energy into electricity. The Romashka installation, which consists of a high-temperature fast breeder reactor and a thermoelectric converter, was put into operation in 1964, after having functioned successfully for more than a year (instead of the planned 1,000 hr). Tests were conducted in 1970 and 1971 on two Topaz reactor-powered thermionic converters, which demonstrated the feasibility of using such units in the immediate future as an on-board electric power supply for spacecraft.
In the USSR nuclear energy is being used successfully in the navy. The first commercial atomic ship—the icebreaker Lenin, equipped with a 44,000-hp nuclear power plant—was built in 1959, and the icebreaker Arktika (75,000 hp) completed its maiden voyage in 1975. Construction of a third powerful atomic icebreaker, the Sibir’, was completed in 1977. The unique capability of nuclear power units to generate thermal energy without consuming oxygen have made it possible to design highly self-sufficient atomic-powered submarines that can operate submerged over a practically unlimited range.
Major work is being carried out on harnessing the energy of radioactive decay to create power supplies for low-power self-sufficient equipment. The Beta series of isotope-powered thermoelectric generators, with power ratings of the order of 10 W, has been developed to provide power supplies for radio meteorological stations. Series production of automatic radio meteorological units designed for operation in remote regions of the country has been established. Radioisotope-powered thermoelectric generators operated successfully on the world-famous Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod-2 units.
In the mid-1970’s the nuclear power industry of the USSR became a major independent branch of power production. It has at its disposal the facilities necessary to carry out the most important tasks of power supply for the national economy. Many teams of specialists have been formed within the industry.
Fundamental problems in nuclear power engineering are studied at the I. V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy (Moscow), the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Obninsk), and the V. I. Lenin Scientific Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Dimitrovgrad).
SOLAR ENERGY AND GEOTHERMAL ENERGY. Work On the problems of solar energy began in the USSR in 1926. In the postwar period, research in the field was undertaken at the Power Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR under the supervision of M. V. Kirpichev and V. A. Baum. Since the 1960’s research has also been carried out at a number of scientific research institutes of the academies of sciences of the Uzbek SSR, Turkmen SSR, and Azerbaijan SSR. Soviet scientists have created solar units for heating water and air, desalinating water, and drying various products and materials. Other designs include solar heating systems and refrigerators and semiconductor equipment for the conversion of solar energy into electricity (for example, photoelectric and thermoelectric generators). Solar-powered heating and cooling systems for residential and public buildings are being developed and introduced, and designs are being formulated for large solar-energy installations with combined generation of thermal power and electricity.
Solar radiation and the earth’s heat are powerful and practically inexhaustible sources of energy. They are of increasing importance because their use makes it possible to conserve fossil fuels and reduce environmental pollution. In the USSR a 3.5-MW geothermal steam power plant has been in operation since 1966 in the Pauzhetka River valley on Kamchatka. Experience gained from the plant’s operation shows that geothermal steam power plants are reliable and economical, and that the capital expenditures and the cost of the electricity generated are lower than those associated with other types of electric power plants. Expansion of the Pauzhetka Geothermal Power Plant, initially to 9 MW and later to 25 MW, was planned for the 1970’s. Construction feasibility for the Mutnovskaia Geothermal Power Plant, with a planned capacity of up to 200 MW, is under study. Research is also being conducted to select construction sites for geothermal power plants to be built on low-water-content rock in the European part of the USSR. Geothermal water is widely used to supply heat for hothouses and residential buildings.
The principal work on problems of solar energy is carried out at the G. M. Krzhizhanovskii State Scientific Research Power Institute, the S. V. Starodubtsev Physicotechnical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR (Tashkent), and the Physicotechnical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Turkmen SSR (Ashkhabad).
WIND POWER. N. E. Zhukovskii elaborated the theory of a highspeed wind engine in the early 1900’s, thus laying the scientific foundation for the creation of high-power engines for the efficient harnessing of wind energy. Soviet scientists and engineers developed theoretical substantiations of new types of wind-power installations and designed advanced wind-power units and plants of different types with capacities up to 100 kW; such units were designed chiefly for use in agriculture. Of particular importance to the development of Soviet wind-power engineering were the contributions made by N. V. Krasovskii, G. Kh. Sabinin, and E. M. Fateev.
Most wind-power installations in the USSR are used to mechanize water supply from wells, especially in pastures and on remote farms in the Volga Region, the Altai, the Kazakh SSR, the Turkmen SSR, the Uzbek SSR, and other areas, where they operate 250–300 days a year. Experience in the practical use of wind-power units has shown that they may also be used to advantage to charge storage batteries, supply power for lighthouses and beacons, distill mineralized groundwater, provide cathodic protection from corrosion for pipelines and marine structures, and aerate bodies of water in the winter by pumping air under the ice. Work is being carried out to create large wind-power plants to supply consumers in regions far from large electric power systems but having significant wind-power potential, especially such remote regions as arctic and mountain areas.
Work on the theoretical principles of wind-power engineering and the creation of new designs for various types of wind-power units is carried out at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for the Electrification of Agriculture, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Electro mechanics, the Central Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Institute, and other scientific research institutes.
The development of energy science and technology has been greatly facilitated by extensive cooperation among member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), which have worked together in research projects and in the creation and use of the means of producing, converting, transmitting, and distributing power. Soviet power engineers participate in the activities of the World Energy Congress, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and other international organizations.
PERIODICALS. Leading publications in energy science and technology include Energetika i elektrifikatsiia (Power Engineering and Electrification, since 1959), Elektricheskie stantsii (Electric Power Plants, since 1930), Elektrichestvo (Electricity, since 1880), Elektrotekhnika (Electrical Engineering, since 1930), Teploenergetika (Thermal Power Engineering, since 1954), Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo (Hydrotechnical-engineering Construction, since 1930), Atomnaia energiia (Atomic Energy, since 1956), Energomashinostroenie (Power Engineering Machine Building, since 1955), Geliotekhnika (Solar Engineering, since 1965), Mekhanizatsiia i elektrifikatsiia sotsialisticheskogo sel-’skogo khoziaistva (Mechanization and Electrification of Socialist Agriculture, since 1930), Izvestiia AN SSSR: Energetika i transport (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Power Engineering and Transportation, since 1963), and Izvestiia vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii: Energetika (Proceedings of Higher Educational Institutions: Power Engineering, since 1958).

Bibliography

Elektrifikatsiia SSSR, 1917–1967gg. Edited by P. S. Heporozhnii.
Steklov, V. Iu. Razvitie elektroenergetiki v SSSR. Moscow, 1967.
Zhimerin, D. G. “Osnovnye etapy elektrifikatsii SSSR.” Elektrichestvo, 1967, no. 5.
Sovetskaia atomnaia nauka i tekhnika. Moscow, 1967.
Elektrotekhnicheskaia promyshlennost’ SSSR: Nauchno-tekhnich. obzor razvitiia sovetskoi elektrolekhnicheskoi promyshlennosti s 1917 po l967gg. [Moscow, 1967.]
Ocherki razvitiia tekhniki v SSSR, book 2. Moscow, 1969.
Atomnoi energetike XX let. Moscow, 1974.
Petros’iants, A. M. Sovremennye problemy atomnoi nauki i tekhniki v SSSR, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1976.
Veselovskii, O. N., and la. A. Shneiberg. Energeticheskaia tekhnika i ee razvitie. Moscow, 1976.
Electrical engineering. A number of major achievements in electrical engineering in the 19th century were associated with Russian scientists. For example, in 1802, V. V. Petrov discovered the electric arc and suggested practical applications for electric arcs. In 1805, C. Grotthus conducted research in the theory of electrolytic dissociation. The electromagnetic telegraph was invented by P. L. Shilling in 1832; an electric motor, by B. S. Iakobi (M. H. von Jacobi) in 1834; and electroforming, by Iakobi in 1838. In 1842, H. F. E. Lenz (E. Kh. Lents) substantiated the law of the heating effect of a current. Lenz established the law of the direction of an induced current and developed the principles of the theory of electric machines. Lenz and Iakobi devised a ballistic method for the measurement of magnetic flux.
The early discoveries and investigations paved the way for subsequent inventions by Russian electrical engineers. The most important of such inventions included the first practical arc lamp (P. N. Iablochkov), an incandescent lamp (A. N. Lodygin), and the differentially regulated arc lamp (V. N. Chikolev); all three lamps were invented in the 1870’s. Between 1885 and 1890, N. N. Benardos and N. G. Slavianov devised methods of electric-arc welding.
The works of A. G. Stoletov were of great importance for the development of electrical engineering. In 1872, for the first time, Stoletov determined the dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of soft iron on the magnetizing field.
In prerevolutionary Russia, electrical engineering was established as an independent branch of science and technology and the uses of electric power in industry and transportation were gradually broadened. In the late 19th century, the conversion from mechanical systems for power transmission and distribution to electric drives was begun. Group and single-motor electric drives began to replace central transmission systems, which are characteristic of steam and hydraulic drives. The introduction of such electric drives brought about fundamental transformations in industrial production.
In the late 19th century, two other important areas of application for electric energy arose: electrothermics and electrochemistry. However, the two areas were not developed to any considerable extent in Russia. The amount of electric power used for production process needs was substantially less than the amount used in electric drives. Electrothermal equipment was not manufactured in Russia. Nevertheless, such inventors as S. S. Shteinberg, Slavianov, G. E. Evreinov, S. I. Tel’noi, and V. P. Vologdin made a number of proposals for the construction of electric furnaces and the improvement of electrothermal processes.
Russian electrical engineers carried out fundamental work on the most important problem of power engineering: the transmission of electric power over long distances through high-voltage power lines. For example, while analyzing the operation of electric motors and generators in 1880, D. A. Lachinov established for the first time a connection between the efficiency of electric power transmission and the raising of the voltage in a power line. Problems of electric power transmission became especially timely when large regional electric power plants using local fuel sources were constructed.
The work of M. A. Shatelen played an important role in the development of high-voltage engineering. In 1911, Shatelen established the first high-voltage laboratory in Russia at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute. In the laboratory, research and development work was conducted on the creation of power lines with a voltage of more than 100 kilovolts (kV).
The efforts of M. O. Dolivo-Dobrovol’skii, who developed the main elements for three-phase AC circuits between 1888 and 1891, occupy an important place among the achievements of Russian electrical engineers. K. A. Krug played a prominent role in the development of the theoretical fundamentals of electrical engineering.
The October Revolution of 1917 opened up tremendous possibilities for the development of electrical engineering. The economic development of the Soviet republic required the solution of a multitude of scientific problems associated with power and electrical engineering. Problems of the construction and operation of electric power plants were at the center of attention of Soviet power engineering specialists, such as R. E. Klasson, G. O. Graftio, I. G. Aleksandrov, G. M. Krzhizhanovskii, and A. V. Vinter. Problems of the automation of electric power plants, substations, and supply and distribution systems were solved.
High-voltage engineering was studied at the high-voltage laboratory of the Petrograd Polytechnic Institute. At the laboratory in the early 1920’s, such electrical engineers as A. A. Gorev, A. M. Zalesskii, and A. A. Smurov solved a number of key problems associated with the construction of the first high-voltage power lines in accordance with the GOELRO plan. In particular, the problems solved dealt with the production of insulators for the power lines. In later years, the high-voltage laboratory became a major scientific research and educational center where basic research in electrical engineering was conducted. High-voltage capacitors developed at the laboratory made it possible to fabricate high-power high-voltage test sets, including the Gorev oscillatory circuit.
In the 1920’s and 1930’s, research in high-voltage engineering was carried out at many scientific centers in the USSR. Such research was begun by B. I. Ugrimov in Moscow and V. M. Krushchov in Kharkov. At the Moscow Power Engineering Institute and the V. I. Lenin All-Union Electrical Engineering Institute, high-voltage research—for example, the testing and design of insulators and lightning arresters and the protection of power systems from overvoltages—was directed by L. I. Sirotinskii. At the Leningrad Electrical Engineering Institute, high-voltage engineering was developed under the direction of Smurov, who proposed the theory of dielectric breakdown by ionization.
Comprehensive research in the electric strength and other properties of dielectrics and work on the theory of dielectric breakdown were conducted in the 1930’s at the Physicotechnical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, at the Institute of Electrophysics (notably by A. A. Chernyshev), and at the Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. V. A. Fok’s theoretical solution of the problem of the thermal breakdown of a solid dielectric clarified the understanding of the physical process of dielectric breakdown and made it possible to arrive at an approach to the selection of dielectrics for insulation. The physical properties of materials with a high dielectric constant and low dielectric losses were investigated by such specialists as B. M. Vul, G. I. Skanavi, and N. P. Bogoroditskii. K. A. Andrianov developed a broad class of insulating materials based on organosilicon polymers.
Much work by Soviet researchers dealt with problems of the efficient construction and reliable operation of electric power generation, supply, and distribution systems and problems of electric power transmission over long distances. Theoretical principles for the analysis of transients in electric power systems and in power lines were formulated by Gorev. Results of theoretical investigations of the static and dynamic stability of complex electric power systems were summarized in a monograph written by S. A. Lebedev and P. S. Zhdanov in 1933. The theory of short-circuit currents, methods of calculating such currents, and the theory of transients were studied, notably by N. N. Shchedrin and S. A. Ul’ianov.
The first extensive theoretical research in protective relay systems was carried out by V. I. Ivanov. The theory of protective relay systems and automatic equipment for electric power systems was developed by A. M. Fedoseev and I. I. Solov’ev. The theory of the operating conditions of complex electric power systems was worked out by I. M. Markovich. Various static network-analyzer models and electrodynamic models were created for the design analysis of steady-state and emergency operating conditions of large power systems. The static models were developed by Lebedev, I. S. Bruk, Zhdanov, D. I. Azar’ev, and Fedoseev; electrodynamic models were constructed by M. P. Kostenko and V. A. Venikov. Original solutions to many problems in the theory of the design, construction, and operation of power supply and distribution systems and power lines were provided by such specialists as Gorev, A. A. Glazunov, Khrushchov, and M. D. Kamenskii.
The work of Soviet scientists facilitated the solution of many important problems of increasing the length of power lines, the power transmitted by power lines, and the stability of electric power systems that incorporate power plants of various types. For example, it made possible the construction of a 400-kV AC power line between Kuibyshev and Moscow that is 900 km long and transmits more than 1 gigawatt. In 1967 research was begun with a 90-km experimental 750-kV AC power line between the Konakovo State Regional Electric Power Plant and Moscow. In 1976, 750-kV lines were put into operation between Leningrad and Moscow and between the Donets Coal Basin and Mukachevo. As of 1977, the construction of a 1,150-kV power line was being planned.
Problems of high-voltage DC power transmission were studied at the G. M. Krzhizhanovskii State Scientific Research Power Institute, the V. I. Lenin All-Union Electrical Engineering Institute, and the Scientific Research Institute of Direct Current. At the institutes, the theory of high-voltage DC power transmission was worked out, various rectifying and inverting systems were tested, and electron and ion devices for power conversion were created. Research conducted at the Physicotechnical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR served as the basis for the development of the semiconductor (thyristor) power converters that were installed on a unique 800-kV DC power line between the Volga Twenty-second Congress of the CPSU Hydroelectric Power Plant and the Donets Coal Basin. The line, which was put into operation in 1962, is 470 km long and transmits 750 megawatts (MW). Experimental research using an operating voltage of 1,500 kV is being performed.
With respect to the development of power transmission technology, the USSR is a leader among the industrially developed countries.
The work of L. R. Neiman has a prominent place in research in complex electric power systems and in the study of problems of DC and AC power transmission.
Techniques and equipment that made it possible to increase substantially the power capability of long-distance power lines and that provide for the stable operation of interconnected power systems were introduced in the USSR, for the first time in many cases. The most important measures taken included the division of an entire power line route into sections in which the voltage is controlled by synchronous condensers and switching stations, the use of bundle conductors in each phase, the use of compensating devices, the fabrication of generators and transformers with a low inductive reactance, the use of automatic voltage control and superexcitation of generators, and the use of high-speed protective relay systems and circuit-opening devices.
V. I. Popkov surmounted great difficulties in solving both the problem of protecting power lines that operate at 400–500 kV from overvoltages and the problem of reducing corona losses. V. F. Mitkevich’s idea of increasing the “electrical” diameter of conductors by bundling them was used to reduce corona losses.
In close connection with the solution of problems associated with the construction of electric power systems, long-distance power transmission, and protection from overvoltages, such specialists as A. la. Biulov, G. V. Butkevich, Gorev, and L. I. Ivanov considered problems of building high-voltage equipment, studied physical processes and methods of arc interruption and extinguishment, examined thermal and electrodynamic phenomena in electrical equipment, and investigated arc-quenching materials. They also designed and tested air, oil, and other types of circuit breakers, as well as disconnecting switches, current transformers, reactors, dischargers, and other devices for high-voltage systems. Such research enabled the USSR’s electrical industry to master the manufacture of all types of high-voltage switching equipment. For example, as early as 1959, a 400-kV compressed-air circuit breaker with an interrupting capacity of 10 gigavolt-amperes was developed at the V. I. Lenin All-Union Electrical Engineering Institute; such circuit breakers were installed on the Kuibyshev-Moscow power line.
The high-voltage circuit breakers that have been developed make it possible to construct regional electric power systems and distribution systems that operate at 3 to 750 kV with an interrupting capacity of 50 to 40,000 megavolt-amperes (MVA). The possibility is being studied of developing arcless circuit-opening devices that use semiconductor controlled rectifiers.
The tasks of scientific research in problems of electric machines and transformers were dictated by the requirements of electric machine building, an industry that occupies a leading position in world technology with respect to a number of important areas, such as the building of high-capacity hyrdoelectric generators and special types of electric machines and transformers. In the course of such research, fundamental work was conducted with respect to general theoretical problems, methods of testing and designing electric machines and transformers, and problems of, for example, commutation in commutator machines, transients in AC and DC machines, and the stability of the shunt operation of synchronous machines. Contributions to such fundamental work were made by R. A. Liuter, A. E. Alekseev, V. S. Kulebakin, G. N. Petrov, V. A. Tolvinskii, V. T. Kas’ianov, A. N. Larionov, Bruk, P. P. Kopniaev, F. I. Kholuianov, A. G. Iosifian, and L. M. Piotrovskii.
K. I. Shenfer made a major contribution to the theory of electric machines; his works dealt with, for example, AC commutator motors, DC machines, and asynchronous machines. Important advances in the theory of electric machines were achieved by such specialists as Kostenko. V. K. Popov and S. A. Rinkevich laid the foundations for the theory of electric drives.
Highly efficient electrical equipment was produced on the basis of the research that was carried out. For example, a series of synchronous motors with a power rating of up to 10 MW was developed in which relatively small amounts of copper for windings, electrical steel, and insulating materials were used; the motors are among the highest-quality electric machines in the world. In addition, unique synchronous condensers with a rating of 75 MVA were built for the Kuibyshev-Moscow power line. An electric drive with the world’s largest double-armature motor was built for the main shaft of the nuclear-powered icebreaker Lenin. The motor, a 1,300-V DC machine, has a power rating of 14,400 kW (19,600 hp). The power ratings of present-day electric machines range from fractions of a watt (in the case of miniature motors and generators) to hundreds of megawatts (for example, 500-, 800-, and 1,200-MW turbine generators).
Advances in electric machine building made it possible to introduce automated electric drives into industry and other sectors of the national economy. The further development of such electric drives is associated with achievements in the development of power semiconductor devices, in particular, DC and AC thyristor converters. Beginning in the 1960’s, all sectors of industry have been electrified through the use of controlled electric drives, which constitute the basis for the integrated automation of working mechanisms and production processes.
On the basis of achievements in electrical engineering, electrification of railroad transport has been systematically developed. In the late 1950’s, the USSR was first in the world with respect to the total length of electrified railroads. In the mid-1970’s, the length of AC railroads in the USSR exceeded the length of AC railroads in all foreign countries combined. Modern electric locomotives and motor-car trains have been developed, including the most powerful AC locomotive in the world to be produced in series. Rated at 8,640 hp, the AC locomotive incorporates semiconductor converters. The production of electric locomotives that operate on both direct and alternating current has been initiated.
Electrotechnology has developed rapidly. Arc furnaces with a capacity of 100 or 200 tons are employed in electrometallurgy. High-frequency induction furnaces are used, as are electric furnaces with a boiling liquid-metal heat-transfer fluid. Research in plasma heating equipment is being conducted. In machine building, induction and resistance heating methods are widely used in the pressure shaping and heat treatment of parts. Much progress has been achieved in the development of new electric welding techniques. Ultrasonic and particle-beam methods for the machining of metals are being used. The use of plasma jets for the cutting of, for example, magnesium, aluminum, and refractory metals is being broadened, as is the use of electron-beam welding and laser welding.
The achievements of electrical engineering are used in all spheres of human activity, including industry, science, medicine, and daily life. Scientific and technological progress has opened up new possibilities for electrical engineering. For example, in the 1960’s and 1970’s, advances in low-temperature physics made it possible to develop electrical equipment that incorporates superconductors or materials exhibiting an extremely high conductivity. Such equipment includes electric machines and electromagnets with superconducting windings.
The use of computer technology had a considerable influence on the methods of theoretical electrical engineering. In particular, computers have been used to synthesize complex electromagnetic fields with given properties.
Space exploration and the study and development of hard-to-reach and remote regions of the USSR stimulated work on the creation of compact and reliable self-contained sources of electric power. Such power sources are used in, for example, spacecraft and automatic weather stations.
The Soviet school of electrical engineering occupies a prominent place in world electrical engineering. New scientific centers have arisen and numerous groups of specialists have been formed in many cities, including Kiev, L’vov, Novosibirsk, and Saransk. Basic scientific research in problems of electrical engineering is conducted at, for example, the V. I. Lenin All-Union Electrical Engineering Institute in Moscow, the G. M. Krzhizhanovskii State Scientific Research Power Institute, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Electric Machine Building in Leningrad, the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, the Leningrad Electrical Engineering Institute, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Electromechanics in Moscow, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Electric Drive in Moscow, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Current Sources in Moscow, the Scientific Research Institute of Direct Current in Leningrad, the Elektrosila Plant, and the Dinamo Plant.
Together with the scientific organizations of the member states of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), Soviet scientists carry out joint research in many problems of electrical engineering. Soviet electrical engineers participate in the activity of such international scientific organizations as the International Electrotechnical Commission and the World Energy Conference.
PERIODICALS. Soviet periodicals that deal with electrical engineering include Elektrotekhnika (Electrical Engineering; since 1930), Elektrotekhnicheskaia promyshlennost’ (Electrical Engineering Industry; since 1947), Elektrichestvo (Electricity; since 1880), Promyshlennaia energetika (Industrial Power Engineering; since 1944), Elektricheskie stantsii (Electric Power Plants; since 1930), Izvestiia AN SSSR: Energetika i transport (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Power Engineering and Transportation; since 1963), and Izvestiia vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii: Elektromekhanika (Proceedings of Higher Educational Institutions: Electromechanics; since 1958).
Electronics, radio engineering, and electrical communications
P. L. Shilling, B. S. Iakobi (M. H. von Jacobi), and P. M. Golubitskii occupy a prominent position among the Russian scientists and inventors who originated electrical communications in Russia and who made substantial contributions to both Russian and world science. Shilling, the founder of electromagnetic telegraphy, designed the first practical equipment for telegraph communication in 1832. Iakobi developed highly successful designs for telegraph equipment; he invented the electromagnetic register in 1839 and the letter-printing telegraph in 1850. A pioneer of Russian telephony, Golubitskii proposed models of a reliable and highly sensitive telephone set between 1881 and 1887. He also played a major role in the introduction of telephone communication into industry and transportation, mainly into railroad transport.
The development of wired communications in Russia in the mid-19th century was stimulated mainly by military and political events—especially the Crimean War of 1853–56—that prompted the tsarist government to speed up the construction of telegraph lines for government use. Such lines were built between St. Petersburg and Moscow in 1852, St. Petersburg and Warsaw in 1854, and St. Petersburg and Kiev in 1855. Later, the St. Petersburg-Warsaw line was extended to the Prussian border and linked the telegraph networks of Russia and the countries of Western Europe.
In 1882 the first city telephone lines were put into operation in Russia. Somewhat earlier, particularly during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, telephone communication was introduced in the Russian Army.
The subsequent development of wired communications was characterized by improvements in communication equipment, the development of multichannel communication systems, and a greater degree of automation in communications. Improved equipment was designed by many scientists and inventors, notably V. V. Iakobi, R. R. Vreden, E. V. Kolbas’ev, and A. A. Stolpovskii. Multichannel communication systems were developed by Z. la. Slonimskii, G. I. Morozov, G. G. Ignat’ev, and E. I. Gvozdev. Automatic equipment and systems were invented by K. A. Mosnitskii, M. F. Freidenberg, I. A. Timchenko, and S. M. Berdichevskii-Apostolov.
In 1871 a telegraph line was built between Moscow and Vladivostok, a distance of approximately 12,000 km. The construction of a trunk line between St. Petersburg and Moscow in 1898 was an important event in the history of the establishment and development of telephone communication in Russia. The St. Petersburg-Moscow trunk line was the longest such communication line in Europe.
At a meeting of the Russian Physical Chemistry Society on May 7, 1895, A. S. Popov demonstrated the operation of equipment he had designed for the wireless transmission of signals over a distance. Popov’s demonstration marked the birth of radio and also of radio communications and radio engineering. In the summer of 1895, Popov used his radio receiver, which he equipped with several additional components, to record the electromagnetic radiation of thunderstorms. This achievement marked the beginning of radio meteorology.
In 1899, P. N. Rybkin and D. S. Troitskii discovered the detector effect, that is, the ability of a coherer to register radio signals received by it. The range of radiotelegraphy was increased considerably on the basis of the detector effect. In 1903, S. la. Lifshits performed the first experiments in radiotelegraphy by means of a spark transmitter.
During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05, radio sets incorporating spark transmitters were used on ships of the Russian Navy. The radio sets were produced by the Kronstadt workshops, which had been founded in 1900. In 1910 the workshops were moved to St. Petersburg and were reorganized as the Radiotelegraph Depot of the Naval Administration. In 1915 the depot was reconstituted as a radiotelegraph plant, the first domestic radio engineering enterprise.
In 1909 the Postal Department began the construction of civil spark-transmitter radio stations in the cities of central Russia and of shore stations for ship-to-shore communication.
In 1906, S. M. Aizenshtein conducted the first research in the use of undamped oscillations generated by arc oscillators. High-frequency electric machines were used to generate undamped oscillations by V. P. Vologdin in 1912 and M. V. Shuleikin in 1913.
The first scientific research institution—the Testing Division of the Kronstadt radiotelegraph workshops—was established in 1910. It was later reorganized as a laboratory under the Naval Administration’s Radiotelegraph Depot. At various times, the institution was directed by A. A. Petrovskii, L. D. Isakov, and Shuleikin. Shortly before the outbreak of World War I, research in radio direction finding was carried out under the direction of I. I. Rengarten.
In the early 20th century, the development of electron devices was begun as a result of advances in electronic theory and on the basis of achievements in vacuum and incandescent-lamp technology. The use of electron devices to generate, amplify, and convert electromagnetic oscillations—at that time, very-high-frequency oscillations, with frequencies of up to 107 hertz—and to shape short signals of various waveforms altered in a fundamental way the further development of radio engineering and electrical communications. Between 1910 and 1917, the first domestic electron devices in Russia were designed in separate laboratories by V. I. Kovalenkov, N. D. Papaleksi, V. I. Volynkin, A. A. Chernyshev, and M. A. Bonch-Bruevich.
With the victory of the October Revolution of 1917, a new stage began in the development of domestic radio engineering and the domestic electronics industry. A decree on the centralization of radio engineering work, which was adopted by the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR on July 19, 1918, laid the political and organizational foundations for the development of Soviet radio engineering. All radio engineering facilities in Russia were placed under the jurisdiction of the People’s Commissariat for Posts and Telegraphs.
V.I. Lenin saw a powerful means of mass information in radio: a “newspaper without paper and ’without distances’” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 51, p. 130). He predicted that radio “will be a great achievement” (ibid.). In accordance with Lenin’s instructions, the construction of several large radio stations was begun and a number of organizational measures were implemented to accelerate the development of radio communications and radio broadcasting. In December 1918, Lenin signed the Regulations of the Nizhny Novgorod Radio Laboratory.
Bonch-Bruevich was a director of the Nizhny Novgorod Radio Laboratory. The laboratory was the first Soviet scientific research center with which were associated many achievements in radio engineering, in the production of receiving and oscillator tubes and of radio equipment, and in the organization of radio broadcasting. In particular, the world’s first high-power water-cooled electron tubes, with ratings of 25 and 40 kilowatts (kW), were produced at the laboratory.
In 1920 the construction of a 100-kW radio station that used arc oscillators was completed at Shabolovka in Moscow. For the station, a metal tower that became the emblem of Soviet radio broadcasting was built according to a design of V. G. Shukhov. A few more radio stations were built in the 1920’s; they had a power of 50 to 100 kW and used either arc oscillators or high-frequency electric machines designed by Vologdin. In 1923 a station set up for the reception of radiotelegrams went into operation in Liubertsy, which is outside Moscow.
Wired broadcasting became another widely used form of broadcasting, especially in cities. A decree that was adopted by the Council of People’s Commissars in July 1924 and that authorized “private receiving stations” contributed to both the development of radio broadcasting and the growth of the amateur radio movement.
The Russian Society of Radio Engineers, which was founded in 1918, and the Radio Association played a productive role in implementing the first achievements of Soviet radio engineering. The society and the association were headed by prominent scientists, such as Shuleikin, V. K. Lebedinskii, and Petrovskii, and assembled scientific forces for the solution of many theoretical and practical problems in the development of radio.
The first scientific research centers included the Radio Laboratory of the Military Administration, which was established in 1918 in Moscow, and the Central Radio Laboratory, which was founded in 1923 in Petrograd; in 1924 the former was reorganized as the Red Army Scientific and Testing Institute of Communications. The Kazan Base for Radio Formations, which was organized in 1918 and which produced economical models of radio transmitting and receiving equipment, made a substantial contribution to the development of radio broadcasting.
Between 1922 and 1940, electronics research and the organization of electron-device production underwent further expansion. The devices produced included receiving and oscillator tubes, gas-discharge rectifiers and converters, and X-ray devices.
In 1922 an electron-tube factory was established in Petrograd by a decree of the Supreme Council on the National Economy. The factory, which was directed by M. M. Bogoslovskii and S. A. Vekshinskii, was merged with the Svetlana Vacuum-tube Plant in 1928. In the plant’s research laboratory, which was organized by Vekshinskii, research was conducted in the physics and technology of electron devices. The research dealt with, for example, the emission properties of cathodes, gas emission by metals and glass, and vacuum technology.
In the early 1930’s, after other laboratories were incorporated into it, Vekshinskii’s laboratory became a major scientific research organization. In 1934 it was named the Specialized Vacuum Laboratory (Otraslevaia vakuumnaia laboratoriia [OVL]). The OVL was directed by Vekshinskii until 1937 and by S. A. Zusmanovskii until 1941. Many prominent specialists who directed research in the main areas of electronic engineering were on the staff of the OVL. They included Iu. D. Boldyr’, V. S. Lukoshkov, S. M. Moshkovich, S. A. Obolenskii, E. L. Podgurskii, and A. A. Shaposhnikov.
Between 1928 and 1930, a vacuum-tube department was organized at the Moscow Electrical Equipment Plant. Research in the properties of dielectrics and thin films was conducted in the 1930’s at the Physicotechnical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR by such scientists as A. F. Ioffe, A. F. Val’ter, P. P. Kobeko, and G. I. Skanavi. The results of the research provided the scientific basis for the production of passive electron devices, for example, capacitors and resistors. The creation and development of the electronics of passive devices were associated with various scientists, notably N. P. Bogoroditskii, E. A. Gailish, and K. I. Martiushov.
In connection with the rapid development of radio broadcasting, the production of a large stock of radio receivers became an important task. In the mid-1920’s, radio signals were received mainly by means of simple vacuum-tube detector and regenerative receivers, which were powered primarily by storage batteries. On the basis of the ability of certain crystalline semiconductors to amplify and generate electrical oscillations, O. V. Losev devised a semiconductor regenerative receiver in 1922 and, later, a heterodyne receiver that came to be known as the “crystadyne.” AC-powered radio receivers equipped with loudspeakers were developed in the early 1930’s, and superheterodyne receivers were developed between 1936 and 1941.
In the late 1920’s, the Bureau for the Construction of High-power Radio Stations was organized to solve the scientific and technological problems associated with the construction of high-power radio transmitting stations. In 1930 it was reorganized as the Specialized Radio Laboratory for Transmitters. Its staff included many leading specialists in radio, notably A. L. Mints, Z. I. Model’, I. Kh. Neviazhskii, M. S. Neiman, and N. I. Oganov.
In 1929 the 100-kW All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions Radio Station was established in Moscow. Stations of the same type were designed for Leningrad and Novosibirsk in 1932. In 1933 what was then the world’s most powerful station, the 500-kW Comintern Radio Station, went on the air. The transmitter of the Comintern station was constructed according to the building-block principle; that is, the transmitter’s output stage contained several identical units connected to a common antenna. An original shortwave “system for building up power in the ether” was proposed by Neviazhskii and was implemented by him in the 120-kW RV-96 Radio Station. By the late 1930’s, there were 77 radio broadcast stations with a total power of more than 2 megawatts (MW).
The development of demountable oscillator tubes by such specialists as Mints and Oganov was an original trend in the technology for the construction of high-power radio stations.
In connection with the intensive exploitation of the microwave region, the first magnetron oscillators were produced in the USSR. The split-anode magnetron was designed in 1926 by A. A. Slutskii and D. S. Shteinberg; the multicavity magnetron was designed in 1939 by N. F. Alekseev and D. E. Maliarov under the direction of Bonch-Bruevich. Such specialists as Zusmanovskii and N. D. Deviatkov made substantial advances in the development of microwave oscillator and receiving triodes.
During the prewar five-year plans, considerable advances were achieved in telecommunications. The first shortwave radio links went into operation. Domestic shortwave links were established between, for example, Moscow and Tashkent; international shortwave links were set up between Moscow and New York and between Moscow and Paris. The October Radio Station in Moscow was modernized and was transformed into a major radio transmission center. A radio reception center equipped on the basis of the latest achievements in radio engineering was built in Butovo, outside Moscow. Between 1932 and 1934, the first meter-wave radio links—between Moscow and Noginsk and between Moscow and Kashira—went into operation and ultra-short-wave communications were introduced in the navy. By the late 1930’s, a facsimile system that linked a number of Soviet cities and also Moscow and Berlin was created.
In 1935 the Master Plan for the Development of Communications in the USSR was drafted. The plan projected the construction of 14 communication centers connected with one another and with Moscow by wire and radio links and proposed the standardization of telephone, telegraph, facsimile, and radio broadcast equipment. Most of the planned program was implemented in the prewar period; in particular, the V-12 system, a 12-channel frequency-division system for aerial communication lines, was developed and introduced in 1941. The rest of the program was implemented after the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45 on the basis of achievements in science and technology.
In the late 1920’s, television was first developed in the USSR. Regular medium-wave television transmissions using a mechanical television system with a low frame frequency were begun in 1931 in Moscow and shortly afterward in other cities. Beginning in the mid-1930’s, mechanical systems were gradually superseded by electronic systems.
The development of electronic television systems was begun in Russia as early as 1907 by B. L. Rozing and was productively continued by Soviet scientists. For example, S. I. Kataev invented the iconoscope in 1931. In 1933, P. V. Timofeev and P. V. Shmakov invented the image iconoscope, L. A. Kubetskii developed a highly sensitive multiplier phototube, and V. I. Kuznetsov designed a television camera tube with scanning by low-velocity electrons. In 1938, G. V. Braude proposed a camera tube with a two-sided mosaic target. The tubes that were developed by Kubetskii, Kuznetsov, and Braude were the basis for the modern image orthicon.
In the late 1940’s, television centers were operating in Moscow, Leningrad, and Kiev. The production of television receivers (the TK-1,17TN-1, and 17TN-3) was organized.
By 1938 a strong scientific research and industrial base was created for the production of radio engineering equipment. The development of the electronics and radio manufacturing industries contributed substantially to technological progress in all areas of the national economy, science, and engineering and strengthened the defense capabilities of the state.
The Soviet school of radio engineering and physics was definitively established in the 1930’s and received worldwide recognition. A scientific and technological base was prepared for the subsequent development of telecommunications, television, radar, radio navigation, and other fields of science and technology.
In the USSR, radar was first developed in the mid-1930’s. Between 1933 and 1935, on the initiative of M. M. Lobanov and P. K. Oshchepkov, research in the use of continuous-wave methods for radar was conducted by such specialists as Iu. K. Korovin and B. K. Shembel’. Research in the use of the pulse method was begun in 1937, notably by D. A. Rozhanskii, Iu. B. Kobzarev, V. V. Tsimbalin, P. A. Pogorelko, and N. Ia. Chernetsov.
Industrial production of continuous-wave radar sets (the RUS-1) was begun in 1939. The first pulse radar sets (the Redut and RUS-2) were produced in 1940; in these sets, the transmitter and receiver were coupled to a single, or common, antenna. During the Great Patriotic War, the production of the compact and highly reliable Pegmatit radar sets was organized.
Major contributions to the development of Soviet radar and radio navigation, which is closely related to radar, were made by Ioffe, S. I. Vavilov, Chemyshev, A. I. Berg, B. A. Vvedenskii, M. A. Leontovich, L. I. Mandel’shtam, Papaleksi, V. I. Bazhenov, Shuleikin, A. A. Pistol’kors, A. N. Shchukin, and la. N. Fel’d.
In the late 1920’s and early 1930’s, electronic and radio engineering techniques and devices were first used in fields outside the sphere of traditional applications of radio engineering, that is, outside such areas as telecommunications, radio broadcasting, and television. For example, in 1928, S. la. Sokolov designed an ultrasonic flaw detector for monitoring the quality of metallic materials and products. His achievement initiated the development of introscopy. In the mid-1930’s, Vologdin first used high-frequency oscillations to heat materials for manufacturing purposes. Research in high-frequency heating made it possible to develop a wide variety of techniques and devices that are used efficiently in modern plants that employ high-frequency production processes. In the late 1930’s, work was begun on the development of the electron microscope. The greatest advances were achieved at the State Optics Institute in Leningrad, where, in 1940, A. A. Lebedev devised an electron microscope that made it possible to obtain a magnification of up to 104.
From the first days of the Great Patriotic War, the efforts of specialists were directed toward ensuring reliable communication between the General Headquarters of the Supreme Command and the headquarters of the fronts, supplying the Soviet Army with necessary radio equipment, and developing new types of military radios, direction finders, and other equipment. Radar was rapidly developed, notably by Berg and Kobzarev. Important theoretical research was conducted in many areas. Contributions to such research were made by V. A. Fok in radio-wave propagation, Pistol’kors in antennas, E. la. Shcheglov and Mandel’shtam in interference navigation systems, and I. I. Vol’man, A. L. Drabkin, and Leontovich in wave-guide devices. New communication equipment was designed by such specialists as V. A. Kotel’nikov and Neiman. FM telegraph and facsimile systems were developed and introduced.
In 1943 a high-power (1,200-kW) medium-wave radio broadcast station was constructed by a group of scientists and engineers under the direction of Mints. Beginning in late 1942, the production of equipment for the reconstruction of broadcast centers in the territory liberated from the occupiers was resumed.
Two characteristic features of the development of radio since the 1940’s have been the organic fusion of radio engineering and electronics and the close association of the two fields with, on the one hand, radio physics, solid-state physics, optics, and mechanics and, on the other hand, electrical engineering, automation, and engineering cybernetics. As a result of the fusion, an interdisciplinary field—radio electronics—arose. Drawing on achievements in various areas of science, radio electronics substantially changed the nature of concepts of the possibilities of radio engineering, mainly of such subdivisions of radio engineering as microwave and pulse engineering.
Since 1945, major advances have been achieved in microwave engineering, which first originated in the 1930’s. The following new devices for the generation and amplification of microwaves were developed: high-power multicavity magnetrons and klystrons, traveling-wave and backward-wave tubes, and microwave switching tubes. The first high-power klystrons in the USSR, which were designed by specialists such as Zusmanovskii and were used in accelerators, produced a peak pulse power of 20 MW and an average power of 2–20 kW. In addition, continuous-wave klystrons were developed for tropospheric-scatter, radio-relay, and space communications, as well as for radar and radio navigation. Externally stabilized reflex klystrons with tunable cavities appeared, as did broadband two-cavity klystron amplifiers. The production of backward-wave tubes for the submillimeter region was begun.
Major contributions to the development of microwave tubes were made by Deviatkov, V. A. Afanas’ev, M. B. Golant, Zusmanovskii, V. F. Kovalenko, and L. A. Paryshkuro.
In 1967, A. V. Gaponov-Grekhov designed high-power millimeter-wave oscillators that operate according to the cyclotron resonance principle at the Scientific Research Institute of Radio Physics at the University of Gorky. Important contributions to the development of electron-tube technology and to the organization of the mass production of new electron-tube devices were made by many specialists, notably I. A. Zhivopistsev, A. A. Zakharov, R. A. Nilender, A. A. Sorokin, and M. M. Fedorov.
In the USSR, a new independent field of science and technology—quantum electronics—arose in the 1950’s. The principal achievement of quantum electronics was the building of a molecular beam maser by N. G. Basov and A. M. Prokhorov in 1954 and 1955.
In pulse engineering, which was established as an independent area of radio electronics in the 1950’s, progress was made owing to the rapid development of, on the one hand, radar, television, and remote control and, on the other hand, computer technology and nuclear physics. In particular, progress was made in such aspects of pulse engineering as measurement technology and the development of equipment for accelerators. During the 1950’s, nanosecond-pulse engineering was established and developed rapidly as an important area in many fields of experimental physics, measurement technology, and computer technology.
Achievements in solid-state physics and semiconductor theory in the late 1940’s led to the development of semiconductor electronics and, later, integrated electronics (or integrated microelectronics). In the early 1950’s, the electronics industry in the USSR began the production of low-power high-frequency transistors for receivers. In a short time, semiconductor devices rivaled receiving tubes to an appreciable extent; in some areas of application, they virtually supplanted receiving tubes. For example, second-generation computers (including on-board computers for aircraft and spacecraft), automated control systems, and communication equipment were developed on the basis of semiconductor devices, and most of the radio broadcast receivers manufactured in the 1970’s were transistorized. Owing to the achievements of semiconductor electronics and microelectronics, an important problem in radio electronics—increasing the reliability of radio equipment—and the related problems of microminiaturization were solved.
The advent of the planar process in the late 1950’s and the rapid spread of the process played an exceptionally important role in the development of microelectronics. The planar process gave rise to the rapid development of integrated semiconductor electronics, which made possible the conversion to the multiple process for the fabrication of semiconductor devices. The multiple process entails the creation of a functionally complete electronic device on a single semiconductor crystal, that is, the fabrication of an integrated circuit.
In connection with the necessity of, for example, rapidly assimilating and introducing semiconductor technology and developing equipment based on semiconductor devices, the Scientific Research Institute of Semiconductor Electronics was founded in 1953 in Moscow. Later, a network of scientific research institutes, design offices, and plants was established in various cities. Organizations affiliated with the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and such administrative bodies as the ministries of nonferrous metallurgy and of the chemical industry took part in the qualitative and quantitative development of semiconductor electronics and microelectronics.
A. I. Shokin played an important role in the creation of the electronics industry, including the semiconductor industry. V. D. Kalmykov had a major role in the conversion from the first generation of radio equipment to the second and third generations (first-generation equipment uses electron-tube devices, second-generation equipment is based on semiconductor devices, and third-generation equipment employs integrated circuits). Important contributions to the development of semiconductor electronics and microelectronics were made by many scientists and engineers, including Ioffe, N. P. Sazhin, la. I. Frenkel’, B. M. Vul, V. M. Tuchkevich, G. B. Abdullaev, Zh. I. Alferov, L. V. Keldysh, la. A. Fedotov, K. A. Valiev, A. Iu. Malinin, S. G. Kalashnikov, and V. G. Kolesnikov.
Ferrites have found many applications in radio electronics. They are used in, for example, microwave antennas and feeders, parametric amplifiers, and circuits in radio equipment. Ferrites that exhibit rectangular hysteresis loops are used in magnetic storage cells in computers.
In connection with the development of space communications, radar, radio astronomy, and television in the USSR, parametric and quantum-mechanical amplifiers with extremely low noise levels were designed. The sensitivity of receivers that use such amplifiers may be as great as 10–18 watt (W). On the basis of achievements in the theory of radio reception (notably by V. I. Siforov), the theory of potential noise immunity (notably by Kotel’nikov), the statistical theory of signal detection, and information theory, radio systems were built for the reception of faint signals (of the order of 10–22 W/m2) from spacecraft and unmanned interplanetary probes at distances of tens of millions of kilometers from the earth. Many theoretical problems of radiowave propagation and of the reflection and absorption of radio waves by the atmosphere and other bodies were solved.
Beginning in the mid-1940’s, Soviet television changed over to a higher picture line standard (625 lines) and to frequency modulation in the audio channel. An extensive television network was set up in which programs are transmitted between cities via cable links, radio-relay communications links, and satellite communications links. An example of a cable link is the 1,920-channel coaxial-cable transmission system that was developed in 1958. The satellite communications links include the link that employs the Molniia 1 communications satellite and the Orbita system, which was established in 1967.
Color television has been developed. The SECAM color television system, which is compatible with the black-and-white system, was developed by the joint efforts of Soviet and French specialists. The system was adopted in 1967.
Semiconductor devices are being used to a greater extent in television equipment. Phototelevision equipment has been used in space exploration; such equipment was installed for the first time aboard the Luna 3 probe in 1959.
In 1964 the Standing Commission for the Radio Manufacturing and Electronics Industries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) was established. The commission coordinates the activity of specialists from the socialist countries in radio engineering and electronics.
A number of tendencies are characteristic of the development of telecommunications in the USSR. They include the complete automation of switching operations, the use of computers to control operations for connecting subscribers in quasi-electronic and electronic switching systems, the development of time-division multichannel communication systems, the development and adoption of wave-guide and optical communication lines, and the introduction of standardized equipment for multichannel communications. Such standardized equipment makes it possible to set up, in a single communication line, several channels to be used for various types of telecommunication, for example, telephone communication, telegraph communication, facsimile, data transmission, and video telephone communication.
The introduction of radio electronics in communications is still a timely problem. The task of introducing radio electronics is dictated by the rapid growth of information traffic and, consequently, by the requirements of raising the speed and accuracy of information transmission and increasing the reliability and noise immunity of communication equipment. The solution of the problem lies in the development of new integrated circuits for systems with electronic switching of messages and channels and for time-division multiplex systems (in particular, pulse-code modulation systems).
The number of electronic components in modern communication equipment is continuously increasing. In the last decade it rose by a factor of approximately 10–20.
Telecommunications in the USSR are being further developed through the creation of the Integrated Automatic Communications System (IACS), which was devised in the 1960’s and is being systematically introduced. The variety of services offered to IACS subscribers makes it necessary to integrate the communications networks on a common technological basis.
PERIODICALS. The following Soviet periodicals deal with electronics, radio engineering, and electrical communications: Radiotekhnika i elektronika (Radio Engineering and Electronics; since 1956), Radiotekhnika (Radio Engineering; since 1946), Elektrosviaz’ (Electrical Communication; since 1933), Radio (since 1924), Mikroelektronika (Microelectronics; since 1972), and Elektrotekhnika (Electrical Engineering, since 1930). (See.)
V. M. RODIONOV

Bibliography

60 let radio: Nauchno-tekhnich. sb. Edited by A. D. Fortushenko. Moscow, 1955.
Ocherki istorii radiotekhniki. Moscow, 1960.
70 let radio: Nauchno-tekhnich. sb. Edited by A. D. Fortushenko. Moscow, 1965.
80 let radio: Nauchno-tekhnich. sb. Edited by A. D. Fortushenko. Moscow, 1975.
Materialy po istorii sviazi v Rossii XVIII-nach. XX vv.: Pochta, telegraf, telefon, radio, televidenie: Obzor dokumental’ nykh materialov. Leningrad, 1966.
Brenev, I. V. Nachalo radiotekhniki v Rossii. Moscow, 1970.
Razvitie sviazi v SSSR. Moscow, 1967.
Psurtsev, N. D. Sviaz’ na sluzhbe stroitel’stva kommunizma. Moscow, 1970.
Ocherki razvitiia tekhniki v SSSR, book 3. Moscow, 1970.
Obolenskii, S. A. Iz istorii elektronnogo priborostroeniia v SSSR. In Trudy Instituta istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki, vol. 26. Moscow, 1959.
Engineering cybernetics and computer technology. Engineering cybernetics arose in the modern stage of the development of the theory and practice of automatic control. It is the scientific basis for the integrated automation of production and for complex control systems in, for example, transportation and the energy industry.
The foundations of classical automatic control theory were laid in the late 19th century by the Russian scientists I. A. Vyshnegradskii, A. M. Liapunov, and N. E. Zhukovskii. As a result of the victory of the October Revolution in 1917 and the industrialization of the USSR, objective conditions were created for the efficient development and automation of industrial production. In the late 1930’s two new specialties—automation and remote control (telemekhanika)—were introduced in major higher educational institutions in the USSR. In 1939 a leading scientific center for engineering cybernetics, the Institute of Automation and Telemechanics for the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, was founded in Moscow.
Research in the analysis and synthesis of automatic control systems, primarily linear systems, was conducted by Soviet scientists in the 1930’s and 1940’s. The research was an important preliminary stage in the establishment of engineering cybernetics as construed today. In 1938, A. V. Mikhailov formulated and analyzed stability criteria for linear automatic control systems. The main subdivisions of the theory of the stability of linear automatic systems were developed by such specialists as M. V. Meerov, Iu. I. Neimark, L. S. Pontriagin, la. Z. Tsypkin, and A. E. Barbashin. In 1938, N. N. Voznesenskii worked out a noninteraction method for the analysis of multiple-loop linear automatic control systems. Contributions to the development of the theory of invariant automatic control systems were made by G. V. Shchipanov in 1939, N. N. Luzin in 1940, and V. S. Kulebakin in 1948, as well as by B. N. Petrov, A. G. Ivakhnenko, and A. Iu. Ishlinskii.
The research of Soviet scientists in the theory of nonlinear automatic control systems was of fundamental importance. In 1937, A. A. Andronov, A. A. Vitt, and S. E. Khaikin worked out a phase-space method for the analysis of piecewise-linear systems; on the basis of the phase-space method, A. N. Maier devised a method of point-to-point transformations. Contributions to the development of the modern theory of the stability of nonlinear automatic control systems were made by B. V. Bulgakov, N. N. Krasovskii, A. I. Lur’e, A. A. Voronov, and I. G. Malkin.
In the 1960’s, Barbashin set forth a new concept of stability. The concept made possible an approach to the analysis of a broad class of problems of automatic control from common positions.
Various theories and methods were developed in the USSR in the 1930’s and the early 1940’s. N. M. Krylov and N. N. Bogoliubov set forth a theory of the harmonic balance method in 1934 and 1937. On the basis of the theory, an approximate method for the analysis of periodic modes in nonlinear automatic control systems was worked out by L. E. Gol’dfarb in 1940, V. A. Kotel’nikov in 1941, and E. P. Popov between 1953 and 1960. Unique research in statistical methods for the analysis of nonlinear systems was carried out by Andronov, Vitt, and Pontriagin in 1933 and by V. S. Pugachev in 1944. A general theory of periodic modes in relay control systems was developed by Neimark in 1953.
In the late 1940’s, variable-structure control systems were implemented in the USSR. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, a general theory of variable-structure systems was developed by such specialists as V. A. Maslennikov, S. V. Emel’ianov, Petrov, and V. I. Utkin.
Fundamental results were obtained in the development of the theory of optimal control systems. In the theory of deterministic optimal control systems, a general method for establishing the criterion of optimality was proposed in 1956; the method is known as Pontriagin’s maximum principle. Between 1959 and 1973, A. G. Butkovskii worked out a theory of optimal control for distributed-parameter systems. Krasovskii developed a theory of the stabilization of controlled systems by synthesizing methods of stability theory and the theory of optimal processes.
A. N. Kolmogorov’s work in 1941 on filtering theory was seminal in the development of statistical methods for the analysis of optimal control systems. Kotel’nikov’s research in 1956 was the first work on the use of statistical methods for the analysis of nonlinear optimal control systems. Pugachev and other specialists developed a general theory of the optimization of control systems on the basis of statistical methods. In 1963, A. A. Fel’dbaum constructed a theory of dual-mode control.
The beginning of theoretical research in adaptive systems and of the practical implementation of such systems was associated with the study of optimal control systems by Iu. S. Khlebtsevich in 1940 and by V. V. Kazakevich in 1946 and 1949. The problem of constructing multichannel optimal control systems was first formulated in the USSR. Between 1956 and 1959, Fel’dbaum considered extremum search methods for the first time. Important theoretical research and practical work were carried out by such specialists as Fel’dbaum, A. A. Krasovskii, and V. V. Solodovnikov with respect to searchless self-adapting systems and by Tsypkin with respect to adaptive and learning systems.
Soviet scientists were the first to use pattern recognition methods to perform tasks in circumstances where visual observation is impossible. For example, in 1964, M. M. Bongard, M. N. Vaintsvaig, M. A. Guberman, M. L. Izvekova, and M. S. Smirnov developed the Kora-3 program for the identification of oil-bearing beds.
Substantial advances were made in the study of a number of subdivisions of the theory of relays and automatons. The first research in methods for the structural analysis of relays was conducted by A. A. Kutti and M. G. Tsimbalistyi in 1928 and by V. A. Rozenberg in 1939. The earliest work on the use of a machine based on Boolean algebra was carried out by V. I. Shestakov between 1935 and 1941. The fundamentals of relay theory were systematically set forth by M. A. Gavrilov between 1950 and 1954. The first research in which redundancy based on efficient coding techniques was introduced in order to increase the reliability of relays and automatons was performed by Gavrilov in 1960 and A. D. Zakrevskii in 1961.
An important aspect of the theory of automatons (or automata theory) is the development of formal languages for the description of the operation and synthesis of relays and finite automatons. Such languages were developed by A. A. Liapunov between 1952 and 1958 and by other specialists, including Iu. A. Bazilevskii, Gavrilov, V. M. Glushkov, A. A. Letichevskii, Iu. L. Sagalovich, V. A. Trakhtenbrot, and Zakrevskii.
Potential-impulse automatons were first developed by A. D. Talantsev in 1959 and by V. G. Lazarev and E. I. Piil’ in 1964. In the 1960’s, a theory of pulsating and growing automatons was created, notably by la. M. Bardzin’. Theories of the behavior of automatons in random environments were constructed by M. L. Tsetlin between 1961 and 1963. Research in machine games, the collective behavior of automatons, and probabilistic automatons is of ever increasing importance. Such research has been conducted by various specialists, including R. G. Bukharaev, I. M. Gel’fand, Lazarev, and V. I. Varshavskii.
The control of integrated engineering systems is an important and rapidly developing area of engineering cybernetics. Research by such specialists as A. I. Berg, N. P. Buslenko, Iu. I. Cherniak, Kolmogorov, G. S. Pospelov, G. N. Povarov, and V. A. Trapeznikov dealt with the determination of a criterion for evaluating the complexity of a system and with the analysis and synthesis of integrated systems. A model theory of situation control was worked out by D. A. Pospelov and V. N. Pushkin.
An important contribution was made to the theory of data transmission. The first research in data transmission was conducted by Kotel’nikov in 1933. The mathematical foundations of the theory of data transmission were laid by Kolmogorov and A. la. Khinchin. In the mid-1950’s, a period of rapid development of the theory began in the USSR. An important role in the development of the theory was played by A. A. Kharkevich, with whose activity is associated the founding of a leading center in the field—the Institute of Problems in Information Transmission of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR—in 1961 in Moscow.
In 1966, V. I. Siforov became the director of the Institute of Problems in Information Transmission. Considerable advances were made in research in information theory (Siforov, R. L. Dobrushin, I. A. Ovseevich, M. S. Pinsker, and B. S. Tsybakov), coding theory (notably by E. L. Blokh, V. V. Ziablov, and K. Sh. Zigangirov), the theory of image processing (L. P. Iaroslavskii and D. S. Lebedev), the theory of pattern recognition (V. S. Fain, I. Sh. Pinsker, G. I. Tsemel’, and I. T. Turbovich), and biological cybernetics (A. L. Byzov, V. S. Gurfinkel’, A. L. Iarbus, E. A. Liberman, and M. L. Shik). Research in data transmission in communications systems has been conducted at a rapid pace; the Integrated Automatic Communications System of the USSR has been set up (the problem of data transmission in communications systems was first posed by Kharkevich in 1956). At the institute in the 1960’s, the fundamentals of the theory of data distribution were set forth by such specialists as A. D. Kharkevich, Lazarev, V. I. Neiman, and V. N. Roginskii.
Berg played an especially important role in the organization of cybernetics research and practical applications of cybernetics as well as in the development of the methodological principles of cybernetics in general and of engineering cybernetics in particular.
Applied research in engineering cybernetics encompasses a wide range of problems associated with general principles for the development of automatons and control systems and a wide range of methods for the synthesis of digital computing devices for programmed control. Such methods were investigated by Glushkov, N. N. Moiseev, and Voronov. Much attention has been given to computers and computer software because, first, the most complex control systems are devised on the basis of computers and, second, the implementation of control systems that use computers far outstrips the implementation of all other types of control systems with respect to the amount of work in progress (as of 1978).
Soviet scientists made a substantial contribution to the development of computer technology. Their first major achievements in the field were associated with the building of analogue computers. In the USSR, the principles for the construction of network analyzers were developed by S. A. Gershgorin in 1927 and the concept of the electrodynamic analogue computer was proposed by N. Minorskii in 1936. In the 1940’s, the development of AC electronic antiaircraft directors and the first vacuumtube integrators was begun by L. I. Gutenmakher. In 1949 a number of DC analogue computers were built under the direction of V. B. Ushakov, Trapeznikov, Kotel’nikov, and S. A. Lebedev.
General-purpose electronic digital computers occupy a dominant position among modern computer equipment. The first electronic digital computer in the USSR, the MESM (Small Electronic Calculator), was built in 1950. The BESM (High-speed Electronic Calculator) was developed in 1952; at the time, it was the fastest computer in Europe, performing 8,000 operations per second. The MESM and BESM were designed under the direction of Lebedev. In 1952 the M-2 digital computer was built under the direction of I. S. Bruk. Full-scale production of first-generation electronic digital computers in the USSR was begun in 1953 with the Strela computer, which was designed by Bazilevskii. The Setun’ digital computer was built at Moscow State University in 1959; it was the world’s first digital computer to use the ternary system of numeration.
In the USSR, the production of second-generation computers began in the first half of the 1960’s. The most important developments of the 1960’s included the following: the BESM-6 computer system (built under the direction of Lebedev), the MIR series of small digital computers (built under the direction of Glushkov), the Nairi series of small digital computers (G. E. Ovsepian, chief designer), the Minsk series of digital computers (built under the direction of G. P. Lopato and V. V. Przhiialkovskii), the Ural family of single-design digital computers (B. I. Rameev, chief designer), and the UM-l-NKh control minicomputer (F. G. Staros, chief designer).
In its nominal speed of 1 million operations per second, the BESM-6 machine, which was built in 1966, substantially surpassed the most powerful domestic first-generation digital computers. The high speed of the BESM-6 was attained mainly through multiprogramming. In the machine, interleaving of the operations of the external storage and the processor is used, together with overlapping of the operating cycles of the main memory modules and advance assembly of arithmetic instructions in the control unit.
The small digital computers of the MIR series were designed to perform engineering calculations. The MIR-1 was built in 1966, and the MIR-2 was constructed in 1969. The algorithmic source language for the MIR machines is as close as possible to the language of engineering calculations. Step-by-step microprogramming, which makes it possible to use a small amount of memory space for the recording of complex programs and to increase the speed of digital computers, was used for the first time in the MIR series. An important feature of the MIR-2 is the presence of a display console equipped with a light pen. The MIR-2 was the first computer in which such a console was used for the visual monitoring of the computing process.
The operational method, which was devised by A. A. Liapunov between 1952 and 1958, played a considerable role in the development of programming. The use of the method made it possible to analyze and formalize the process of compiling a program. The operational method became the basis for the development of formal methods for the study of programs and of problem-oriented algorithmic languages.
Important research in computer mathematics was conducted by such specialists as A. A. Dorodnitsyn, Buslenko, S. S. Lavrov, and G. I. Marchuk. Research in software for digital computers was carried out, notably by Glushkov, A. P. Ershov, and M. R. Shura-Bura.
In the early 1960’s, Soviet scientists proposed a number of concepts that were first implemented in the 1970’s. For example, Glushkov suggested the creation of a state computer network and a hierarchical network of automated control systems for the management of the national economy of the USSR. Rameev proposed the development of families of computers that are compatible with respect to software and auxiliary equipment. E. V. Evreinov and Iu. G. Kosarev advanced the concept of a “computing medium,” that is, a set of uniform, general-purpose digital machines with programmed adjustment.
In the 1960’s, I. la. Akushskii and D. I. luditskii obtained important results in the organization of computers that use a system of numeration in residual classes.
The 1970’s were the period of the most substantial developments in computer technology. In 1971 the digital computers of the Unified System of Computers were put into operation. Most of the countries belonging to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) participated in the development of the system, which is a series of third-generation general-purpose computers with speeds ranging from 10,000 to 2 million operations per second (third-generation computers are machines that use integrated circuits).
The percentage of the total output of automation equipment and devices represented by computer equipment can serve as an indirect indicator of the importance of computer technology for the national economy of the USSR. It amounted to 8 percent in 1960 and to 69 percent in 1975.
A characteristic feature of the development of engineering cybernetics in the USSR in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s was the widespread use of computer technology in man-machine systems, including automated control systems. In the framework of engineering cybernetics, research was conducted and problems were solved pertaining mainly to management levels for production. Examples of such levels are the management of a production unit, the management of a technological process, and the management of a shop system.
In terms of the number of systems implemented and the number of computers used in the systems, automated control systems set up in various sectors of the economy and process control systems are in the leading types of control systems used in production. In the USSR, the first such systems were set up in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s. One of the first systems in the world with direct digital control of a technological process—the Avtooperator process control system at the Lisichansk Chemical Combine—was set up in 1962. A number of well-designed automated control systems that were developed and introduced in the 1960’s had a substantial economic effect; they include the automated control systems at the Leningrad Opticomechanical Production Association, the Moscow Frezer Plant, the L’vov Television Factory, and the Barnaul Radio Factory.
In the period from 1966 to 1970, a total of 370 automated control systems for enterprise control and 174 process control systems were put into operation in the USSR. In the early 1970’s, approximately 40,000 specialists were employed in the design, development, and setting up of automated control systems. In the period from 1971 to 1975, a total of about 1,800 computerized automated control systems for enterprise control and about 700 computerized process control systems were put into operation, either completely or partially.
Beginning in the early 1970’s, a plan has been implemented that entails measures for the creation of the National Automated System of Information Collection and Processing for National Economic Accounting, Planning, and Management (OGAS). Providing national, Union-republic, and regional management bodies, as well as ministries and departments, with information required for the solution of accounting and planning problems and for the adoption of the solutions should become the primary function of the OGAS. The development of the OGAS is being carried out in close connection with the development of automated control systems for all control levels and for the Integrated Automatic Communications System (IACS), which is being set up. The State Computer Network and the National Data Transmission System, which is a part of the I ACS, should constitute the technological base for the OGAS. The timely importance of and the possibilities for the implementation of the OGAS project stem from the objective economic requirements of the Soviet state, the planned development of Soviet society, and the overall level of engineering cybernetics in the USSR.
The plans for the development of the national economy of the USSR call for the further expansion of work on the production of automation equipment and devices for use in, for example, transportation, the energy industry, the communal services system, and various sectors of industry. They also call for an increase in the output of computer equipment, general-purpose and control computer complexes, production equipment with programmed control, automatic control and data-transmission equipment for process control systems, and optimal control systems in sectors of the national economy.
In the 1970’s, engineering cybernetics and computer technology as scientific disciplines were included in the curricula of more than 200 higher educational institutions. A considerable amount of research in the fields is being conducted at several dozen scientific research institutes and higher educational institutions as well as at the largest computer centers in the USSR. The research is carried out at, for example, the Institute of Problems of Control in Moscow, the Computer Center of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Moscow, the Institute of Cybernetics in Kiev, the Computer Center of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Novosibirsk, and the Institute of Automation and Control Processes of the Far East Scientific Center of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Vladivostok.
PERIODICALS. Soviet periodicals that deal with engineering cybernetics and computer technology include the following: Izvestiia AN SSSR: Tekhnicheskaia kibernetika (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Engineering Cybernetics; since 1963), Avlomatika i telemekhanika (Automation and Remote Control; since 1936), Problemy peredachi informatsii (Problems in Information Transmission; since 1965), Kibernetika (Cybernetics; since 1965), Upravliaiushchie mashiny i sistemy (Control Computers and Systems; since 1972), and Avlomatika ivychislitel’naia tekhnika (Automation and Computer Technology; Riga, since 1967).
I. A. APOKIN

Bibliography

Tekhnicheskaia kibernetika v SSSR. Moscow, 1968.
Tekhnicheskaia kibernetika: Teoriia avtomaticheskogo regulirovaniia [books 1–4]. Moscow, 1967–69.
Apokin, I. A., and L. E. Maistrov. Razvitie vychislitel’nykh mashin. Moscow, 1974.
Entsiklopediia kibernetiki, vols. 1–2. Kiev, 1974.
Machine science. Machine building is a group of several sectors of heavy industry that manufacture production tools, consumer goods, and products for national defense. As such, it determines to the greatest extent both technological progress and the efficiency of the national economy (see).
THEORY OF MACHINES AND MECHANISMS. The evolution of machine building from individual nonautomatic machines to automatic systems of machines is reflected in the development of the most important areas of the theory of machines and mechanisms. The foundations of the theory were laid by P. L. Chebyshev in the 1860’s and P. O. Somov in the 1880’s. Chebyshev’s works dealt with, for example, the synthesis of linkages. Somov’s works were devoted to spatial kinematic chains and the solution of the generalized problem of the structure of kinematic chains.
In the early 20th century, L. V. Assur worked out a theory of the structure and classification of mechanisms and A. P. Kotel’nikov developed the principles of the helical method for the kinematic analysis of mechanisms. The development of gear theory was of great importance; contributions to the theory were made by Kh. I. Gokhman in the late 19th century and N. I. Mertsalov in the early 20th century. Gokhman and Mertsalov devised new types of gearing and worked out engineering methods for the design of gearing.
A new stage in machine science began after the October Revolution. Kinematic problems for the general case of a spatial seven-link mechanism were solved in the 1920’s by Mertsalov and later by such specialists as 1.1. Artobolevskii and G. G. Baranov. In the 1930’s, N. G. Bruevich solved the problem of dynamic force analysis for spatial mechanisms. Also in the 1930’s, V. V. Dobrovol’skii and Artobolevskii distinguished five families of mechanisms according to the number of degrees of freedom and the number of conditions of linkage. In addition, they pointed out general methods for solving problems in the analysis of mechanisms and proposed a system for the classification of mechanisms. The work of the Soviet school of machine science on the classification, kinematics, and dynamic force analysis of plane and spatial mechanisms consolidated the school’s leading position in world machine science.
In the 1930’s, 1940’s, and 1950’s, Artobolevskii and his school worked out a comprehensive classification of mechanisms according to their structural, kinematic, and dynamic properties. Their work made it possible not only to systematize existing mechanisms but also to discover new types of mechanisms. The study of the effect of tolerances and inaccuracies in the fabrication of parts on the kinematics and dynamics of mechanisms gave rise in the 1940’s to the “theory of real mechanisms.” The basic postulates of the theory as applied to plane and spatial mechanisms were developed by Bruevich.
In the 1940’s and 1950’s, the theory of the synthesis of mechanisms was further developed, notably by Artobolevskii and Dobrovol’skii. Methods for the synthesis of, for example, linkages and cam mechanisms are used in the design of engines, machine tools, and other machines, including textile and agricultural machinery. In the 1950’s, such specialists as S. N. Kozhevnikov and E. V. Gerts initiated research in the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms containing hydraulic, pneumatic, or electric devices. In the 1960’s, work was begun on the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms containing electronic or photoelectric devices.
Research in the dynamics of production machines, including agricultural machines, was begun by V. P. Goriachkin in the early 1920’s and was continued by such specialists as Artobolevskii and A. P. Malyshev in the 1930’s, 1940’s, 1950’s, and 1960’s. Problems of the balancing, types of movement, and energy balance of agricultural machines were studied, and many problems in the dynamics of machine assemblies were solved. In the late 1960’s, problems of vibrations in machines, especially at high speeds or under heavy loads, were investigated by F. M. Dimentberg and K. V. Frolov.
In the 1960’s, research in the theory of automatons, or automata theory, and in methods for the design and operation of automatons was expanded by S. I. Artobolevskii, I. I. Kapustin, and G. A. Shaumian. Automatons were classified according to criteria associated with the number of data streams and with ways of using the machines; the methods of the theory of automatons are related to the general methods of automatic control theory. For a broad class of automatons with digital control systems, A. E. Kobrinskii developed operating programs and both methods and equipment for the processing of input data and ancillary running data. He also studied problems of the design of self-adapting systems.
Beginning in the 1950’s, such specialists as S. A. Cherkudinov used computers to solve problems in the synthesis of automatons having optimal parameters.
In the 1970’s, work was conducted on automatic machine systems, robot-manipulators, walking machines, machines with elements of variable weight, vibratory machines, and the dynamics of machines with several degrees of freedom. Contributions to such work were made by I. I. Artobolevskii, Kobrinskii, and A. P. Bessonov.
The leading institutes in the theory of machines and mechanisms include the State Scientific Research Institute of Machine Science, the Institute of Geotechnical Mechanics in the Ukraine, the Georgian Polytechnic Institute, the Institute of Machine and Polymer Mechanics in Georgia, the Kaunas Polytechnic Institute, the Leningrad Opticomechanical Institute, the Leningrad Institute of Railroad Transport Engineering, and the Cheliabinsk Polytechnic Institute. Research in machine science is coordinated by the Scientific Council on the Theory of Machines and Machine Systems and the Scientific Council on the Theory and Principles of Robot and Manipulator Devices.
Soviet scientists participate in international congresses on the theory of machines and mechanisms. From 1969 to 1975,1.1. Artobolevskii was the president of the International Federation for the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms.
THEORY OF MACHINE DESIGN. Russian scientists and engineers who were active in the 19th century and the early 20th century made substantial contributions to the theory and practice of machine design. For example, N. E. Zhukovskii investigated the operation of a flexible belt on pulleys and examined the distribution of forces between the turns of a thread. Together with S. A. Chaplygin, Zhukovskii solved one of the most important problems in hydrodynamics as applied to plain bearings.
The theory of machine design developed rapidly after the October Revolution of 1917. In the second and third decades of the 20th century, research in machine design was conducted by scientists at the Moscow Higher Technical School and at many other higher educational institutions and scientific research organizations. The research at the Moscow Higher Technical School was carried out by A. I. Sidorov and P. K. Khudiakov. In the 1930’s and 1940’s, S. V. Serensen devised methods of designing shafts and axles for durability. The methods take into account the variability of operating conditions, the static and fatigue characteristics of materials, stress concentration, a scaling factor, and surface hardening.
In the early 1940’s, such specialists as A. I. Petrusevich and V. N. Kudriavtsev developed a theory and principles for the design of involute gearing, as well as fundamental theoretical postulates for the design of external and internal spur gearing and of bevel, hypoid, and worm gearing. In the 1950’s, M. L. Novikov proposed a round-helical gearing. Beginning in the 1960’s, theoretical calculations of dynamic loads have been used in engineering practice at the State Scientific Research Institute of Machine Science. The calculations take into account the precision of gear manufacture, the nature of the loading, and other parameters.
In the 1940’s and 1950’s, research was begun in the contact hydrodynamic theory of lubrication. In particular, the isothermal contact-hydrodynamic problem for a line contact was solved.
In the 1930’s, 1940’s, and 1950’s, V. N. Beliaev and D. N. Reshetov developed the fundamentals of the theory of belt and variable-speed drives and worked out principles for designing belt drives for traction.
In the 1940’s and 1950’s, the theory of the design of connections was further developed. In particular, I. A. Birger studied the strength of elements of threaded joints subjected to static and cyclic loading.
In the 1950’s and 1960’s, hydraulic drives with a power rating of 100–150 kilowatts were produced.
In the 1940’s, 1950’s, 1960’s, and 1970’s, the theory and design of springs and other elastic elements were developed to a considerable extent by such specialists as E. P. Popov and S. D. Ponomarev.
In the 1970’s, improved methods for the design of brakes and of hydrodynamic, hydrostatic, and gas-lubricated plain bearings were worked out at the State Scientific Research Institute of Machine Science and the Moscow Higher Technical School. At the Riga Polytechnic Institute, the wear of gears has been investigated by the tracer technique. The load-supporting capacity of oil or grease films between machine parts that roll with slippage has been studied at the State Scientific Research Institute of Machine Science, the Kiev Institute of Civil Aviation, and the Odessa Polytechnic Institute. Important research has also been conducted at such institutes as the Moscow Machine Tool Institute, the Experimental Scientific Research Institute of Metalcutting Machine Tools, the Central Scientific Research Institute of Machine-building Technology, the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, the Leningrad Institute of Mechanical Engineering, and the Leningrad Shipbuilding Institute.
PROBLEMS OF STRENGTH. Several important problems in the theory of the strength of materials were studied by Russian scientists in the prerevolutionary period. For example, N. E. Zhukovskii computed the stress distribution in threaded joints, A. N. Krylov investigated the effect of force impulses on elastic systems, and I. G. Bubnov carried out research in the structural mechanics of thin-walled structures. S. P. Timoshenko contributed to the applied theory of elasticity. V. L. Kirpichev and M. V. Voropaev studied the fatigue of structural materials.
After 1917, research in problems of strength was conducted on the basis of newly established institutes, such as the Physicotechnical Institute in Leningrad, the Institute of Engineering Mechanics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR in Kiev, and the Central Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Institute. The research at the Physicotechnical Institute was devoted to criteria for the brittle failure of materials, residual stresses, and strain measurements. Scientists at the Institute of Engineering Mechanics investigated the dynamic strength and fatigue of mechanical structures. The research performed at the Central Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Institute dealt with the strength of structures subjected to heavy loads.
In the 1930’s, well-developed methods of structural mechanics were first used in strength analyses of steel. The methods made it possible to determine static stresses in elastic systems consisting of machines, assemblies, or structures.
The research performed by P. F. Popkovich, G. V. Kolosov, and N. I. Muskhelishvili played a major role in the development of methods for the determination of stress fields. The research was the basis for the solution of problems pertaining to the limit state and to the mechanics of failure. In particular, the use of conformal mapping made it possible to solve a number of new problems of stress concentration near holes and in press fits and to solve both two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems in the design of machine elements.
Research carried out in the 1930’s by such specialists as N. S. Streletskii and A. A. Gvozdev and in the 1950’s and 1960’s by, for example, S. D. Ponomarev led to the widespread use of the method of ultimate-load design. The method is based on structural mechanics and takes into account both possible velocity fields and allowable stress fields. Important contributions to the study of the limit state as applied to problems of strength were made by V. V. Sokolovskii and A. A. Il’iushin in the 1940’s, Iu. N. Rabotnov in the 1950’s, and L. M. Kachanov and N. N. Malinin in the 1950’s and 1960’s. In particular, Rabotnov’s research had a great influence on the subsequent development of applied methods for the analysis of strength and states of stress in inelastic strain.
In the 1950’s and 1960’s, methods for the analysis of strain fields and stress fields, strain measurement techniques, and certain other methods came into widespread use. Field analysis methods were developed by such specialists as N. I. Prigorovskii; strain measurement techniques were devised by M. L. Daichik and G. Kh. Khurshudov. The refinement of the finite-difference method and the development of the finite-element method, notably by D. V. Vainberg and A. G. Ugodchikov, made it possible to formulate schemes for the solution of problems of strength not only in the elastic range but also in the plastic range, including during creep. The implementation of calculations by such schemes is especially efficient when computers are used.
Substantial contributions to the study of the mechanical regularities of brittle failure were made by A. F. Ioffe in the 1920’s, N. N. Davidenkov in the 1930’s, and la. B. Fridman and B. A. Drozdovskii in the 1950’s and 1960’s.
In the study of fatigue strength, extensive experimental work was performed and practical methods for the analysis of strength under cyclically varying stresses were developed. The following were of great importance in the study of fatigue strength: the construction of stochastic models of the fatigue process, notably by N. N. Afanas’ev in the 1940’s and V. V. Bolotin in the 1960’s; the development of methods of strength analysis by such specialists as S. V. Serensen and V. P. Kogaev in the 1950’s and 1960’s; and the study of problems of low-cycle failure by N. I. Marin in the 1940’s and such specialists as Serensen and V. V. Novozhilov in later years.
Various experimental methods for the analysis of strain fields were developed in order to inspect cyclic deformation and to test failure criteria. The methods employed grids (N. A. Makhutov), optically active coatings (R. M. Shneiderovich and V. V. Larionov), or moire” (Shneiderovich and O. A. Levin). Criteria for fatigue failure were improved in relation to the type of state of stress. The possibility of substantially increasing the strength of a material at points of stress concentration by means of cold working of the surface or heat treatment was pointed out in the 1940’s and 1950’s, notably by N. P. Shchapov and I. V. Kudriavtsev.
Systematic research in problems of thermal strength was carried out by I. A. Oding in the 1940’s, 1950’s, and 1960’s, by Serensen since the 1950’s, and by G. S. Pisarenko in the 1950’s and 1960’s, as well as by their students. The research was devoted to the explanation of complex changes in the mechanical strength and thermal strength of materials over a wide range of loading and heating conditions. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, such specialists as Iu. I. Likhachev and Iu. F. Balandin conducted research in the strength of materials subjected to nonisothermal loading. The strength of a material under such loading is especially important for structural members in which considerable thermal stresses occur.
Increases in machine speeds, the intensification of technological processes, and the use of pulse methods in forming and hardening procedures led to the study of elastoplastic-wave problems. The solution of such problems is based on fundamental work by such specialists as L. A. Galin and Kh. A. Rakhmatulin.
In the 1970’s, the development of the science of the strength of materials has been characterized by the following trends: the study of problems of the mechanics of strength and failure as the basis for strength analysis in the case of extremal heating or loading conditions, the study of the kinetics of both failure and states of strain in order to determine strength and durability under conditions of static and stochastic loading, and the analysis of loading history and damage buildup in order to evaluate residual strength and fatigue life.
The leading institutes that deal with problems of strength are the State Scientific Research Institute of Machine Science, the Institute of Problems in Mechanics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Institute of Problems of Strength of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, and the Institute of Electric Welding of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Research in problems of strength is coordinated by the Scientific Council on Problems of Strength and Plasticity of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
PROBLEMS OF PRECISION, ACCURACY, AND WEAR RESISTANCE. Technological progress in machine building is closely associated with the solution of problems of increasing the precision of machine-part manufacture and ensuring the wear resistance of machine parts. Individual research efforts dealing with such problems were undertaken in prerevolutionary Russia. For example, the work of N. P. Petrov, who laid the foundations for the hydrodynamic theory of friction, is well known.
Systematic research in the precision of manufacture and the accuracy of measurements was not conducted until after the October Revolution of 1917. In 1918 the metric system was declared the legal system of measures by a decree adopted by the Council of People’s Commissars. Later, national standards were adopted and other measures pertaining to metrology were implemented. In the 1920’s and 1930’s, tolerance standards for standard machine parts were developed by A. D. Gattsuk and M. A. Saverin. The Scientific Research Bureau for Interchangeability, which was established in 1935 and was directed by I. E. Gorodetskii, played an important role in the development of state tolerance standards for parts and of gages for checking parts. The bureau became the leading organization in the development of measuring equipment and automatic checking machines. In the 1930’s, research in interchangeability, standardization, and measurement technology was carried out at scientific research organizations in various sectors of industry.
The theoretical research conducted by N. G. Bruevich, B. S. Balakshin, N. A. Borodachev, and N. A. Kalashnikov in the 1930’s and 1940’s was of great importance. Bruevich investigated the precision of mechanisms and took into account errors in the dimensions and relative positions of members. Balakshin contributed to the theory of dimension chains, and Borodachev developed the fundamentals of calculating tolerances for kinematic chains. Kalashnikov’s research dealt with gear accuracy. In addition, such specialists as A. P. Sokolovskii and V. M. Kovan initiated the study of problems of precision and accuracy in relation to technological processes for the manufacture of finished products.
The end result of the research performed in the 1930’s and 1940’s was a general theory of the precision of machines and instruments, which was worked out in the 1940’s and 1950’s at the State Scientific Research Institute of Machine Science. In the 1960’s and 1970’s, the conclusions of the theory were used in the design of machines, instruments, and technological processes, as well as in both the automation of inspection in industry and the control of technological processes.
In the 1970’s, scientists focused their attention on computeraided optimization of problems of accuracy and precision in design and on the integrated study of problems of accuracy and reliability. The leading organizations in interchangeability, precision, and accuracy are the Bureau for Interchangeability in the metal-working industry, the State Scientific Research Institute of Machine Science, and the Central Scientific Research Institute of Machine-building Technology. Considerable research is also conducted at, for example, the Vilnius Branch of the Experimental Scientific Research Institute of Metalcutting Machine Tools and the Kiev, Riga, and Kaunas polytechnic institutes. Soviet scientists participate in the work of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and in international conferences of the member states of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) on measurement technology and the development of both unified standards and a uniform system of tolerances and fits.
Since the 1930’s, the theory of the friction and wear of solids has developed most rapidly in connection with the growth of machine building. Wear-resistant friction materials and new types of lubricants have been required. In the 1930’s and 1940’s, A. K. Zaitsev and D. V. Konvisarov systematized the science of friction and wear in machines and attempted to develop the integrated study of friction and wear. Later, the nature of surface forces was investigated by B. V. Deriagin, the failure mechanism for surface layers was studied by P. A. Rebinder, and both bearing alloys and abrasive wear were investigated by M. M. Khrushchov. In the 1950’s, the molecular-mechanical theory of friction and the fatigue theory of wear were proposed by I. V. Kragel’skii. Today, the theories are the basis for the engineering design, for wear, of machines that operate under conditions of dry or boundary friction and for the selection and production of materials for friction pairs.
In the 1940’s and 1950’s, substantial contributions to the theory of friction and wear were made by B. D. Grozin and B. I. Kostetskii (the wear of metals), A. P. Semenov (the seizing of metals), S. V. Pinegin (rolling resistance), A. K. D’iachkov and M. V. Korovchinskii (hydrodynamic lubrication), A. I. Petrusevich (contact-hydrodynamic lubrication), G. V. Vinogradov and R. M. Matveevskii (the effectiveness of lubrication under severe friction conditions), and A. V. Chichinadze (physical modeling of frictional contact).
In the early 1960’s, the necessity of creating new friction materials and units for various types of machines was a powerful stimulus for the development of science. Self-lubricating materials with a polymer base were developed by such specialists as V. V. Korshak and V. A. Belyi, and metallofluoroplastic materials were developed at the State Scientific Research Institute of Machine Science. In the 1960’s and 1970’s, N. L. Golego worked out measures for preventing the seizure of surfaces in contact, A. K. Pogosian investigated the friction of polymers, and G. A. Svirskii further studied the process of sliding friction.
In the 1970’s, lubricants and additives that prevent the seizing of friction pairs and that ensure self-compensation for wear were developed at the All-Union Scientific Research and Planning Institute of the Petroleum-refining and Petrochemical Industry and the A. V. Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis. Polymer materials for friction units were developed at various institutes, including the Institute of Heteroorganic Compounds of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Institute of Metallo-polymeric Systems of the Academy of Sciences of the Byelorussian SSR. Theoretical principles for the contact interaction of solids with allowance for external conditions were worked out at the Institute of Problems in Mechanics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Design methods of wear prediction were applied to various machine parts at the State Scientific Research Institute of Machine Science. Standard methods for the evaluation of friction materials were devised at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Standardization in Machine Building.
Important research in friction and wear is being carried out under agreements between the USSR and Great Britain, France, and the German Democratic Republic. The USSR is a member of the International Council for Tribonics (Eurotrib), which was founded in 1973. I. V. Kragel’skii became the vice-president of Eurotrib in 1973.
MATERIALS SCIENCE. P. P. Anosov and D. K. Chernov were the founders of modern metal science. In the prerevolutionary period, centers for metal science were organized on the basis of higher educational institutions and some factory laboratories. The development of metal science was especially rapid after the October Revolution of 1917. A network of scientific research institutes, plant laboratories, and technical higher educational institutions was created, and major schools of metal science evolved.
In the 1920’s and 1930’s, N. S. Kurnakov and his school developed the physicochemical analysis of alloys and determined important regularities in the dependence of properties on composition. Research in metallurgical processes and metal science was conducted by A. A. Baikov’s school; the research provided the basis for the development of high-quality steels. The research carried out by A. M. Bochvar’s school dealt with the study of alloys based on nonferrous metals and the development of bearing alloys. The research that was conducted by S. S. Shteinberg and continued by his students, notably V. D. Sadovskii, was devoted to the kinetics of austenite transformations. New types of steels and various technological processes for heat treatment were developed by N. A. Minkevich and N. T. Gudtsov. A. A. Bochvar determined the mechanism of eutectic crystallization, laid the foundations for the theory of the casting properties of alloys, and discovered superplasticity, a phenomenon that is used in the development of new technological processes for metalworking. In the 1930’s, V. P. Vologdin initiated research in the use of high-frequency currents in heat-treatment processes.
Beginning in the 1920’s, X-ray diffraction techniques played an important role in the development of metal science. X-ray diffraction analysis makes it possible to determine the crystal structure of various phases and changes in crystal structure upon phase transformations, heat treatment, or deformation. Important contributions to the X-ray diffraction analysis of materials were made by S. T. Konobeevskii, G. V. Kurdiumov, and N. V. Ageev. In particular, Kurdiumov investigated the crystal structure of martensite and changes in the structure of hardened steel upon tempering; he discovered both thermoelastic equilibrium and “elastic” martensite crystals. His discoveries were the theoretical basis for the development of alloys that “remember” their shape.
In the postwar period, the requirements imposed on metallic materials increased sharply and became more varied in connection with the need to achieve high values of operating parameters and high reliability and longevity over a wide range of temperatures, loads, and loading rates and upon exposure to various aggressive media and physical fields. The requirements of technology with respect to the cost-effectiveness and workability of materials also were substantial (workability includes such characteristics as weldability, formability, ease of heat treatment, and small changes in dimensions upon heat treatment). The need arose for the production of materials with a complex set of properties, for example, special physical properties, nonmagnetizability, or high strength combined with a sufficient resistance to brittle fracture and cold-shortness. As a result, theoretical metal science developed rapidly, as did the search for new metallic materials and methods of producing them.
In the 1960’s and 1970’s, the demands of the national economy for metallic materials were met. New steels were developed, including the following: high-strength structural steels with high plasticity and resistance to both cyclic loads and stress corrosion; low-alloy structural steels with good weldability and improved mechanical properties for use in bridge-building, gas and petroleum pipelines, shipbuilding, industrial construction, civil construction, and—in particular—under conditions encountered in northern regions; high-temperature steels for jet aircraft and the energy industry; corrosion-resistant steels for the chemical and atomic-energy industries; economical heavy-duty tool and highspeed steels; electrical steels with low specific losses, including cold-rolled and textured steels; nonaging steels for deep drawing; and cryogenic steels.
A. F. Belov and A. T. Tumanov contributed to the development of the production of high-strength light alloys, that is, high-strength aluminum, magnesium, titanium, and beryllium alloys, especially those used for structures that must be of low weight. A. S. Zaimovskii contributed to the development of the production of alloys with special physical properties for use in electronic engineering, electron-tube technology, and instrumentation. Examples include soft- and hard-magnetic alloys, high-resistance alloys, alloys with a given expansion coefficient, alloys with high elastic properties, and superconducting, magnetostrictive, and thermomagnetic alloys.
Research in the thermomechanical treatment of metals that was conducted in the 1960’s and 1970’s was of great importance.
Achievements in solid-state physics, physical chemistry, and metal science made possible the creation of a fundamentally new class of materials, called composites. The useful properties of the components of composites—for example, metals, alloys, ceramics, carbides, borides, and polymers—can be employed to produce composites with a given set of special properties. Such composites may be high-strength, high-temperature, high-modulus, radio-wave absorbing, radio-wave transparent, dielectric, or magnetic materials.
In the USSR, a wide variety of theoretical and applied research is being conducted in the development and use in machine building of plastics and other synthetic materials, such as rubbers, chemical fibers, adhesives, varnishes, and paints. Highly effective plastics with valuable physical, mechanical, chemical, dielectric, and optical properties have been developed. Primary shops for the production of plastic machine parts and assemblies have been organized at many machine-building plants. Plastics are replacing heavy nonferrous metals, stainless steel, and valuable kinds of wood. They are used to improve the quality of machines and equipment, to reduce the weight and cost of machines and equipment, and to increase longevity, reliability, and productivity.
A. A. PARKHOMENKO, O. A. VLADIMIROV, A. I. PETRUSEVICH, A. T. GRIGORIAN, R. M. MATVEEVSKII, and R. I. ENTIN
Machine production technology. CASTING. In prerevolutionary Russia, casting was carried out by a small number of foundries and shops with primitive equipment. The range of products was extremely limited, consisting mainly of molds, rolls, weapons, ammunition, and castings for repair needs. In the 19th century P. P. Anosov, N. V. Kalakutskii, and A. S. Lavrov wrote works that dealt with the processes of the solidification of castings and with the occurrence of liquation and internal stresses in castings. A revolution in iron and steel casting was brought about by the discovery of the critical points of metals in the late 19th century.
The foundry industry developed rapidly after the October Revolution of 1917. Research conducted by N. N. Rubtsov, L. I. Fantalov, N. P. Aksenov, and P. N. Aksenov provided the theoretical basis for the design of foundry equipment and for the mechanization and specialization of the industry. In the 1930’s P. P. Berg laid the foundations for the study of molding materials. In the 1930’s, 1940’s, and 1950’s such specialists as N. G. Girshovich, B. S. Mil’man, and D. P. Ivanov developed processes for the production of high-quality iron castings. Processes for the production of high-quality steel castings were developed in the 1930’s, 1940’s, 1950’s, and 1960’s, notably by Iu. A. Nekhendzi and A. A. Ryzhikov. In the 1930’s and 1940’s A. A. Bochvar and A. G. Spasskii introduced into production the process of manufacturing high-quality light-alloy castings solidified at elevated pressure.
Research in the theory and practice of smelting iron in cupola furnaces was carried out in the 1940’s and 1950’s, notably by L. M. Marienbakh, B. A. Noskov, and L. I. Levi. In the 1950’s and 1960’s such specialists as B. B. Guliaev and G. F. Balandin studied and substantiated many processes of the solidification and distortion of castings.
In the 1970’s, processes of smelting in improved cupola furnaces and in electric furnaces found application in industry. Alloying and the modification of alloys are carried out to improve the properties of castings. Highly accurate castings are produced by using chill casting, the lost-wax process, single-use molds made on automatic machines at high pressure, or special molding sands and core sand mixtures that harden in the molding equipment. Vacuum smelting and various types of melt refining are used, as is semiautomatic and automatic equipment that makes work easier and protects the environment from exposure to industrial wastes. Process control and the control of production as a whole are automated.
The leading institutes for the development of foundry technology and machine building are the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Foundry Machine Building, Technology, and Automation and the Institute of Foundry Problems of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.
Soviet scientists are members of the International Committee of Foundry Technical Associations and participate in international foundry congresses. The Fortieth International Foundry Congress was held in Moscow in 1973.
PRESSURE SHAPING. The main forms of pressure shaping include forging, sheet-metal forming, extrusion, and rolling. This section deals only with the first three forms. (For a discussion of rolling, see.)
Before 1917, forge and extrusion-press shops produced a limited range of machine parts. During the first five-year plan (1929–32), the forging, sheet-forming, and extrusion industries underwent substantial development, especially in the following new sectors of machine building: power-engineering machine building, tractor building, the automotive industry, and transportation machine building. Forge shops began to produce forgings and formed sheet-metal articles from many grades of steel and from various light alloys, for example, aluminum and magnesium alloys. The first specialized light-alloy extrusion-press shops were established.
In the 1930’s and 1940’s, forging and sheet-forming technology was improved. The range of forgings was expanded, sheet-forming accuracy was increased, and the shapes of forgings approximated those of finished parts. Hot die forging in multiple impression dies was first used. The thickness of sheet metal for the forging and hot die forging of large hollow articles, such as drums and boilers, was increased. Growth in the output of thin cold-rolled sheet influenced the improvement of the cold forming of large parts used in, for example, motor vehicles, ships, and railroad cars. As a result of increases in the dimensions of forged parts, the upper weight limit for forging ingots was raised to 200–250 tons. In the 1950’s, the use of electroslag welding in the production of large forge-welded articles yielded positive results.
The development of nuclear engineering, aeronautical engineering, rocketry, and instrumentation, as well as increases in such operating parameters of machines as forces, stresses, speeds, pressures, and temperatures, made it necessary to develop new production processes for high-strength and high-temperature alloys and to devise new thermomechanical treatment operations for refractory metals, such as molybdenum, niobium, tungsten, and chromium. The extrusion process for metals underwent considerable development. It became possible to extrude shapes and pipes of variable cross section; alluminum-alloy panels and hollow shapes; titanium-alloy pipes and shapes, including pipes of variable cross section and hollow shapes; and rods, shapes, and pipes made of high-strength steels, nickel-base high-temperature alloys, or refractory alloys.
In addition to new hydraulic press equipment, such as powerful closed-die forging presses with a force of 30,000–75,000 tons and horizontal hydraulic metal-extruding presses with a force of 12,000–20,000 tons, fundamentally new production processes were introduced in the 1960’s and 1970’s, notably extrusion by pulsation or explosive charge and the nonextrusive manufacture of articles in the cold state from such materials as high-temperature steels, titanium, and aluminum alloys. Also developed in this period were units that harness the power of an explosion in water or in a vacuum, electric discharge units that operate in water, explosion units that use a mixture of gases, and pulsation units with powerful magnetic fields. Techniques were worked out for the hydrostatic extrusion of metals and the high-temperature hydrostatic shaping of metal powders derived from hard-to-work metals and alloys. Custom-built press equipment has been manufactured for the production of synthetic diamonds. The production processes involved in forging and sheet-metal forming are undergoing integrated mechanization and automatization; for example, automatic units for the extrusion of solid and tubular articles are being introduced, as are automatic transfer machines for the heading of bolts and rivets and automatic transfer machines for the pressure forming of races, railroad-car wheels, and track links.
Theoretical and practical problems of forging, sheet-metal forming, and extrusion have been addressed by such specialists as S. I. Gubkin, I. M. Pavlov, E. P. Unksov, A. I. Tselikov, I. A. Perlin, B. V. Rozanov, A. I. Zimin, and P. S. Istomin. Research on these processes is carried out at such institutions as the Central Scientific Research Institute of Machine-building Technology, the All-Union Scientific Research, Planning, and Design Institute of Metallurgical Machine Building, and the All-Union Institute of Light Alloys.
WELDING. Until the late 19th century only two methods of welding were used: cast welding and forge welding. V. V. Petrov’s discovery of the arc discharge in 1802 made it possible to develop essentially new metal-joining techniques. The first practical methods of arc welding were proposed by N. N. Benardos in 1882 and N. G. Slavianov in 1890. By 1911 gas welding had also come into use.
Scientific research in welding was undertaken after the October Socialist Revolution. The first welding machines designed by V. P. Nikitin were produced in 1924. The Committee on Gas Welding under the Supreme Council on the National Economy was created in 1929 to coordinate research and design work in the welding and cutting of metals, and the All-Union Gas-welding Trust was established in 1931. During the first five-year plan (1929–32), electric welding was used not only to repair equipment but also to produce new structures in such industries as construction, transportation machine building, power engineering machine building, and shipbuilding. Many plants used electric welding as a basic production process in the manufacture of, for example, boilers, railroad-car structures, railroad tank cars, all-welded ships, and pipelines.
Scientific research was conducted at the Central Institute of Railroad Transport, the Central Scientific Research Institute of Technology and Machine Building, the Scientific Research Institute of the Shipbuilding Industry, and plant laboratories. N. N. Rykalin undertook research on heat diffusion during welding, and V. P. Vologdin and G. A. Nikolaev studied the strength of welded structures and the mechanism of stress formation during the welding process. In the 1930’s, research that led to the development of automatic open arc welding was begun at scientific research institutes and plants; particularly important was the work done under E. O. Paton in Kiev. Research in this area led to the development in the early 1940’s of automatic submerged arc welding, in which original Soviet-produced equipment was used. The new methods made it possible to eliminate heavy manual labor and to put welding on an industrial footing.
During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, welding techniques were used in the production of tanks and in the manufacture of rockets for such weapons as the BM-13 (Katiusha) rocket launcher. Equipment for automatic submerged arc welding was employed in the production of welded armored hulls; in accordance with V. I. Diatlov’s principle of self-regulation of the arc length, the electrode wire was fed at a constant rate. In 1942 a welded pipeline was laid across the bottom of Lake Ladoga to supply fuel to besieged Leningrad. K. K. Khrenov helped develop methods of underwater welding and cutting used to repair damaged ships.
Scientific research did not cease during the war. V. P. Nikitin proposed the use of liquid filler metal in welding, and B. E. Paton and I. K. Oleinik developed techniques for consumable-wire submerged arc welding. Research was carried out in such areas as the spot welding of very thick metals (A. S. Gel’man) and applications of metallurgy and metal science to welding (K. V. Liubavskii and A. M. Makara).
In the postwar period, welding technology has moved in three directions: the expansion of mechanization and automation; the search for new methods to heat metals; and the study and improvement of metallurgical processes. In the late 1950’s, industry used automatic submerged arc welding, electroslag welding, gas-electric welding methods, and the mechanized hard surfacing of metals. Automatic welding made possible production-line shipbuilding using large sections, the manufacture of large-diameter gas and petroleum pipelines, and the solution of the problem of all-welded bridge construction.
Electroslag welding, which was developed at the E. O. Paton Institute of Electric Welding, made it possible to transform the technology and the organization of production of large articles and machinery, such as rolling equipment, powerful presses, hydraulic-turbine shafts, and furnace complexes. Welding was employed in the construction of such unique structures as a bridge across the Dnieper in Kiev (1953), the largest all-welded bridge in Europe; the frames of Moscow skyscrapers in the early 1950’s; and the icebreakers Lenin (1959) and Arktika (1974). In the 1960’s and 1970’s welding was used in the manufacture of powerful hydraulic generators and hydraulic presses, gas and petroleum pipelines, atomic power plants, and high-displacement all-welded tankers. Welding finds application in such areas as heavy machine building, power engineering machine building, and transportation machine building and in the production of electronic and semiconductor devices and equipment. Demonstration plants, shops, and production sections for welded structures have been established in order to raise the level of welding technology.
In the 1970’s, research in welding concentrated on the solution of various problems. Such scientists as Nikolaev studied the resilience of welded joints and methods for calculating weld stresses and strains. B. E. Paton, Rykalin, and Khrenov were among those who worked on the theory of heat sources in welding. B.I. Medovar, V. V. Frolov, Liubavskii, and M. Kh. Shorshorov developed principles of the metallurgy and physical chemistry of welding. Such scientists as A. I. Akulov and G. D. Nikiforov studied welding techniques and ways to improve welding materials.
Efficient, fundamentally new methods have been developed, notably diffusion welding in a vacuum, welding in shielding and inert gases, friction welding, electron-beam welding, laser-beam welding, and plasma welding. Welding can be done both on land and underwater. The first experiments on welding in outer space were carried out in 1969 on the spacecraft Soyuz 6 by V. N. Kubasov and G. S. Shonin. At the E. O. Paton Institute of Electric Welding in the USSR and at the Central Welding Institute in the German Democratic Republic, units for the electron-beam welding of parts for the automotive industry were developed in 1974.
Research on welding is conducted by departments of higher educational institutions and at such research institutes as the Central Scientific Research Institute of Technology and Machine Building, the E. O. Paton Institute of Electric Welding, the Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Electric Welding Equipment, the Baikov Institute of Metallurgy, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Gas Welding and Machine Building, the Moscow Institute of Aviation Technology, the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, and the Moscow Power Engineering Institute.
MACHINING. The first theoretical work in Russia on metalcutting processes was done in 1868 and 1869 by I. A. Time. The foundation for a science of metalcutting was laid by such Russian scientists as K. A. Zvorykin, A. A. Briks, and A. V. Gadolin. Extensive research on metalcutting was undertaken after the October Revolution of 1917 as a result of the rapid development of socialist industry, especially machine-tool building, the tool industry, and metalworking.
A. N. Cheliustkin, who between 1922 and 1926 substantiated the formula for determining cutting force, initiated research on the cutting process. The Orgametall Trust, established in the 1920’s, provided facilities for research in metalcutting, for the development of new machine tools and tooling, and for the training of scientific personnel. In the early 1930’s scientific and planning work on basic problems of the machine tool industry was undertaken at the Experimental Scientific Research Institute of Metalcutting Machine Tools (ENIMS), the Moscow Machine Tool Institute, and the design offices of many factories. The work included developing individual types of machine tools and entire model ranges for such machine tools, increasing the speed and power of machine tools, improving the design of machine parts and mechanisms, introducing automatic control, and enhancing the wear resistance and durability of machine tools. Noteworthy contributions were made by such scientists and specialists as A. S. Britkin, V. I. Dikushin, G. M. Golovin, D. N. Reshetov, and G. A. Shaumian. Europe’s first building-block machine tool with multiple spindles was built in 1934 at ENIMS.
In the 1930’s intensive research was conducted on the development of new tools and materials for them. After the first Soviet sintered hard-alloy composition, Pobedit, was produced in 1929, research was conducted at laboratories of higher educational institutions and factories, the All-Union Scientific Research Tool Institute, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Abrasives and Grinding, and the Moscow Machine Tool Institute, all of which were established in the early 1930’s, for the purpose of introducing hard-faced tools into production on a broad scale and of developing new hard-alloy compositions and other tool materials (ceramic materials) that make it possible to accelerate cutting speeds. Such specialists as G. I. Granovskii, V. M. Matiushkin, and I. I. Semenchenko helped develop the principles for designing cutting tools.
The first research in machine-building production processes after the October Revolution was undertaken in the early 1930’s by A. P. Sokolovskii; work in this area subsequently was continued by B. S. Balakshin (accuracy of control of dimensions during the machining process), N. A. Borodachev (theory of accuracy), K. V. Votinov (problems involving rigidity of machine tools), O. M. Kovan (theory of machining allowances), and A. B. lakhin (theory of locating elements). The work of these specialists played a major role in solving many technical problems in the machining of materials.
Of great importance in the development of metalcutting science and the creation of a Soviet school of machining was the period from 1935 to 1941, when the Stakhanovite movement of peredoviki (exemplary workers) in industry exceeded quotas that were retarding the further development of technology, including metalcutting technology. At its December 1935 plenum the Central Committee of the ACP(B) proposed a review of the production guidelines on which the quotas were based. To this end, the Commission on Metalcutting was created to consolidate the country’s scientific research in the field. Taking part in the commission’s work were such scientists as I. M. Besprozvannyi, V. A. Krivoukhov, E. P. Nadeinskaia, and A. V. Pankin, as well as plant collectives, engineers, foremen, and workers.
More than 120,000 experiments on the cutting process were carried out, using a single methodology, and force and durability curves were established for all models of metalcutting tools and for all the principal metals used in machine building; in addition, engineering techniques were devised for designing the tool point and calculating the optimal conditions for machining various materials. The work of scientists in related disciplines, notably V. D. Kuznetsov and P. A. Rebinder, played a major role in the study of the physical principles of the cutting process.
Before the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, the machine tool industry produced many models of highly automated machine tools, including building-block machine tools and special-purpose machine tools. Important research in this area was carried out at the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, institutes of various industries, and specialized laboratories. The first designs for automatic transfer machines consisting of building-block machine tools were prepared at ENIMS as early as 1936. During the war, automatic machine tools and automatic and semiautomatic transfer machines played an important part in the mass production of weapons, despite the shortage of manpower: a single semiautomatic transfer machine for the boring and drilling of holes in hull parts of the T-34 tank did the work of 19 heavy boring machines and radial drilling machines and freed 36 skilled workers. At the same time, the model range of machine tools was expanded considerably: a single design office, headed by G. I. Nekliudov, developed about 190 original machine tool models for the production of mortar weapons.
In the early postwar years research and design institutes worked on the problems of high-speed cutting. One of the main prerequisites for the transition to high machining speeds was the automation of machine tool control through electrification and the use of hydraulic drive. In 1946, ENIMS developed an electronically controlled variable-speed gas-tube electric drive for machine tools, and N. A. Volchek and Iu. B. Erpsher designed for the automotive-tractor industry automatic transfer machines that consisted of 14, 45, and 25 building-block machine tools and made use of the principle of the continuous (flow) pass of work-pieces transported by means of hydraulic drive. Such research institutes as the All-Union Scientific Research Tool Institute and the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Abrasives and Grinding also helped develop automatic machine tools and automatic transfer machines. In 1948, Shaumian worked out the principles for a theory of automatic-machine-tool design. The world’s first piston plant with integrated automation was designed and built in 1949 and went into operation the following year.
From the 1950’s to 1970’s, as part of the effort to improve the balance among the country’s various industries and to supply the national economy with better equipment, design offices and research institutes of industries devoted particular attention to planning and developing designs for precision machine tools, heavy and custom-built machine tools, machine tools for electro-physical and electromechanical processing (such as ultrasonic, electroerosive, laser, and plasma processing), multioperation machine tools in which tools are replaced automatically, and numerically controlled machine tools. By 1965 a unified, standardized series of models and modifications of these models had been developed for plants producing universal machine tools. N. S. Acherkan, V. I. Dikushin, V. F. Kudinov, and V. S. Vasil’ev worked on methods for designing machine tools. A. S. Pronikov studied problems pertaining to the production process, and D. N. Reshetov conducted research on the wear resistance of machine tools.
The mastery of the production of new machinery and equipment, which involved the use of high-temperature, stainless, erosion-resistant, high-melting, and other hard-to-machine materials, required the development of new tool materials, a change in cutting-tool designs, and a different approach to selecting the proper conditions for machining. Research carried out by A. F. Vereshchagin at the Institute of High-pressure Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and by V. N. Bakul’ at the Institute of Superhard Materials of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR between the late 1950’s and the early 1970’s led to the development of such superhard tool materials as synthetic diamonds, boron nitride, and geksanit (a wurtzite-like composite material based on boron nitride). Boron nitride, which is used to machine very hard complex alloys, was first produced by the II’-ich Abrasives Plant in Leningrad; it is exported to many countries.
Of great importance in the development of new tools and materials was the work of such scientists as N. E. Filonenko-Borodich, G. N. Sakharov, D. F. Shpotakovskii, and V. N. Slesarev. Such specialists as M. V. Kas’ian, T. N. Loladze, and N. N. Zorev contributed to the theory of machining. Many innovative workers, among them G. S. Bortkevich, S. I. Bushuev, P. B. Bykov, V. A. Karasev, V. A. Kolesov, and V. K. Seminskii, played a major role in developing advanced machining methods.
Numerous research projects in machine-building technology were carried out in the 1950’s, 1960’s, and 1970’s. Balakshin worked on the adaptive control of machine tools, S. P. Mitrofanov conducted research on multiunit machining, E. F. Ryzhov solved various problems pertaining to contact rigidity, and P. E. D’iachenko determined the influence of various factors on accuracy of machining and on surface quality. Such specialists as M. E. Egorov and V. S. Korsakov worked on problems of machine-building production processes. Soviet scientists, notably I. V. Kudriavtsev, E. G. Konovalov, and S. V. Serensen, were the first to work out the principles of hardening processes that make possible greater operating reliability and longer life of products.
During the tenth five-year plan (1976–80), plant design offices and research, design, and technological institutes of various industries worked to develop automatic equipment with miniaturized electronic systems for numerical control, and monitoring and sought to achieve a more desirable balance among the various types of metalworking equipment being manufactured—that is, to ensure the production of more machine tools with numerical control, more heavy, custom-built, and high-precision machine tools, more special-purpose machine tools, and more automatic transfer machines, including adjustable integrated transfer machines and sets of high-capacity computer-controlled equipment. They also worked to develop new high-strength abrasive materials and new metalworking tools made of natural and synthetic diamonds, ceramic materials, and other superhard materials. Other organizations contributing to these areas included ENIMS and its branches in the Armenian SSR and Lithuanian SSR, the All-Union Scientific Research Tool Institute, the All-Union Scientific Research Diamond Institute, the Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Machine Tools and Tooling, and the technological institute Orgstankinprom, as well as design offices in many Union republics.
The member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) have signed agreements on cooperation in research on basic scientific and technological problems in metalworking, such as the development and improvement of numerically controlled machine tools, the creation of a standard programming language, the development of accuracy standards and methods for testing machine tools, and the standardization of control systems and elements. Cooperation along these lines is leading to greater concentration of research potential in the socialist countries.
A. A. PARKHOMENKO, O. A. VLADIMIROV, L. I. LEVI, and D. L. IUDIN
PERIODICALS. The main Soviet periodicals that deal with machine production technology are Mashinovedenie (Machine Science; since 1965), Vestnik mashinostroeniia (Machine-building News; since 1921), Izvestiia AN SSSR: Mekhanika tverdogo tela (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Solid-state Mechanics; since 1966), Standarty i kachestvo (Standards and Quality; since 1927), Mashinostroitel’ (Machine Builder; since 1931), Priborostroenie (Instrumentation; since 1956), Izmeritel’naia tekhnika (Measuring Equipment; since 1939), Metallovedenie i termicheskaia obrabotka metallov (Metal Science and Heat Treatment; since 1955), Stal’ (Steel; since 1941), Liteinoe proizvodstvo (Casting Production; since 1930), Svarochnoe proizvodstvo (Welding Production; since 1930), Avtomaticheskaia svarka (Automatic Welding; since 1948), Kuznechno-shtampovochnoe proizvodstvo (Forging and Sheetmetal Forming Production; since 1959), and Stanki i instrument (Machine Tools and Tooling; since 1930).

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Metallurgy. Russian scientists made a major contribution to the science of metals and the development of the equipment and processes used in metal production. In 1763, M. V. Lomonosov published The First Foundations of Metallurgy, in which he treated a number of problems associated with the extraction of ores and the production of metals. In the 1760’s, I. I. Polzunov constructed the first steam-powered blast-furnace bellows. V. V. Petrov demonstrated the feasibility of using an electric arc, which he discovered in 1802, for smelting and reducing metals from oxides. The work of P. G. Sobolevskii on the production of ductile platinum and the fabrication of platinum items (1826) gave rise to powder metallurgy. P. P. Anosov worked out new methods of high-quality steelmaking, initiated the metallurgy of alloy steels, and was the first to use the microscope to investigate the structure of a metal (1831). D. K. Chernov’s classical studies of the crystallization of steel ingots, phase transitions in steel, and the structure of metals and alloys served as the basis for the creation of modern metal science and the heat treatment of metals. Chernov’s legacy was fruitfully developed by A. A. Baikov, A. A. Rzheshotarskii, and N. S. Kurnakov. M. A. Pavlov and M. K. Kurako made a major contribution to the theory and practice of the blast-furnace process. One of the first open-hearth furnaces in Europe was built in 1870 by A. A. Iznoskov; D. K. Chernov (1872) and K. P. Polenov (1875–76) proposed a Russian Bessemer process—a variation of the Bessemer process that made it possible to work low-silicon pig iron. The brothers A. M. Gorianov and Iu. M. Gorianov developed and introduced the processes of open-hearth smelting using molten pig iron (1894). The metallurgical industry developed on the basis of the scientific work, discoveries, and inventions of Russian scientists, engineers, and practicing metallurgists. Equipment designs were improved, and production processes were perfected. However, it was impossible to create large-scale metallurgy under the conditions existing in prerevolutionary Russia.
The October Revolution of 1917 lent strong impetus to the development of productive forces, including metallurgy. The restoration and development of ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy through electrification was one of the primary tasks of the GOELRO plan. During the first five-year plan (1929–32), construction work was begun on large metallurgical enterprises and heavy machine-building plants for the production of equipment and machinery for the metallurgical industry.
Before 1917 there were no metallurgical research institutes in Russia, only small research laboratories at several plants (such as the Putilov and Obukhov factories) or attached to departments of mining and metallurgy at higher educational institutions. During the years of Soviet power, many scientific centers have been created: the A. A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the I. P. Bardin Central Scientific Research Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy, the Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Metals (Kharkov), the Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Special Steels, Alloys, and Ferroalloys (Zaporozh’e), the Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy (Dnepropetrovsk), the Donetsk Scientific Research Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy, the Scientific Research and Planning Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Dressing of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, the State Scientific Research and Process Planning Institute of the Rare-Metals Industry (Giredmet), the State Scientific Research Institute of Nonferrous Metals (Gintsvetmet), the Institute of Metallurgy, and the Institute of the Physics of Metals of the Urals Scientific Center of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
The country’s higher educational institutions of metallurgy are also staffed by highly skilled personnel. The work of Soviet scientists has largely determined the scope of scientific and technological progress in metallurgy, and it continues to do so. The physicochemical principles of metallurgical processes have been investigated and have provided a basis for the development of methods for increasing metallurgical production. Existing production processes have been improved and new ones created.
The country’s metallurgical base has been greatly expanded. Established metallurgical plants in the Southern, Urals, and Central economic regions have been joined by new plants in Western and Eastern Siberia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and the Far East. The North and the Northwest USSR have become a major base for metal production. The State Institute for the Design of Metallurgical Plants, founded in Leningrad in 1926, has played a major role in the renovation and construction of metallurgical enterprises. In 1930 the institute designed a standard blast furnace with a volume of 930–1,000 cu m. Since 1936, plans drawn up by the institute have been used to build blast furnaces with unprecedented volumes of 1,300 cu m and later 2,000 cu m. In the early 1970’s the volumes of Soviet blast furnaces were increased to 2,700–3,200 cu m, and in 1974 the largest blast furnace in the world, with a volume of 5,000 cu m, went into operation at the V. I. Lenin Krivoi Rog Metallurgical Works. The USSR produces the world’s largest open-hearth furnaces, with capacities up to 600 tons, as well as 600-ton two-bath furnaces, oxygen converters with a capacity of 300–350 tons, and electric furnaces with capacities of 100 and 200 tons. Hot-rolling mills with capacities up to 4 million tons of rolled metal or more per year are in operation at many plants.
Scientific and technological progress is evident in all stages of metallurgical production—from the preparation of raw materials to the delivery of finished products. Ore-dressing plants have been built in the most important mining basins. Technical progress in the concentration of minerals is characterized by improvement of the production layouts and methods used, improvement of equipment, an increase in the degree of concentration in response to the more stringent requirements of modern metallurgy regarding raw materials, and the increasing ability to work with low-grade ores that are difficult to enrich. Production layouts that ensure the complete utilization of raw materials, including complex ores, have been developed and introduced in industry. Agglomeration production advanced even during the prewar five-year plans, and was particularly developed after the war, when the USSR built the world’s largest agglomeration plants. The production of fluxed pellets of finely pulverized iron-ore concentrates was perfected in the 1960’s.
The by-product coke industry developed during the years of Soviet power, and progressive coking processes were adopted. Current trends in by-product coke production include the construction of larger coking batteries with high-capacity coke ovens, the introduction of smokeless charging and dry quenching of coke, the mechanization and automation of coke oven maintenance, and the improvement of trapping processes and the reprocessing of by-products, which numbered more than 200 in the 1970’s. Coke ovens with a volume of 30 cu m and a height of 5–6 m are now being built, as well as others with a volume of over 40 cu m and a height of 7 m. The annual production of a coking battery consisting of 65 such units exceeds 1 million tons of coke.
The industrialization of the country and the rapid development of ferrous metallurgy and other branches of the national economy have forced a growth in the production of refractories. In prerevolutionary Russia refractory production was a semicottage industry, and many types of refractory products, such as those for blast furnaces and coke ovens, were imported. By the late 1930’s the country’s requirements were being satisfied almost entirely by domestic refractories. During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, approximately one-half of the enterprises of the refractory industry were destroyed. Their postwar restoration was accompanied by technical reequipment, which was especially intensified in the 1960’s and 1970’s. Scientific research conducted by scientists in conjunction with workers of the refractory industry has been especially fruitful. Product quality and variety have been increased, and the raw materials base has been expanded. New technology has produced many new refractories, including resin-bonded refractories for oxygen converters, dense kaolin refractories for the shafts of blast furnaces, high-alumina and high-density Dinas refractories, periclase-spinal refractories, and refractory products for vacuum units and continuous steel casting.
The use of oxygen and natural gas was a decisive step in the intensification of blast-furnace production. Experimental smelting with an oxygen-enriched blast was begun in the USSR at the Chernaia Rechka Chemical Plant in the 1930’s; in 1940 and 1941 further experiments were conducted with a blast furnace at the Dnepropetrovsk Metallurgical Equipment Plant. Blast-furnace production with an oxygen blast was investigated on a broader scale with an experimental furnace at the Novaia Tula Plant from 1948 to 1953. Natural gas was used for the first time at the G. I. Petrovskii Dnepropetrovsk Metallurgical Works in 1957; the new process resulted in a great reduction in the consumption of coke, and within one year it was introduced in 12 blast furnaces. Combined with an oxygen-enriched air blast, the use of natural gas ensures operating stability of the blast furnace and improves the technical and economic indicators of smelting. By the early 1970’s, more than 80 percent of the pig iron produced in the USSR was smelted by means of natural gas and approximately 60 percent by means of oxygen. Increasing the gas pressure at the top of the blast furnace and raising the air blast temperature to 1200°C greatly increase the output of blast furnaces.
In steel production, as in blast-furnace production, the use of oxygen and natural gas is an important means of intensifying the production process. The first experiments in the use of an oxygen-enriched blast in an open-hearth furnace were conducted before the war at the Serp i Molot Moscow Metallurgical Plant and the Krasnoe Sormovo Plant in Gorky. Beginning in 1948, research was carried out on a broader scale at the Serp i Molot, Zaporozhstal’, and Azovstal’ plants. Subsequent experiments carried out by the I. P. Bardin Central Scientific Research Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy in conjunction with the Zaporozhstal’ Plant showed that when the air blast of an open-hearth furnace is enriched with oxygen to approximately 30 percent and the oxygen is blown during the boiling period, the productivity of the furnace can be increased by 40–50 percent with a simultaneous reduction of 30–40 percent in the specific fuel consumption. Plans called for up to 80 percent of all open-hearth steel to be produced with an oxygen-enriched air blast by the end of the 1970’s. The use of high-energy natural gas makes it possible to simplify the design of open-hearth furnaces and facilitates regulation and automation of thermal process. High-capacity two-bath furnaces, designed on the basis of open-hearth furnaces, were built at a number of plants in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s.
Steel production by oxygen converters has steadily expanded since the mid-1950’s. Scientific research on the use of oxygen in converter processes was begun on a large scale as early as the 1940’s under the direction of I. P. Bardin. In 1956 the first oxygen-converter plant section in the USSR was put into operation at the G. I. Petrovskii Dnepropetrovsk Metallurgical Works. The use of oxygen-blast converters ensures high quality of the smelted steel and, in comparison with open-hearth production, reduces capital investments by 20–25 percent, increases labor productivity by 25–30 percent, and reduces the production cost of metals by 2–4 percent.
Major advances have been achieved in electric steel smelting. The establishment of the aviation, automotive, and other branches of industry in the USSR has spurred high rates of development in electrometallurgy. As early as 1935 the USSR was the European leader in the smelting of electric steel. Hundreds of arc furnaces were in operation in the USSR in the early 1970’s, including 13 with capacities of 100 and 200 tons. An important trend in scientific and technological progress is the increase in the specific capacity of electric furnaces, which has greatly increased the power of furnace transformers. Many scientific and technical improvements have helped ensure intensification of electrometallurgical production and improvement in the quality of the smelted metal; among them are electromagnetic mixing of the metal in the furnace bath, automatic regulation of electrode position, integration of the processes of charge melting and oxidation of impurities, the use of oxygen to accelerate the smelting process and partially decarburize the metal, the treatment of steel in the ladle with synthetic slags, and argon-oxygen blowing of the metal in the ladle.
Special attention is paid to the problem of refining smelted steel after it is removed from the furnace. As early as 1940 and 1941, the principles of degassing metal in a ladle under vacuum were worked out under the direction of A. M. Samarin. Vacuum treatment of melted metals outside the furnace subsequently became firmly established at metallurgical and machine-building plants, making it possible to reduce by a factor of 2–3 the content of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and nonmetallic inclusions in ingots used for the production of critical products.
The development of science and technology in the 1960’s made it possible to use new processes in electrometallurgy: the smelting of steel and alloys in high-frequency induction furnaces, arc and induction melting under vacuum, electroslag remelting (developed in the USSR by scientists of the E. O. Paton Institute of Electric Welding), and combination processes. Progressive methods of producing high-quality steels and special alloys have been developed and introduced, including remelting in electron-beam and plasmaarc furnaces. Metals produced by such methods are characterized by high homogeneity and a low content of sulfur and nonmetallic inclusions; items made from the metals have a longer service life and higher reliability.
Wider use is being made of the process of continuous steel casting, which has obvious advantages over ingot-mold processes. Continuous steel casting was developed in the 1940’s under the direction of I. P. Bardin, and a combination of the processes of continuous casting and rolling is now being introduced. In addition to refinement of the blast-furnace process, work is being carried out to create and introduce new commercial methods for the direct production of iron. The development of continuous metallurgical processes and production units in the USSR is of great importance to the overall development of ferrous metallurgy.
The ferroalloy industry, which was established under Soviet power, has produced remarkable achievements. Many plants have been built, the variety of manufactured goods is being constantly expanded, ferroalloy production technology is being perfected, and the quality of ferroalloys is improving. Closed arc furnaces have been designed and built, and a wide variety of auxiliary equipment has been introduced. As a result of the improvement and intensification of production processes, specific consumption of electricity in the melting of various alloys has been reduced and the utilization of installed capacity has improved. Significant work has been carried out at ferroalloy plants to mechanize labor-intensive processes. The charging of furnaces has been mechanized, and belt-type casting machines have been installed at many plants.
A. S. FEDOROV
NONFERROUS METALLURGY. Nonferrous metallurgy is one of the leading branches of industry and to a large extent determines the technical progress of the entire national economy. Ore extraction and the production of nonferrous metals from ores in the Ural and Altai regions and Siberia began many centuries ago. Soviet nonferrous metallurgy was established with the drafting of the GOELRO plan. Nonferrous metallurgical enterprises producing chiefly copper, lead, and zinc, which were destroyed during the Civil War and Military Intervention, were rebuilt and renovated to take advantage of the latest scientific and technological achievements, including the results of research conducted by A. A. Baikov, V. la. Mostovich, and G. G. Urazov. The principal trends in the development of production processes for nonferrous metallurgy include the reverberatory process for copper concentrates, the blast-furnace smelting of lead ores, and the electrolysis of metals.
The aluminum, nickel-cobalt, tungsten-molybdenum, hard alloy, and magnesium subbranches of nonferrous metallurgy were created in the USSR during the prewar five-year plans. Scientific research and planning institutes established in the 1920’s and 1930’s played a major role in the planning and construction of new enterprises for the production of nonferrous metals. The All-Union Scientific Research and Planning Institute for the Mechanical Processing of Minerals, the State Scientific Research Institute of Nonferrous Metals, and the State Institute for the Design of Enterprises of the Nonferrous Metallurgy Industry helped ensure that the new enterprises incorporated the most up-to-date production processes and layouts. Approximately 40 other specialized institutes of nonferrous metallurgy were subsequently established.
The development of the flotation method of ore concentration, used in the production of copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, and molybdenum concentrates, and the development of processes for agglomerating and sintering concentrates in a fluidized bed before metallurgical processing spurred technical progress in the copper, lead-zinc, and tungsten-molybdenum industry. The development of new production processes and the design of new plants for copper, lead, and zinc production were carried out by the State Institute for the Design of Enterprises of the Nonferrous Metallurgy Industry, the State Scientific Research Institute of Nonferrous Metals, the Urals Scientific Research and Design Institute of the Copper Industry, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Nonferrous Metallurgy, and the Kazakh State Institute for the Design of Enterprises of the Nonferrous Metallurgy Industry. F. M. Loskutov, V. A. Vaniukov, A. N. Vol’skii, V. I. Smirnov, and D. M. Chizhikov made major contributions to plant development.
The development of domestic production of aluminum and magnesium owes much to the work of N. P. Aseev, P. P. Fedot’-ev, P. F. Antipin, A. I. Beliaev, and V. A. Pazukhin. During the prewar years scientists outlined the scientific and practical framework for methods of producing alumina from bauxites and methods of producing aluminum and aluminum alloys. The USSR was the first to develop and apply technology for the integrated processing of nephelines and other nonbauxite raw materials into alumina, soda products, and cement. Before the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, electrolyzers with self-baking anodes of the Soderberg type were manufactured for the first time in the Soviet Union from plans drawn up by the All-Union Scientific Research and Design Institute of the Aluminum, Magnesium, and Electrode Industry (VAMI); large electrolyzers with an upper current supply were fabricated in the postwar period.
The work of the State Institute for the Design of Enterprises of the Nickel Industry (Gipronikel’), which was established in 1934, contributed to the successful development of nickel and cobalt production. I. N. Maslenitskii made a major contribution to the introduction of flotation separation of copper-nickel converter matte. The importance of the production of nickel and other alloying metals (cobalt, tungsten, and molybdenum) increased especially during the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45.
The work of I. I. Cherniaev contributed to the development of the production of platinum and platinum metals. I. N. Plaksin elaborated the principles of amalgamation processes of extracting gold from ores and concentration products and created the theory of the cyanidation of gold ores.
Intensive development of the Soviet industry of rare and rareearth metals and semiconductor materials began in the 1950’s. Solutions were found to such problems as the development of techniques for the production of germanium single crystals, the creation of methods of reprocessing antimony and bismuth ores, the production of titanium, zirconium, and niobium, and the use of electron-beam and plasma melting in rare-metal production. All these achievements were made possible by research at the State Scientific Research and Process Planning Institute of the Rare-Metals Industry, whose director for nearly 30 years was N. P. Sazhin. B. A. Sakharov, K. A. Bol’shakov, and E. M. Savitskii made substantial contributions to the development of production processes and the successful introduction of the production of semiconductor materials. The growth in production of and the high purity requirements for materials necessitated the creation of special new methods, such as chlorine processes, sorption and extraction processes, hydrogen reduction, electron-beam processes, and techniques of crystal-physics purification and the growth of single crystals.
The creation of the titanium industry in the early postwar years was based on the development of production technology for metallic titanium from ilmenite concentrates by the State Scientific Research and Process Planning Institute of the Rare-Metals Industry and the All-Union Scientific Research and Design Institute of the Aluminum, Magnesium, and Electrode Industry, as well as on the development and introduction of shaft-type electric furnaces and high-capacity furnaces for chlorination in a salt melt.
As the production of nonferrous metals increased and the technology was improved, more efficient use was made of natural resources, and deposits with ores of a lower but still profitable metal content began to be exploited. Work on the integrated use of raw materials assumed great importance. Autoclave and sorption processes were considerably developed, and extensive research was undertaken on the synthesis of sorbants and extracting agents for various processes of nonferrous metallurgy. Research was also conducted on the design of industrial equipment for continuous counterflow sorption from pulps and solutions.
The development and introduction of hydrometallurgical processes and the improvement of pyrometallurgical processes based on the use of oxygen, electrothermics, and natural gas contributed to an increase in the integrated use of raw materials and to the intensification of production. In particular, the introduction of natural gas in copper and lead metallurgy was accomplished on the basis of research at the State Scientific Research Institute of Nonferrous Metals, as was the flash smelting with oxygen of copper sulfide concentrates.
The current period of development of nonferrous metallurgy is characterized by the extensive introduction of production processes for ores and concentrates that ensure integrated use of the raw materials. Combined autogenous processes for the reprocessing of complex copper-zinc, lead-zinc, and other concentrates (such as kivtsetnaia-oxygen-suspended cyclonic electrothermal smelting) have been investigated and introduced. Electrothermal processes using high-capacity electric furnaces (with ratings up to 50 megavolt-amperes) are also being developed. New high-efficiency methods of chlorine metallurgy and hydrometallurgical processes continue to be introduced. Processes using low-temperature plasmas are being developed to produce finely dispersed pure metals and compounds and alloys of such metals, especially refractory alloys.
The problems of the rational use of raw materials, environmental protection, and the development and introduction of production layouts and processes that do not release industrial wastes into the atmosphere are given special attention in the creation of new production processes.
P. F. LOMAKO
Rolling. Rolling is the final production link in ferrous metallurgy and many branches of nonferrous metallurgy and machine building. Rolling production in Russia began developing in the late 19th century. In 1913, 205 rolling mills of various types were in operation, but they were primarily small mills of obsolete design. In the mid-1920’s the plan for rebuilding industry and national industrialization necessitated the creation of a number of metallurgical design institutions. The State Bureau for Metallurgical and Heat-engineering Design (since 1930, Stal’proekt) was organized in 1924 under the Supreme Council on the National Economy, with V. E. Grum-Grzhimailo as director. It soon developed the first design for a section mill with three-high working stands as well as several heating furnaces for rolling mills. Beginning in 1926, designs for rolling shops and mills were also developed at the State Institute for the Design of Metallurgical Plants. In the late 1920’s and early 1930’s the Starokramatorskii Machine-Building Plant built mills for the rolling of alloy steels; the mills were installed at the Elektrostal’, Serp i Molot, and other plants. In 1932 the Izhora Factory built the first two Soviet blooming mills, which were installed a year later at the Dneprodzherzhinsk and Makeevka metallurgical works. The production of rolling mills and other heavy metallurgical equipment expanded greatly after the establishment of the largest heavy machine-building plants—the Urals and Novokramatorskii plants—and after the renovation of the Izhora Factory.
The Central Design Office of Metallurgical Machine Building was established in 1945 and was later reorganized as the All-Union Scientific Research and Design Institute for Metallurgical Machine Building. Headed by A. I. Tselikov, the institute created a number of designs in the 1950’s and 1960’s for rolling mills that incorporated new production processes, including the production of thin-walled and seamless pipes and tubing, sheets of varying thickness, ribbed pipes and tubing, profiled metal of periodic section, screws, ball bearings, bushings, and other items. The institute also developed mills of much higher capacity than those used previously, including continuous billet mills, medium-section mills, tube-rolling mills, and tube-welding mills. Together with the Elektrostal’ Heavy Machine-building Plant, it designed continuous tube-rolling mills with a capacity three times greater than that of previous units, as well as a tube-welding mill with an output rate of up to 20 m/sec—faster by a factor of 2.5 than any such mill previously operated. A major achievement of the All-Union Scientific Research and Design Institute for Metallurgical Machine Building and the Elektrostal’ Heavy Machine-building Plant was the creation of a fundamentally new tube-rolling unit with a tandem mill, which made it possible to improve pipe quality to a high degree and automate the production process. Casting-rolling units that combine the processes of continuous casting and rolling were first designed in the 1960’s. Such units are used in both ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy.
The continuing development of rolling production in the USSR is aimed at improving product quality and expanding product variety. Rolling shops are being outfitted with high-capacity mills and finishing equipment, automatic monitoring of the operation of rolling machinery is now widely used, and heat treatment of rolled items is being expanded to improve product strength. Mills are being computerized for integrated automation. Methods are being developed for nondestructive testing of the quality of metals. Continuous and semicontinuous rolling processes are becoming increasingly important in production; for example, more than 85 percent of thin sheet metal is now produced on continuous and semicontinuous wide-band hot-rolling mills. Tinning, hot galvanizing, and chrome plating have proved economical in the production of sheet and band products with protective coatings. The production of two-layer (bimetallic) rolled metal items has also been established. A wide variety of corrosion-resistant, antifriction, electrical engineering, and other types of bimetals is being produced.
Major progress has been achieved in pipe and tubing production. Before the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, pipe plants and shops were outfitted chiefly with imported equipment. In the postwar period all new tube mills have been manufactured to Soviet designs by Soviet machine-building plants. Among the most advanced units are the model 30–102 continuous tube mill, a tube mill with a three-high stand, continuous units for furnace tube welding, units for the production of large-diameter welded pipes, new electric-welding tube mills, and cold-rolling mills. Soviet industry has achieved major successes in creating heating equipment for pipe and tubing production, such as rotary-ring holding furnaces and continuous high-speed pipe-heating furnaces. The production of large-diameter, high-strength, electric-welded pipes for primary gas and oil pipelines, stainless steel and alloy steel pipes, and pipes coated with zinc, aluminum, and other metals has been established. The Soviet Union leads all other countries in the degree of use of production capacities, in the productivity of pipe-rolling units, and in pipe and tubing output, surpassing such technologically developed countries as the USA, Great Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan.
Scientific and technological progress continually gives rise to new demands for improved quality and a wider variety of metal products. As a result the rolling production processes for many fundamentally new products must be perfected, and new rolling processes and economical, specialized mills for such processes must be designed.
PERIODICALS. Periodicals devoted to metallurgy include Stal’ (Steel, since 1941), Metallurg (Metallurgist, since 1956), Tsvetnye metally (Nonferrous Metals, since 1926), Zavodskaia laboratoriia (Industrial Laboratory, since 1932), Koks i khimiia (Coke and Chemistry, since 1931), and Ogneupory (Refractories, since 1933).
A. S. FEDOROV

Bibliography

Metallurgiia SSSR, (1917–1957), vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1958–59.
Osnovy metallurgii, vols. 1–7. Moscow, 1961–75.
Chernaia metallurgiia SSSR. (1917–67). Moscow, 1967.
Tekhnika gornogo dela i metallurgii. Moscow, 1968. (Ocherki razvitiia tekhniki v SSSR.)
Construction science and technology. Construction science in prerevolutionary Russia was relatively highly developed, as evidenced by the extremely complex engineering structures erected in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, by certain of the industrial facilities that existed, and by the profoundly original research that was conducted in structural mechanics and the strength of materials.
Russian construction science produced a number of outstanding scientists in the period. The work of D. I. Zhuravskii on problems associated with the strength of beams under flexural stress won world renown, as did the research of Kh. S. Golovin in the theory of elasticity and the research of F. S. Iasinskii in the stability of structural elements. Iasinskii’s work served as the basis for the development of today’s building codes. New conceptual problems in structural mechanics were posed and solved in the basic research of A. N. Krylov, I. G. Bubnov, and B. G. Galerkin. Engineering studies conducted by A. R. Shuliachenko, I. G. Maliuga, and N. A. Beleliubskii provided a foundation for the development and advancement of the theory and technology of cement, concrete, and reinforced concrete.
In prerevolutionary Russia, however, there existed no scientific institutions for the study of construction, and problems associated with construction science were investigated primarily by departments of higher educational institutions and by highly skilled, practicing engineers. In order to accomplish the construction tasks facing it, the young Soviet state had to organize the systematic training of engineering and technical specialists in construction and create branch scientific research organizations capable of solving problems associated with the reconstruction and expansion of the national economy. The Scientific Experimental Institute of Railroad Transport was founded on the initiative of V. I. Lenin in 1918; later, the State Experimental Institute of Silicates, the Institute of Mineral Raw Materials, and the Ceramics Institute were also established.
The organization of systematic research devoted primarily to national economic problems was dictated by the country’s pressing economic needs: the railroads had to be rebuilt as quickly as possible, and the acute shortage of building materials had to be remedied. The founding in 1927 of the State Institute of Structures, which coordinated research in all key branches of construction science, marked an important stage in the creation of large scientific centers for construction. The establishment of the institute, which later became the Central Scientific Research Institute of Industrial Structures (TsNIPS) and whose staff included the most prominent scientists and builders in various specialties, made it possible to conduct research on the most important problems of construction and to establish close ties with industry. (A number of leading scientific research institutes were subsequently organized on the basis of TsNIPS.) Work began in structural mechanics, soil mechanics, the study of the thermal properties of building materials, and the creation of lightweight aggregates for concretes and mortars based on high-temperature by-products (mainly boiler and blast-furnace slags). Developed in the 1920’s, A. A. Gvozdev’s combined method of calculating statically indeterminate systems and I. M. Rabinovich’s kinematic method of plotting influence lines are among the major achievements of Soviet construction science.
Because of the acute shortage of metal in the country, wood and rock were the most commonly used building materials during the reconstruction period. Wood beams 12–18 m long (and sometimes as much as 40 m long) were used in the construction of most industrial buildings. Construction work was performed only in the warm part of the year, and cottage-industry methods were prevalent. Mechanization was rudimentary, as exemplified by the use of such equipment as boom cranes and mine hoists.
Nevertheless, new designs were introduced during the period for structural elements, including steel components, as were more advanced construction techniques. In particular, techniques for fabricating wood structures underwent significant changes. As early as 1923, wood beams, frames, and arches with doweled joints were used in the construction of the pavilions for the First All-Union Agricultural Exhibition in Moscow. Nailed planks forming I-section beams and frames with cross webs were used instead of more expensive built-up beams in the construction of the Central Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Institute. In addition to the usual brickwork, slag blocks—sometimes quite large—were used for masonry. Reinforced-concrete bearing structures found application in the construction of industrial buildings. Thus, the reconstruction period served as the initial stage in the creation and introduction of new concepts in structural engineering. As a result of the work of many scientific centers, construction science was able to cope with the tasks of reconstruction and, by the end of the 1920’s, was well prepared to address the goals outlined in the five-year plans.
The reorganization of the construction industry began during the first five-year plans. With only limited stocks of the basic building materials of steel and cement on hand, the need to industrialize the country rapidly and the steady growth in the volume of capital construction required that construction science find the most efficient design forms for buildings and structures and that it develop strong components and materials.
In view of the practical requirements of construction, the principal research conducted in the field of structural mechanics in the 1930’s was devoted to the study of bar systems. In particular, methods of designing frames that provided increased structural stability were improved and simplified. The period also witnessed the formulation of V. Z. Vlasov’s design theory for thin-wall bars of open cross section; A. A. Umanskii developed the theoretical principles underlying constrained torsion of thin-wall bars of closed cross section. Such research had a great influence on the subsequent development of the structural mechanics of thin-wall three-dimensional systems.
Galerkin, Vlasov, P. F. Papkovich, and others focused a great deal of attention on the development of techniques for designing plates and shells, and a theory for the design of beams and slabs to be used on elastic foundations was refined by such specialists as Krylov, N. M. Gersevanov, and B. N. Zhemochkin. The primary task facing researchers in soil mechanics was to devise methods for designing and laying foundations on various soils, including frozen ground, subsiding soil, and mudlike soil; the work of Gersevanov and N. A. Tsytovich served as a basis for the development of such methods.
In 1934 the world’s first course in soil mechanics was published, based on methods derived from elasticity theory. The need to develop the natural resources of Siberia and the Far East accelerated permafrost research, which culminated in the development of the principles of the mechanics of frozen soils. The development of the theoretical and practical bases of structural heat engineering and of efficient methods of designing enclosing structures was a result of research conducted in the field of structural physics.
Research on metal structural components made it possible not only to increase the maximum allowable stresses and forces but also to differentiate them according to the type of effect produced on the components. Additionally, a study was begun of the plastic stage of the performance of metal structural components. The need to shift the fabrication of steel structural components from the construction site to the plant—a necessity if the construction industry was to be industrialized—brought to the fore the issue of making components economical as well as effective. This in turn necessitated the development of scientific principles for classifying and standardizing metal structural components.
A. F. Loleit’s proposal in 1931 to design reinforced-concrete structural components on the basis of ultimate strength rather than elastic performance was an important step in the development of construction science. The new design method, which was more economical and which reflected more accurately the work performed by structural components, was substantiated experimentally and subsequently included in design standards. Research and development of prestressed reinforced-concrete structural elements, which subsequently came into wide use, was undertaken in 1932 by V. V. Mikhailov and others. The construction of a number of public buildings with long-span shell roofs (such as the planetarium in Moscow and the theater in Novosibirsk) in the late 1920’s and early 1930’s gave impetus to the development by specialists such as P. L. Pasternak of methods of calculating and designing three-dimensional reinforced-concrete structural components. Such methods made it possible to span large distances with a minimum of materials. Before the 1930’s, reinforced concrete was cast primarily at the construction site; however, because of the need for industrialization of the construction industry in the prewar five-year plans and the need to eliminate the industry’s seasonal nature, the installation and assembly of prefabricated structural components soon became commonplace.
In the early 1930’s, scientists such as M. V. Vavilov and A. V. Baranovskii of the State Institute for Planning the Organization of Construction (later reorganized as the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for the Organization and Mechanization of Construction and now the Central Scientific Research Institute of Organization, Mechanization, and Technical Assistance in Construction) formulated principles fundamental to the organization of construction and the technology and mechanization associated with construction work. High-speed and high-speed production-line methods of construction, created on the basis of these principles and the experience gained in advanced construction projects, played a decisive role in intensifying construction. Problems associated with the reduction of heavy manual labor were solved through mechanization of basic construction tasks and, later, through integrated mechanization.
By the mid-1930’s, builders were becoming familiar with new methods of designing stone structural components based on the sizable theoretical and experimental data gathered by such specialists as L. I. Onishchik and S. A. Sementsov. The techniques of working with masonry and various types of stone and mortar were studied, as were the factors influencing the strength of masonry. Such studies made it possible to increase the stresses that could be applied to masonry and at the same time reduce the amount of building materials used. Research on the strength of masonry made with frozen mortars made it possible to construct buildings in the winter without the use of heated enclosures. Studies conducted by G. G. Karlsen on wood structural components made it possible to use wood for many supporting structural elements in buildings and other structures, such as cooling towers, trestleworks, and conveyor chutes.
During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, the use of wood and stone structures was once again expanded because of the limited availability of metal and reinforced concrete. The main efforts of scientific research organizations were directed toward creating design standards for wartime structures and, beginning in 1943, toward working out recommendations for effective methods of reconstructing buildings and structures.
In the postwar years a number of construction-oriented scientific research institutes were established in the Union republics. Some institutes became major research centers where the entire range of local conditions is considered in the course of studies aimed at providing solutions to problems in construction, including local climatic and geological features, raw materials resources, and the existing industrial base. The research carried out by republic-level institutes in structural mechanics, earthquake-resistant construction, and building structures and materials is of great scientific and practical importance. Prominent among such institutes are the Institute of Constructional Mechanics and Seismic Resistance of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR, the Institute of Mechanics and Seismic Resistance of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR, and the Institute of Construction and Architecture of the State Committee for Construction of the Byelorussian SSR.
An especially rapid development of construction science and the expansion and strengthening of its ties to construction work was characteristic of the late 1940’s and early 1950’s. The two trends were engendered by the need for very rapid rebuilding of the national economy and by the tremendous volume of capital construction undertaken. A transition to industrial construction methods was begun during the period, and important scientific research was undertaken to study large-block and, later, large-panel housing construction. The late 1940’s and early 1950’s were also marked by the profound effect produced by scientific research on solutions to various problems of the national economy, as in the elaboration of the principles of large-panel construction, volume-planning and design concepts for large-panel residential buildings, methods for manufacturing large prefabricated structures (panels), and methods of carrying out installation work. The research findings were the result of studies undertaken by a team of scientists headed by G. F. Kuznetsov. Such advances made it possible to undertake large-panel residential construction on a broad scale, and precast concrete became the basis for the industrialization of construction. The results of scientific research undertaken in large part by B. G. Skramtaev and others at the Scientific Research Institute of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete made it possible to improve the performance characteristics of concrete, introduce prestressed structures possessing greater rigidity and resistance to cracking, and use efficient types of reinforcing steel.
Comprehensive research was carried out to create artificial porous aggregates, which were subsequently used by N. A. Popov and others for new structural and thermal-insulating, lightweight, and cellular concretes. Special types of concrete, such as hydraulic-engineering, heat-resistant, and acid-resistant concrete, were first developed and introduced in the 1950’s, and V. M. Moskvin elaborated the theoretical principles governing the durability of concrete. S. A. Mironov and V. N. Sizov developed scientific principles and practical recommendations for working concrete at temperatures below 0°C.
Achievements in research on welding greatly affected the development of different shapes for steel structures. Studies of the strength of welded joints, especially research conducted at the E. O. Paton Institute of Electric Welding, and the development of automatic welding techniques helped ensure reliability and sound technological design for steel structures. Welding became the principal method of joining elements of steel structures. The shape of such structures was thus simplified appreciably, and the weight and labor-intensiveness of manufacture were reduced.
Theoretical and experimental research on laminated wood structures, which served as the basis for creating industrial methods of fabrication, began in the 1950’s. Structures made of laminated wood were first widely used in the late 1960’s, chiefly in agricultural buildings and industrial buildings where the laminated wood was exposed to chemically destructive environments.
A. F. Smirnov, A. S. Vol’mir, and V. V. Bolotin worked intensively on problems of stability in structural mechanics associated with the need for lighter and more flexibile structures. The task of making greater use of the available strength of materials prompted research into the action of structures beyond the elastic limit and the development of appropriate design methods. The method of limit equilibrium, which was developed on the basis of Gvozdev’s fundamental research, proved extremely productive. A. R. Rzhanitsyn’s theory of calculation for compound bars found application in the solution of a broad class of problems, and methods of analyzing shells were developed by Vlasov and A. L. Gol’denveizer.
Methods of designing framed and large-panel buildings were worked out for both normal and extraordinary construction conditions, such as conditions in regions of high seismic activity and subsiding ground, and mine construction, which made it possible to undertake the construction of such buildings on a large scale. Methods of designing building structures to accept dynamic loads from machinery and new types of equipment and from wind and wave action were also developed and successfully introduced, and the theory of vibration insulation and vibration damping was elaborated. K. S. Zavriev used the achievements of structural dynamics to work out methods for designing structures capable of withstanding seismic loads, and N. S. Streletskii and Bolotin considerably extended the existing research in the field of statistical (probability) methods of evaluating the reliability of structures. The creation of a fundamentally new method of designing structures on the basis of limit states represented a stunning achievement of Soviet construction science and won worldwide recognition for such specialists as Streletskii, V. M. Keldysh, Gvozdev, and I. I. Gol’denblat. Incorporation of the method in construction codes and regulations as the basic design principle signified the transition to a highly economical method of designing structures; use of the new method ensures the required reliability of structures and sigificantly reduces the consumption of materials.
The introduction of computer technology has contributed greatly to the successful development of structural mechanics. The use of computers to solve complex and labor-intensive problems, which began in the 1960’s, has given rise to the development of numerical methods of design and the extensive use of matrix theory in design practice (as in A. F. Smirnov’s work). Without the use of computers and the development of the necessary mathematical framework, it would not have been possible to solve, or even pose, many of the problems of modern structural mechanics. A major achievement in soil mechanics was the theoretical substantiation of a new analysis scheme for beddings that more accurately reflects the actual conditions of soil operation. The new method was used to develop economical methods of designing pile foundations in frozen soils and beddings under deep-laid supports.
In structural physics comprehensive studies have been made of the thermal and acoustic insulation and durability of enclosing structures used in new types of buildings, including large-panel buildings. The research has made it possible to ensure high service reliability of such buildings.
The principal task of modern construction science is to seek out new ways to reduce the consumption of materials, construction costs, and the labor-intensiveness and building time for construction projects while simultaneously improving the quality of structures and buildings. In carrying out this task, great importance is attached to methods of designing buildings and structures as integrated three-dimensional systems, which were first developed with the aid of computers in the 1970’s. Design analysis by limit states and the theory of reliability are also undergoing further development; such research is a necessary prerequisite for the transition to the design of buildings and structures by probability methods. Among the other urgent tasks of construction science are to increase the performance characteristics of concrete used in reinforced-concrete structures, to create quick-hardening concretes that do not require heat treatment for the acceleration of hardening, and to increase the applications and improve the properties of lightweight and cellular concretes. During the tenth five-year plan increasing use has been made of prestressed and composite structures in construction, and various lightweight structural elements of plywood, asbestos cement, plastic, light alloys, and other materials are being introduced.
The Soviet Union’s international ties in construction are maintained through bilateral cooperation with foreign countries and through the participation of Soviet scientists in international construction organizations, such as the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, the International Association for Earthquake Engineering, and the International Federation of Prestressed Concrete. A number of important research projects are being carried out by Soviet specialists within the framework of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON).
PERIODICALS. Periodicals devoted to construction science and technology include Beton i zhelezobeton (Concrete and Reinforced Concrete, since 1955), Mekhanizatsiia stroitel’stva (Mechanization of Construction, since 1939), Osnovaniia, fundamenty i mekhanika gruntov (Beddings, Foundations, and Soil Mechanics, since 1959), Stroitel’naia mekhanika i raschet sooruzhenii (Structural Mechanics and Structural Analysis, since 1959), and Stroitel’nye materialy (Building Materials, since 1955).
I. G. VASILEV and G. SH. PODOL’SKII

Bibliography

Istoriia stroitel’noi tekhniki. Moscow-Leningrad, 1962.
Stroitel’stvo v SSSR, 1917–1967. Moscow, 1967.
Bolotin, V. V., I. I. Gol’denblat, and A. F. Smirnov. Stroitel’naia mekhanika: Sovremennoe sostoianie i perspektivy razvitiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1972.
Nauchno-tekhnicheskii progress v stroitel’stve: Sb. st. Moscow, 1972.
Zvorykin, D. N. Nauka—praktikestroitel’stva. Moscow, 1974.

Philosophy. As an integral and inalienable part of world philosophy, the philosophical thought of the peoples of the USSR has had a long and complex history. The ancestors of the present inhabitants of the USSR belonged to primitive and early feudal societies in which indigenous pagan elements competed with the increasingly important world religions adopted by various nationalities.

Throughout the early Middle Ages, Georgia and Armenia preserved the traditions of classical philosophy and particularly of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism, as represented by Peter Iver, David Anakht, and Ioann Petritsi. During the time when Transcaucasia and Middle Asia were parts of Persian-speaking states, Zoroastrianism gained wide currency in these regions, as did various heretical movements that arose through the crossing of different religious and philosophical ideas (for example, Manichaeism and Mazdakism). The ascendancy of Islam in Middle Asia and in parts of Transcaucasia created favorable conditions for the spread of Greek philosophy. Along with various religious and philosophical currents—such as kalam, the Mutazilite movement, and other forms of Muslim scholasticism—a school of thought that was very influential was that of the Eastern Peripatetics. The greatest thinkers of the time among the peoples of Middle Asia, Transcaucasia, and the Near and Middle East were Farabi, Kindi, Avicenna, Bakhmaniar, and Omar Khayyam. In the late tenth and early 11th centuries, Sufism became the major trend in Muslim religious and philosophical thought.

The religious and philosophical thought of medieval Rus’ was dominated by a theism derived from Eastern patristics. The trend was represented by Ilarion, Vladimir Monomakh, Nicephorus, Nestor, Kliment Smoliatich, Kirill of Turov, Cyprian, Iosif Volotskii, Nil Sorskii, Maksim Grek, Vassian Patrikeev, Artemii Troitskii, Zenobius of Otnia, Ermolai-Erazm, Filofei, and A. Kurbskii. The heretical movements in Rus’ from the late 15th to the mid-16th century included antitrinitarian and other rationalist ideas, such as those of Fedor Kuritsyn, Matvei Bashkin, and Feodosii Kosoi.

From the 13th to the 16th centuries the Livonian and Teutonic orders were instrumental in the establishment of German culture and Catholic religion and philosophy in the area that is now Latvia and Estonia. The Reformation and Counter-Reformation were spreading through the Baltics during the 16th century. The Vilnius Academy, which was founded in 1579 and which later became a university, was dominated by Scholastic philosophy. Among those influenced by the Reformation were F. Skorina, Szymon Budny, and others living in the Ukrainian and Byelorussian territories that were part of Lithuania.

The 17th century witnessed the establishment of close ties between Russian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian thinkers—for example, Simeon Polotskii, Sil’vestr Medvedev, and Epifanii Slavinetskii—and a growing tendency toward the separation of philosophy from theology. The Slavonic-Greco-Latin Academy, founded in Moscow in 1687, began teaching Scholastic philosophy, and persons of foreign origin with a philosophical education, such as the brothers J. Likhud and S. Likhud, Iu. Krizhanich, and A. Belobotskii, were active in Russia’s intellectual movement. In the Kiev Mogila Collegium (founded in the Ukraine in 1632 and renamed Kiev Mogila Academy in 1701), Scholastic teaching started to reflect modern philosophical thought, as exemplified by I. Kononovich-Gorbatskii, I. Gizel’, I. Krokovskii, L. Baranovich, and Stefan Iavorskii. A similar process began in the 17th century at the University of Vilnius.

The reforms of Peter I were accompanied by criticism of medieval Scholasticism; philosophical thought disengaged itself from the tutelage of theology and broadened its connections with Western European philosophy—for example, through the efforts of F. Prokopovich, V. N. Tatischev, A. D. Kantemir, and D. E. Tveritinov. An outstanding thinker of the second half of the 18th century was the Ukrainian philosopher G. Skovoroda.

After a long period of decline, the 17th and 18th centuries witnessed a cultural and philosophical upsurge in Georgia and Armenia, where a struggle was taking place between the secular and religious world views; among those who sought to strengthen cultural and philosophical ties with Russia and Western Europe were S. S. Orbeliani, A. I. Bagrationi, S. Dzhugaetsi, and Stepanos L’vovskii.

The work of M. V. Lomonosov symbolized the rise of the experimental natural sciences and of materialist philosophy in Russia. The philosophy of revolutionary enlightenment of A. N. Radishchev, which was basically a materialist philosophy, represented a major achievement of Russian philosophical thought in the second half of the 18th century. The ideas of humanism and revolutionary enlightenment similarly inspired the Decembrists, in whose social, political, philosophical, and historical views the Enlightenment was combined with romantic concepts. The Decembrists included materialists (such as I. D. Iakushkin, A. P. Bariatinskii, and N. A. Kriukov) as well as idealists (M. S. Lunin, P. S. Bobrishchev-Pushkin, E. P. Obolenskii, and W. K. Kiichelbecker).

As taught in the universities, 18th- and 19th-century philosophy included practically all the major trends of modern and contemporary idealist philosophy; the trends are reflected in the works of D. S. Anichkov, A. M. Briantsev, P. D. Lodii, A. I. Galich, I. I. Davydov, D. M. Vellanskii, M. G. Pavlov, M. I. Vladislavlev, M. M. Troitskii, N. la. Grot, A. A. Kozlov, L. M. Lopatin, G. I. Chelpanov, S. N. Trubetskoi, E. A. Bobrov, N. N. Lange, G. E. Struve, and G. Teichmüller. Already apparent in the early 19th century was a tendency toward syncretic conceptions that incorporated the achievements of various philosophical schools. Theological educational institutions remained important centers of religious and philosophical thought throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Their number was growing, although they were becoming relatively less important in terms of their intellectual and philosophical influence.

As a reaction to the “Europeanization” of Russia, various conservative and romantic theories emerged in the realm of the philosophy of history—for example, the theories of M. M. Shcherbatov, N. M. Karamzin, and the Slavophiles. Dvorianstvo and bourgeois liberalism came of age between the 1830’s and 1860’s; its philosophy of history and epistemological principles, ranging from Hegelian metaphysics and dualism to positivism, were exemplified by T. N. Granovskii, K. D. Kavelin, B. N. Chicherin, and P. N. Kudriavtsev. Such essentially conservative and romantic conceptions as pochvennichestvo (“grass-roots movement”) of A. A. Grigor’ev, N. N. Strakhov, and F. M. Dostoevsky contained humanist elements, as did the teaching of L. N. Tolstoy. V. S. Solov’ev, the great 19th-century Russian idealist, made a Utopian attempt to fashion a “universal synthesis” of philosophy, theology, and experimental science.

Feudal clerical ideas provided the basis for the spread of nationalist ideologies—such as Pan-Slavism, Pan-Islam, and Pan-Turkism—in the second half of the 19th and in the early 20th century.

Russian liberalism in the early 20th century was philosophically grounded in various schools of thought—the rationalist, idealist, and essentially neo-Kantian metaphysics of P. B. Struve, the religious philosophy of N. A. Berdiaev and S. N. Bulgakov, and the positivism propounded, for example, by P. N. Miliukov.

In the period from the 1830’s to the 1850’s, Russian science was already marked by opposition to both metaphysics and natural philosophy; in the postreform period this led to the wide-ranging materialist movement in the natural sciences represented by I. M. Sechenov, K. A. Timiriazev, E. Metchhikoff, and D. I. Mendeleev. The materialist philosophers found allies among the many naturalists who adhered to a materialist interpretation of positivism. The materialist approach to the natural sciences (representing most often a mechanistic and sometimes a vulgar materialism) incorporated positivist ideas, and it gained currency in the Ukraine, Byelorussia, Georgia, Armenia, Lithuania, and Estonia.

The drawing together and interpenetration of the philosophical cultures of the peoples of Russia proceeded at a steady pace, although slowly and not without conflict. The process was particularly pronounced in the 19th century, when progressive and enlightened ideas, such as the ideas of revolutionary democracy, gained a relatively broad influence; it continued in the 1880’s with the spread of Marxism, which became the rallying point of the progressive forces of Russia’s working class.

The period from the late 1830’s to the 1860’s was marked by the consolidation and flowering of enlightened materialist philosophical thought in its classical form, as developed in the study circle of N. V. Stankevich, M. A. Bakunin, and V. G. Belinskii and in the circle of A. I. Herzen and N. P. Ogarev—these groups having evolved from idealism and a romantic kind of enlightenment to materialism, democratism, and Utopian socialism. The Petrashevskii circle, which included M. V. Petrashevskii and N. A. Speshnev, was active in the same period. The 1860’s were a decade of intense growth of revolutionary-democratic, socialist, and materialist ideas, as developed by N. G. Chernyshevskii and N. A. Dobroliubov and whose adherents included D. I. Pisarev, M. A. Antonovich, and N. V. Shelgunov.

The philosophical and sociological conceptions of Narodnichestvo (Populism) gained currency in the 1870’s; the leading figures of the movement were P. L. Lavrov, M. A. Bakunin, and P. N. Tkachev. The ideas of the revolutionary Populists active in such regions as the Ukraine, Moldavia, Lithuania, and Georgia had a considerable influence on intellectual life in these regions. In the 19th and early 20th centuries the enlightened ideas of revolutionary democracy and Utopian socialism were represented in the social and philosophical thought of all the peoples of Russia—for example, in T. G. Shevchenko, K. S. Kalinovskii, Z. Serakovskii, P. D. Ballod, I. G. Chavchavadze, N. la. Nikoladze, Kh. Abovian, M. L. Nalbandian, M. F. Akhundov, Abai Kunanbaev, S. Aini, G. Tukai, M. Gafuri, and K. Khetagurov.

In some regions the ideology of enlightenment was mixed with romanticism, which was especially strong in those parts of the country, such as the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, that had a strong national liberation movement. Those who were active in such movements often counterposed an idealized vision of their peoples’ past to the prevailing feudal and national oppression. Many of the revolutionary democrats of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, such as P. A. Grabovskii, S. A. Podolinskii, I. la. Franko, Lesia Ukrainka, and M. M. Kotsiubinskii, were definitely influenced by Marxism, and some of them, such as N. Narimanov, actually adopted Marxist positions.

The subsequent development of philosophical and social thought in Russia was greatly influenced by G. V. Plekhanov’s evolution from Populism to Marxism and by Plekhanov’s and his followers’ pro-Marxist propaganda, their advocacy of the materialist interpretation of history, and their critical attitude toward Populism and philosphical revisionism.

The works of V. I. Lenin represented the highest level of development of Marxism and Marxist philosophy before the October Revolution. The ideas of K. Marx and F. Engels on dialectical and historical materialism were developed and enriched by Lenin in his general theoretical works, such as What the “Friends of the People” Are and How They Fight the Social Democrats, “The Economic Content of Narodnichestvo and the Criticism of It in Mr. Struve’s Book,” The Development of Capitalism in Russia, What Is to Be Done?, Two Tactics of Social Democracy in the Democratic Revolution, Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, and State and Revolution. Lenin’s main philosophical works, Materialism and Empiriocriticism and Philosophical Notebooks, laid the groundwork for the Leninist stage of Marxist philosophy.

Lenin’s brothers-in-arms and disciples, such as V. V. Adoratskii, P. A. Dzhaparidze, I. F. Dubrovinskii, V. V. Vorovskii, M. S. Ol’minskii, la. M. Sverdlov, J. V. Stalin, P. I. Stuchka, and S. G. Shaumian, played an important role in the struggle against bourgeois philosophy, against reformist and revisionist conceptions, and for the consolidation of the entire Russian labor movement around the ideas of dialectical and historical materialism. The philosophical heritage of Lenin’s pre-October period was a major precondition for the development of Marxist-Leninist philosophy in the Soviet era.

V. E. EVGRAFOV and V. P. PUSTARNAKOV

SOVIET PHILOSOPHY. A component of international Marxist-Leninist philosophy, Soviet philosophy is based on the principles of dialectical and historical materialism, which represents the scientific world view and philosophical foundation of the international communist movement. Today, owing to the works of Lenin and his followers, Marxist philosophy constitutes the methodology of scientific thought and revolutionary action of the CPSU and other Communist parties; it is the ideological and theoretical basis of the activity of many millions of Soviet people and the scientific and philosophical foundation of their world view.

Marxist-Leninist philosophy, like the other components of Marxism—political economy and scientific communism—is the scientific basis of the political line followed by the CPSU and the Soviet state; the party and the state are guided by the world view and method of dialectical materialism in shaping domestic and foreign policy, formulating and implementing the program of development of the socialist society, instructing the working people in the scientific communist world view, and carrying on the struggle against bourgeois ideology.

Marxism-Leninism established itself as the dominant world view in the Soviet land during the building of socialism—that is, in the 1920’s and in the first half of the 1930’s—and in the course of the struggle against bourgeois ideology, against opportunist and anti-Leninist tendencies, and against idealist philosophy. Some idealist philosophical schools of thought still existed in the early years of Soviet power; their adherents included the Scientific and Philosophical Society at the University of Petrograd, the Academy of Nonmaterial Culture in Moscow, and the journals Voprosy filosofii i psikhologii (1889–1918), Mysl’ (1922, nos. 1–3), and Russkaia mysl’ (1880–1918).

The development of philosophy in the USSR can be divided into three periods, which by and large correspond to the major periods of Soviet history—the period of transition from capitalism to socialism (from 1917 to the mid-1930’s), the period of consolidation and further development of the socialist society (from the mid-1930’s through the 1950’s), and the period of the developed socialist society (beginning in the 1960’s).

The major task of Marxist-Leninist philosophy after the victory of the October Revolution was to work out the problems involved in building the socialist society and to provide a theoretical analysis of the objective laws governing social development and the worldwide revolutionary process. Marxism-Leninism, which before the revolution had been persecuted and hounded as the scientific and philosophical world view of the party of the working class, was now the dominant world view; the Marxist-Leninist ideology fostered the development of Soviet social thought, science, and culture, and it gained a greater degree of potential influence with respect to the international labor movement and progressive science and culture throughout the world.

Among Lenin’s works, the following stand out for their ideological, political, scientific, and philosophical importance: “The Immediate Tasks of the Soviet Government,” The State, “Economics and Politics in the Era of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat,” The Proletarian Revolution and the Renegade Kautsky, “Left-Wing” CommunismAn Infantile Disorder, Once Again on the Trade Unions, “Our Revolution,” A Great Beginning, and The Tasks of the Youth Leagues.

The article “On the Significance of Militant Materialism,” which was regarded as Lenin’s philosophical testament, defined the program, the main sources, and the direction of Marxist philosophy. In Lenin’s view, Marxist philosophy was to provide a dialectical-materialist analysis of the nature, contradictions, and laws of development of the new era; to interpret contemporary history and international experience in the revolutionary struggle and in the building of socialism on the basis of materialist dialectics; to construct a philosophical generalization of the achievements of the natural and social sciences, establishing the alliance between Marxist philosophy and the natural sciences; and to sum up the history of knowledge and continue the progressive traditions of philosophical and social thought.

In all their scientific and philosophical endeavors, Lenin, the Communist Party, and Soviet science concentrated on propagating militant materialism, on criticizing philosophical idealism and reactionary ideology, and on elaborating and applying materialist dialectics as science, logic, theory of knowlege, and method of revolutionary thinking and revolutionary action. The development of philosophy promoted the further elaboration and implementation of the Leninist program of building socialism under the leadership of the Communist Party and in close association with the ideological and theoretical activity of new types of Marxist parties on the international level.

In the period of transition from capitalism to socialism, Marxist-Leninist philosophy established itself in the USSR as an independent branch of science; philosophers who were convinced communists and versed in Marxism came to the fore, scholarly journals and publishing centers were founded, and firm ties were established between communist philosophers and noncommunist scholars. Whereas in the early 1920’s there were still no systematic works setting forth the philosophy of dialectical materialism, the second half of the 1920’s and the first half of the 1930’s produced a body of scholarly and educational propaganda literature on dialectical and historical materialism and on the history of philosophy, and Marxist research was undertaken during this period in various branches of philosophy.

The question of building socialism in the USSR, of the ways and means of achieving the goal, and of the future course of the international communist movement was the central issue in the ideological and theoretical struggle between Leninism and the bourgeois, Kautskian-Menshevik, anarchosyndicalist, Trotskyist, right-opportunist, and “left-sectarian” conceptions. Lenin and his comrades enriched Marxist thought with the scientific study of the dialectically interrelated processes of their age—namely, the laws governing the transition from capitalism to socialism, the rise and development of the socialist society, the growing crisis in the capitalist system, the increasingly intense ideological and political struggle in the world arena, the development of a worldwide revolutionary process, and the new discoveries in science.

After Lenin’s death, works by Stalin and by other prominent party leaders (such as M. I. Kalinin, S. M. Kirov, V. V. Kuibyshev, and M. V. Frunze) and prominent Soviet philosophers and social scientists (such as Adoratskii, V. A. Bystrianskii, A. V. Lunacharskii, V. I. Nevskii, I. I. Skvortsov-Stepanov, Stuchka, and E. M. Iaroslavskii) revealed the dialectical unity of objective processes and subjective factors in today’s world; they pointed out the growing role of the working class and working people in the revolutionary transformation of society, in the creation of socialism, and in the implementation of the socialist revolution in the field of ideology and culture, and they criticized the anti-Leninist conceptions of bourgeois ideologists, social reformers, and opportunists in the field of philosophy and sociopolitical thought.

A major precondition for the progressive development of Marxist philosophical thought in the USSR was the study, assimilation, and further elaboration of the theoretical legacy of Marx, Engels, and Lenin. Philosophers and social scientists were successful in overcoming the previous neglect of the philosophical aspect of Marxism—an attitude that characterized most of the leaders of the Second International—and the various attempts to “combine” Marxism with the philosophical conceptions of Machism and other varieties of positivism and neo-Kantianism. The Marx-Engels Institute and the Lenin Institute (which subsequently merged in the Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute of the Central Committee of the CPSU) undertook the enormous task of collecting, studying, and publishing the works of Marx, Engels, and Lenin. In the course of this undertaking, many works by the founders of Marxism were found and published for the first time, including Marx’ Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s “Philosophy of Right” and Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, Marx’ and Engels’ The German Ideology, and Engels’ Dialectics of Nature; in addition, many of Lenin’s works were found and studied, including his Philosophical Notebooks (published 1929–30).

The ideological and political struggle against the enemies of the party’s revolutionary theory and policies strengthened the concept of Leninism as an international doctrine and as the highest step in the development of Marxism and Marxist philosophy. Lenin’s works “On the Significance of Militant Materialism” and Philosophical Notebooks served as guides in the struggle for materialist dialectics and against mechanism, which proposed a mechanistic theory of equilibrium in place of dialectics. This theory, which served as the methodological basis for N. I. Bukhara’s right-wing opportunism, often reduced philosophy to an aggregate of mechanistic conclusions drawn from the natural sciences.

Research work on the philosophical heritage and especially on the sources of Marxism included the study of Hegelian dialectics from the materialist point of view. Among those who made valuable contributions to the history of philosophy were V. F. Asmus, A. M. Deborin, M. A. Dynnik, I. K. Luppol, A. O. Makovel’skii, M. V. Serebriakov, E. P. Sitkovskii, and O. V. Trakhtenberg.

The publication of Lenin’s Philosophical Notebooks prompted the study of dialectics as Marxist logic and epistemology (Lenin’s theory of reflection and the role of practice in cognition), of the relationship between dialectics and formal logic, and of the methodology of Das Kapital and other classic Marxist works. Studies were undertaken on the philosophical questions arising from the latest revolution in the natural sciences. Leading Soviet natural scientists, such as N. I. Vavilov, V. I. Vernadskii, A. F. Ioffe, V. L. Komarov, N. S. Kurnakov, I. V. Michurin, and O. Iu. Schmidt, mastered the ideas and methods of dialectical materialism and applied them in scientific research studies.

The philosophical debate of 1929–31 was an important ideological and philosophical event, summed up by the Central Committee of the ACP(B) in its decree On the Journal Pod znamenen marksizma (Under the Banner of Marxism), issued in January 1931. The Central Committee pointed out that, despite some achievements, the work of the journal (then edited by Deborin) was divorced from the tasks of socialist construction, that the editors underestimated the importance of the Leninist stage as a new step in the development of Marxist philosophy and were guilty of associating Hegelian and Marxist dialects, and that on a number of questions the journal’s editors were sliding toward Menshevizing idealism. The philosophical discussions and especially the decree of the Central Committee of the ACP(B) were an important factor in the more consistent application of the principle of partiinost’ (party spirit) in philosophy, as well as in disclosing the substance and international significance of the Leninist stage in the development of Marxist philosophy.

In the first half of the 1930’s, various writings and textbooks on dialectical and historical materialism were added to the body of Marxist literature—for example, the works of Adoratskii, G. M. Gak, F. A. Gorokhov, A. A. Maksimov, M. B. Mitin, and I. P. Razumovskii, The Theory of Reflection by Todor Pavlov (then working in the USSR), and books attacking the fascist ideology, bourgeois philosophy, social reformism, and revisionism, such as the works of M. A. Arzhanov, S. la. Vol’fson, and M. Furshchik. These works contributed to the firm establishment of materialist dialectics as the methodology of scientific research and to the strengthening of militant dialectical materialism in the struggle against philosophical idealism and opportunism and against mechanistic and idealist vacillations.

During the years when the Soviet Union was building socialism and defending its gains against imperialist reaction and fascist aggression, the party’s ideological and theoretical efforts were aimed at inculcating Marxism-Leninism in the consciousness of broad strata of the working people, training cadres in the spirit of Marxist-Leninist theory, and preparing for the struggle against bourgeois and especially against fascist ideology. Soviet philosophers were active propagandists for the theory of historical materialism and for the Marxist-Leninist doctrine of the two phases of communism; they studied such questions as the formation of the socialist base and superstructure, the action of the moving forces of the socialist society, the dialectics of productive forces and production relations, the transformation of the social structure and political organization of society, and the socialist cultural revolution. G. E. Glezerman, M. D. Kammari, F. B. Konstantinov, A. F. Shishkin, and P. F. Iudin were among those active in this area.

Publications dealing with materialist dialectics and the theory of reflection included various writings, textbooks, and popular books by M. A. Leonov, M. M. Rozental’, and F. I. Khaskhachikh. Working together with natural scientists (including physicists, mathematicians, and physiologists), philosophers such as S. I. Vavilov, B. M. Kedrov, I. V. Kuznetsov, G. I. Naan, and M. E. Omel’ianovskii constructed theoretical generalizations of the achievements of the natural sciences and explored the question of the dialectics of nature; others—for example, P. K. Anokhin, A. N. Leont’ev, A. R. Luriia, S. L. Rubinshtein, and B. M. Teplov—examined philosophical problems in psychology.

The history of philosophy continued to be an active field of study and the Marxist-Leninist philosophical heritage was elaborated and popularized. Lenin’s works were widely propagandized, and the significance of Leninism as a new step in the development of Marxism was demonstrated in all branches of the social sciences by various party leaders, including A. A. Zhdanov, Kalinin, Stalin, and M. A. Suslov, and by such philosophers as Mitin, P. N. Fedoseev, B. A. Gagin, and Iudin.

Studies of the progressive philosophical traditions of the peoples of the USSR and of other countries were particularly important in the education of the working people in the spirit of patriotism and internationalism and in the struggle against fascism and against the ideologists of imperialist reaction. Soviet philosophers revealed the significance of various works by progressive Russian thinkers of the 18th and 19th centuries and the influence of their democratic, materialist, and dialectical traditions on progressive social thought, science, and culture. The publication of these works was undertaken, and a basic methodology was worked out for analyzing the history of philosophy in Russia—for example, by G. S. Vasetskii, V. E. Evgrafov, M. T. Iovchuk, V. S. Kruzhkov, A. N. Maslin, Z. V. Smirnova, V. I. Stepanov, and I. Ia. Shchipanov.

A. M. Bogoutdinov, P. I. Valeskaln, G. N. Guseinov, G. G. Gabrielian, I. N. Lushchitskii, I. M. Muminov, I. D. Nazarenko, M. I. Novikov, Sh. I. Nutsubidze, D. F. Ostrianin, and V. K. Chaloian were among the Soviet philosophers who explored the ideological and philosophical significance of works by some of the thinkers of the various peoples of the USSR.

A continuing field of inquiry was the history of materialism and dialectics in pre-Marxist philosophy. Among those who engaged in such studies were G. F. Aleksandrov, Asmus, K. S. Bakradze, B. E. Bykhovskii, Makovel’skii, Sitkovskii, and Iu. P. Frantsev. Their work made it possible to shift to a qualitatively new level of research—namely, the study of the history of philosophy as a whole. The first comprehensive attempt of this sort was the uncompleted History of Philosophy (vols. 1–3, 1940–43); despite a number of shortcomings, this was on the whole a valuable Marxist work. A philosophical event of nationwide significance was the debate that took place in 1947 with respect to Aleksandrov’s History of Western European Philosophy; the debate, in the course of which the book’s shortcomings and errors were subjected to criticism, turned into a discussion of the state of Soviet philosophy and its tasks.

From the late 1930’s to the early 1950’s, philosophy in the USSR was under the influence of Stalin’s work “On Dialectical and Historical Materialism,” which was a chapter in the Short History of the ACP(B) (1938). Stalin’s concise presentation of the principles and laws of dialectical and historical materialism suffered from onesidedness and oversimplification on a number of issues; at the time, however, it helped popularize the fundamentals of Marxist philosophy. Popular scholarly works and textbooks on dialectical and historical materialism were issued to promote the study and propagation of Marxist philosophy and the works of Marx, Engels, and Lenin. The teaching of scientific atheism made great strides forward, and valuable works on the history and theory of atheism were contributed, for example, by Iaroslavskii, Fedoseev, and Frantsev.

At the same time, however, the theoretical work and propaganda in the area of philosophy suffered from certain shortcomings connected with the cult of Stalin’s personality, such as dogmatism, excessive use of quotations, and overschematization. Upon the initiative and under the leadership of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the cult of Stalin’s personality and the adverse phenomena connected with it were critically examined and overcome. The 1950’s were marked by greatly intensified philosophical activity and a broad range of studies on the cardinal questions of dialectical and historical materialism, the history of philosophy, and philosophical problems in the natural sciences (in collaboration with natural scientists).

The complete and definitive victory of socialism in the USSR, the formation and reinforcement of the world socialist system, the great achivements in science, and the development of the scientific and technological revolution presented Marxist philosophy with a new set of problems and stimulated the development of science and philosophy in the USSR. The period of developed socialism is marked by the further progress of Soviet philosophy. Greater numbers of researchers are working in the fields of philosophy, sociology, psychology, and scientific communism; they have higher qualifications, their subject matter has expanded, and the level of philosophical and sociological research has risen.

A major factor in the upsurge of Soviet philosophy was the decisions and materials of the congress of the CPSU and of the plenums of the party’s Central Committee, the Program of the CPSU (1961), the reports and speeches of General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU L. I. Brezhnev, and other party documents, including the decree issued by the Central Committee of the CPSU in 1967, On Measures for the Further Development of the Social Sciences and the Enhancement of Their Role in Communist Construction.

At present the main tasks being successfully accomplished by Soviet philosophy are the investigation of current problems in the socialist society and philosophical analysis of the laws governing its development; fortification of the world socialist system; analysis of the present scientific and technological revolution, of the problems of peaceful coexistence, and of the ideological struggle in the international arena; and the scientific and philosophical substantiation of the policies of Marxist-Leninist parties and their struggle against alien ideologies.

In the process of differentiation and concretization of philosophy, the specific subject matter of each branch of philosophy was more precisely defined, and the methodological function of dialectical materialism was enhanced at the same time.

Greater efforts were devoted to the study of dialectics as a science, its laws and categories, and problems related to the theory of reflection, to logic, and to the methodology of scientific knowledge. The methodology, logic, and epistemology of Marxism-Leninism and the laws and categories of materialist dialectics have been illuminated and made more specific in the works of such philosophers as Kedrov, P. V. Kopnin, Leont’ev, S. T. Meliukhin, Mitin, Naan, N. V. Pilipenko, P. D. Puzikov, Rozental’, M. N. Rutkevich, G. A. Svechnikov, A. G. Spirkin, P. V. Tavanets, and V. P. Tugarinov.

Shifting from the philosophical interpretation of the individual achievements and methods of the natural sciences, Soviet philosophers and natural scientists have been studying the central philosophical problems of contemporary natural science, the objective laws, structure, and logic of science, and the ongoing scientific and technological revolution. Among those engaged in such research are A. D. Aleksandrov, V. V. Ambartsumian, Anokhin, N. P. Dubinin, M. V. Keldysh, Kedrov, S. R. Mikulinskii, Omel’ianovskii, V. S. Gott, Iu. V. Sachkov, B. S. Ukraintsev, and I. T. Frolov.

Various synthesizing works have been published, including such series as Dialectical Materialism and Contemporary Natural Science and Lenin’s Theory of Reflection and Contemporary Science. Exhaustive studies have been made of various specific scientific methods currently used in the natural sciences and of their relationship to materialist dialectics. Progress has been made in philosophical research on the logic of scientific knowledge, the language of science, and the mathematization of the body of modern knowledge. Studies in the area of systems analysis, structural-functional analysis, modeling, and the functions of models in scientific knowledge as well as the analysis of sign systems and of the philosophical aspects of cybernetics have made it possible to investigate more thoroughly the social and philosophical problems of management and control and to reveal the dialectics of cognition and the nature and applicability of such categories as system, structure, information, and probability. V. G. Afanas’ev, A. I. Berg, V. M. Glushkov, V. P. Kuz’min, V. A. Trapeznikov, A. I. Uemov, and A. D. Ursul have engaged in the study of such problems.

Historical materialism is understood in Soviet literature as a general sociological theory and a methodology of social and philosophical knowledge. Published works on historical materialism deal with the dialectics of the contemporary era and of the worldwide revolutionary process, the laws governing the developed socialist society and the formation of communist society, the enhancement of the leading role of the working class in the building of socialism and communism, the changes in the social structure of the socialist society, the conjunction of the achievements of the scientific and technological revolution with the advantages of the socialist system, the question of internationalism and the relationship between nations, and other current problems of contemporary social development. These writings include the individual and collective works and monographs of Fedoseev, Konstantinov, D. M. Gvishiani, Rutkevich, Ts. A. Stepanian, G. N. Volkov, Iu. E. Volkov, Glezerman, V. Zh. Kelle, S. T. Kaltakhchian, R. I. Kosolapov, Iu. A. Krasin, A. I. Sobolev, I. P. Tsamerian, and D. I. Chesnokov.

Increasing attention is being given to the study of the social and philosophical problems of mankind, man’s place in the social structure, the growing creative activity of the masses in public life, and ways and means of promoting the all-around development of the personality. Studies in this area have been done by B. G. Anan’ev, L. P. Bueva, S. M. Kovalev, M. I. Petrosian, G. L. Smirnov, S. Tovmasian, and N. Z. Chavchavadze.

Various specific sociological studies have been carried out at the Institute of Sociological Research of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Institute of Socioeconomic Problems of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Leningrad, and the Academy of Social Sciences of the Central Committee of the CPSU (including studies by B. A. Grushin, G. T. Zhuravlev, L. N. Kogan, I. T. Levykin, V. D. Patrushev, V. S. Semenov, and V. N. Shubkin).

Increasing autonomy and creativity have marked philosophical research in aesthetics (as represented by the works of A. G. Egorov, K. M. Dolgov, M. S. Kagan, A. F. Losev, Iu. A. Lukin, and M. F. Ovsiannikov), ethics (S. F. Anisimov, L. M. Arkhangel’skii, O. G. Drobnitskii, V. G. Ivanov, A. I. Titarenko, A. G. Kharchev, and A. F. Shishkin), and scientific atheism (collective works of the Institute of Scientific Atheism of the Academy of Social Sciences Attached to the Central Committee of the CPSU and books by Frantsev, E. M. Babosov, V. I. Garadzha, I. A. Kryvelev, P. K. Kurochkin, M. P. Mchedlov, V. K. Tancher, and D. M. Ugrinovich).

Far-ranging studies have been undertaken in the area of the history of philosophy. Remarkable progress has been made in the study of the Marxist-Leninist philosophical heritage. On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the birth of Lenin and the 150th anniversaries of the birth of Marx and of Engels, various works on the history of Marxist-Leninist philosophy were prepared and published, including collective works by scholars at the Institute of Marxism-Leninism, the Academy of Social Sciences Attached to the Central Committee of the CPSU, and the Institute of Philosophy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (for example, by Egorov, L. F. H’ichev, Kedrov, Fedoseev, Iovchuk, Kopnin, T. I. Oizerman, Chagin, A. D. Kosichev, A. F. Okulov, and L. N. Suvorov).

The six-volume History of Philosophy (1957–65) elucidates the world history of philosophy and analyzes the insufficiently explored philosophies of many peoples, including those of Eastern and Northern Europe, Asia, and America, thereby overcoming the “Europocentric” approach to the history of philosophy. This work was the first to give a systematic account of the history of Marxist philosophy and of its Leninist stage as well as a critical analysis of bourgeois philosophy in the second half of the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th. Much effort has been devoted to the study of Plekhanov’s philosophical legacy and the publication of annotated editions of his works. The multivolume History of Philosophy in the USSR is being completed (vols. 1–4, 1968–71; principal author V. E. Evgrafov), as is a series of books on the history of dialectics (whose authors include M. A. Dynnik, E. V. Il’enkov, G. A. Kursanov, and Rozental’). The world’s first Marxist Encyclopedia of Philosophy has been published (vols. 1–5,1960–70; editor in chief F. V. Konstantinov).

The literature on the history of philosophy includes Marxist interpretations of philosophy—for example, of the teachings of Aristotle, Plato, Bacon, Hobbes, Descartes, Locke, Helvétius, Holbach, Hume, Leibniz, Spinoza, Kant, Hegel, and Feuerbach—by Asmus, Bakradze, Bykhovskii, M. M. Grigorian, A. V. Gulyga, Kh. N. Momdzhian, I. S. Narskii, M. F. Ovsiannikov, V. V. Sokolov, and V. I. Shinkaruk. The methodological problems of the history of philosophy as a science are being investigated by B. V. Bogdanov, A. D. Makarov, Oizerman, and L. V. Skvortsov. Ongoing research deals with the history of dialectical and materialist ideas in Russian philosophy; critical accounts of philosophical idealism in Russia are contained in a number of works—for example, collective works from the Institute of Philosophy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the department of philosophy of Moscow State University, as well as monographs by A. I. Volodin, L. A. Kogan, Kruzhkov, A. I. Novikov, L. A. Petrov, Smirnova, Stepanov, and I. Ia. Shchipanov.

Intensive studies are devoted to the philosophical and social thought of the peoples of the USSR; researchers in this area include M. S. Asimov, A. A. Altmyshbaev, K. P. Buslov, V. E. Evdokimenko, A. Kh. Kasymzhanov, F. K. Kocharli, Sh. F. Mamedov, Muminov, M. M. Khairullaev, Sh. V. Khidasheli, and V. A. Shteinberg. More deeply grounded and convincing arguments are being presented in studies and critiques of anticommunism and of various trends in contemporary bourgeois philosophy, such as neopositivism, phenomenology, existentialism, Nietzscheanism, the “social philosophy” of the Frankfurt school, bourgeois sociology, and “left” and right-wing revisionism. Among those working in this area are G. M. Andreeva, A. S. Bogomolov, B. T. Grigor’ian, N. M. Keizerov, Iu. K. Mel’viP, Mitin, L. N. Mitrokhin, E. D. Modrzhinskaia, Momdzhian, A. G. Myslivchenko, Narskii, S. F. Oduev, S. I. Popov, M. L. Titarenko, and M. V. Iakovlev.

The work of Soviet philosophers in the current historical stage of Soviet society has enriched the ideological and theoretical assets of the Marxist science of society and has enhanced its role in the building of communism and in the ideological struggle in the world arena. Soviet philosophy has made significant gains in terms of international influence and prestige. At the same time, however, by the middle of the 1970’s the scope and level of research on a number of basic and current questions of materialist dialectics and historical materialism still did not meet the high and constantly increasing demands of the Communist Party.

Soviet philosophers set themselves great and important new tasks, focusing their efforts on working out the cardinal and most far-reaching philosophical problems facing science and society.

Philosophical research in the USSR is organized and carried out by scholarly institutions that are part of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the academies of sciences of the Union republics. The Institute of Marxism-Leninism of the Central Committee of the CPSU is in charge of the publication and study of the philosophical heritage of Marx, Engels, and Lenin. The Academy of Social Sciences and the Higher Party School Under the Central Committee of the CPSU are responsible for research and the training of cadres schooled in philosophical theory. The country’s central research institution in philosophy is the Institute of Philosophy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Moscow. Philosophical problems are also studied at the academy’s Institute of History of Natural Science and Engineering, Institute of Psychology, and Institute of Sociological Research, all located in Moscow.

Institutions engaged in philosophical research in the Union republics include the Institute of Philosophy of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (Kiev), the institutes of philosophy and law of the academies of sciences of the Byelorussian SSR (Minsk), Kazakh SSR (Alma-Ata), and Uzbek SSR (Tashkent), the Institute of Philosophy of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR (Tbilisi), the institutes of philosophy and law of the Azerbaijan SSR (Baku), Armenian SSR (Yerevan), and Kirghiz SSR (Frunze), the departments of philosophy and law of the academies of sciences of the Lithuanian, Moldavian, and Tadzhik SSR’s, and the philosophy sections of the academies of sciences of the Latvian, Turkmen, and Estonian SSR’s.

Various subdepartments of philosophy operate as part of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, its divisions, scientific centers, and branches, and the academies of sciences of the Union republics. Subdepartments of philosophy (including scientific communism) have been established in all the higher educational institutions of the USSR. In addition, the philosophy departments of the universities of Moscow, Leningrad, and Kiev, of Kazakh University, and of the universities of Tbilisi, Rostov, and the Urals, as well as the divisions of philosophy of several other universities, are engaged in research work and provide academic training in philosophy. Dialectical and historical materialism, the history of philosophy, ethics, aesthetics, scientific atheism, logic, and other branches of philosophy, as well as scientific communism, are taught at higher educational institutions, graduate departments of scientific and higher educational institutions, evening universities of Marxism-Leninism, people’s universities, and seminars—for example, the seminars on methodology sponsored by party organizations and scientific institutions.

The philosophical scientific institutions and higher educational institutions of the USSR participate in the work of the International Federation of Philosophical Societies (of which the Institute of Philosophy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR is a member), the International Sociological Association (of which the Soviet Sociological Association is a member), and the International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science (of which the Soviet National Association on the History and Philosophy of the Natural Sciences is a member). Soviet scholars participate in many international congresses, such as the philosophical, sociological, and Hegel congresses.

Cooperation between Soviet scholars and scholars in the socialist countries ranges over many different areas. It includes exchanges of specialists, help in philosophical training, long-term agreements on joint study of special problems and collaboration on philosophical writings, and joint conferences and symposiums, as well as the establishment of bilateral commissions—for example, of philosophers of the USSR and of the German Democratic Republic; of philosophers and sociologists of the USSR and of the Polish People’s Republic—and multilateral commissions, such as the special commission on the ideological struggle in light of the coexistence of two world systems.

PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS. Periodicals on philosophy published in the USSR include Voprosy filosofii (Problems of Philosophy, since 1947), Filosofskie nauki (Philosophical Studies, since 1958), Vestnik AN SSSR (Journal of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, since 1931), Vestnik MGU: Filosofiia (Journal of Moscow State University: Philosophy, since 1966), Vestnik LGU: Filosofiia (Journal of Leningrad State University: Philosophy, since 1961), and Filosofs’ka dumka (Philosophical Thought, since 1969). Philosophical and sociological questions are discussed in the journal Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniia (Sociological Studies, since 1974). Articles on philosophy are published in the magazines Kommunist (since 1924), Politicheskoe samoobrazovanie (Political Self-Education, since 1957), and Nauka i religiia (Science and Religion, since 1959) and in the various journals of the academies of sciences of the Union republics and of universities and other educational institutions.

B. V. BOGDANOV and M. T. IOVCHUK

Bibliography

Marksistsko-leninskaia filosofiia i sotsiologiia v SSSR i evropeiskikh sotsialisticheskikh stranakh. Moscow, 1965.
Leninizm i filosofskie problemy sovremennosti. Moscow, 1970.
Leninizm i sovremennye problemy istoriko-filosofskoi nauki. Moscow, 1970.
Iovchuk, M. T. Leninizm, filosofskie traditsii i sovremennost’. Moscow, 1970.
Okulov, A. F. Sovetskaia filosofskaia nauka i ee problemy. Moscow, 1970.
Fedoseev, P. N. Marksizm v XX veke. Marks, Engel’s, Lenin i sovremennost’. Moscow, 1972.
Teoreticheskoe nasledie V. I. Lenina i sovremennaia filosofskaia nauka. Moscow, 1974.
“Vysokii dolg sovetskikh filosofov” (editorial, Pravda, Sept. 19, 1975), Voprosy filosofii, 1975, no. 10.
Psychology. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Russian thinkers made an important contribution to the elaboration of the materialist approach to psychology, which they interpreted primarily from the point of view of the natural sciences. The works of V. G. Belinskii, N. G. Chernyshevskii, N. A. Dobroliubov, and A. I. Herzen greatly influenced I. M. Sechenov in his work on the theory of reflexes. Foremost among those who followed in Sechenov’s footsteps was I. P. Pavlov, whose theory of conditioned reflexes subsequently gave Soviet psychology its foundation in the natural sciences.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the development of psychology in Russia followed a complex course. The psychologists and philosophers who adhered to German idealist philosophy, such as A. I. Vvedenskii, L. M. Lopatin, N. O. Losskii, and S. L. Frank, were opposed by the natural-science school (as represented by V. M. Bekhterev’s “objective psychology,” or “psychoreflexology,” and V. A. Vagner’s “biopsychology”), which was closely linked to Sechenov’s ideas. A. F. Lazurskii and A. P. Nechaev were among those engaged in experimental psychology. Prominent in the development of this branch was G. I. Chelpanov, who organized the Institute of Psychology in Moscow; in his overall theoretical constructs—as in The Brain and the Soul (1910)—Chelpanov is found to lean toward idealist psychology
In the first few years after the October Revolution of 1917, psychology was dominated by the natural-science school, which proclaimed its alliance with biology, physiology, and evolutionary theory which advocated the development of psychology as an objective science. I. P. Pavlov’s research on higher nervous activity played a major role in the development of this trend. Bekhterev’s and K. N. Kornilov’s studies outlined the leading psychological currents of the time—reflexology and reactology. At the First All-Russian Congress on Psychoneurology (1923), Kornilov’s report sounded the first call for the application of Marxism to psychology, thereby heralding the restructuring of the psychological field of study. The Institute of Psychology in Moscow, headed by Kornilov from 1923, brought together a number of young research workers, such as V. A. Artemov, N. F. Dobrynin, A. N. Leont’ev, and A. R. Luriia, who sought to develop a Marxist psychology. L. S. Vygotskii was particularly active in this effort.
Soviet psychologists experienced additional difficulties in the attempt to define the subject matter of psychology. The reactologists and reflexologists had a mechanistic view of psychology, which they interpreted as the science of behavior. Once these methodological principles were discarded and once psychology was restructured as a result of the debates of the early 1930’s, consciousness was acknowledged to be the subject matter of psychology.
After the mid-1920’s psychology came to be dominated by applied branches such as psychotechnology, industrial psychology, child psychology, educational psychology, and forensic psychology. Psychologists contributed to the solution of problems related to the reorganization of production, the scientific organization of labor, social training, and mass cultural work. Some examples of the ongoing ideological and theoretical struggle were the criticism of the theory of the “two factors” in educational and child psychology and criticism of the hereditary-biological school in pathopsychology and characterology.
The formulation of dialectical conceptions and, above all, the theory of the origin, structure, and development of the higher psychic functions proposed by Vygotskii were major factors in the development of the theoretical basis of Soviet psychology in the 1920’s and 1930’s. Vygotskii’s and his colleagues’ historical approach to the study of man’s psyche was connected with (1) the hypothesis of the mediated nature of psychic activity and (2) the hypothesis that the internal psychic processes have their origin in activity that is initially external and “interpsychic.”
Leont’ev’s Problems in the Development of the Psyche (1959) represents the further development of the historical approach to the study of man’s psyche. Leont’ev and his colleagues viewed psychic activity as a special form of activity that in the course of social and historical development is transformed into the internal activity of human consciousness. P. P. Blonskii formulated a genetic theory of the development of memory and thinking. S. L. Rubinshtein substantiated the principles of the unity of consciousness and action and of determinism in psychology; he formulated the fundamental principles of the theory of thinking and criticized foreign idealist psychological theories.
With the reorganization of psychology in the 1930’s on the basis of Lenin’s theory of reflection, the study of the psychological structure of cognitive processes came into the forefront. Important research was undertaken on such questions as transition from sensation to thinking and the intellectual mediation of sensations (B. G. Anan’ev), visual sensations and the sensitivity and sensitization of the sense organs (K. Kh. Kekcheev and S. V. Krakov), and auditory sensations (B. M. Teplov). The far-ranging studies of D. N. Uznadze and his school—originally stemming from research on perception and linked to the theory of attitudes—resulted in an original approach to the question of the activity of the individual.
Considerable progress was made in the study of habits (E. V. Gur’ianov and L. A. Shvarts), of attention (N. F. Dobrynin), of memory (L. V. Zankov, P. I. Zinchenko, N. A. Rybnikov, and A. A. Smirnov), and of thinking (A. V. Zaporozhets, N. A. Menchinskaia, and P. A. Shevarev). Teplov outlined the preconditions for a dialectical-materialist conception of abilities and of their development in the course of activity. A. S. Makarenko’s theory on the development of the personality in a group stimulated interest in the psychology of the personality (V. N. Miasishchev).
During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) psychologists studied such defense-related problems as means of enhancing visual and auditory sensations, the camouflaging of light and sound, and restoration of the combat ability and fitness for work of the wounded. After the war, Soviet psychologists continued intensive studies of theoretical and experimental problems. Various debates were held, and different scientific schools and currents emerged. The founding of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the RSFSR (1943) led to the inclusion of psychologists in the exploration of problems of instruction and education. Reports presented at the all-Union conferences on psychology of 1952, 1953, and 1955 summed up the results of research on the psychology of the personality and of education, on cognitive processes, and on the physiological mechanisms of psychic activity in man. The Society of Psychologists, which was founded in 1957 as part of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the RSFSR, held its first congress in Moscow in 1959. The bylaws of the Society of Psychologists of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR were adopted at the society’s fourth congress, held in Tbilisi in 1971.
Soviet psychology had branched out and become diversified by the 1970’s. Special emphasis was placed on child (developmental) and educational psychology, which study the relationship between instruction and mental development, the factors influencing the effectiveness of instruction and the formation of the personality, the psychology of special education (that is, of children whose development deviates from the norm), and the psychological principles underlying group and individual education. Psychologists working in this area include E. A. Aleksandrian, Sh. A. Amonashvili, L. I. Bozhovich, L. A. Venger, P. Ia. Gal’perin, V. V. Davydov, Zankov, Zaporozhets, G. S. Kostiuk, V. A. Krutetskii, A. I. Lipkina, A. N. Leont’ev, A. K. Markova, Menchinskaia, V. S. Mukhina, N. F. Talyzina, and D. B. El’konin.
Progress has been made in the theoretical and experimental study of attitudes—for example, by the Georgian psychologists A. T. Bochorishvili, Sh. A. Nadirashvili, R. G. Natadze, and A. S. Prangishvili. Differential psychology, psychophysiology, and the study of individual psychological characteristics—namely, character, temperament, and their relation to properties of the nervous system and types of higher nervous activity—are represented by K. M. Gurevich, A. G. Kovalev, E. A. Klimov, N. S. Leites, V. S. Merlin, V. D. Nebylitsyn, E. Kh. Palei, and I. V. Ravich-Shcherbo.
Scientific and technological advances have stimulated the development of industrial psychology, including engineering psychology and space psychology (as represented by F. D. Gorbov, T. T. Dzhamgarov, V. P. Zinchenko, O. A. Konopkin, T. V. Kudriavtsev, B. F. Lomov, and V. F. Rubakhin). The psychology of management and administration is concerned with the relevant aspects of administrative and managerial activity in work collectives (such as production and military units), decision-making, the implementation of administrative decisions, and the psychology of personnel recruitment, training, and placement (as exemplified by A. D. Glotochkin, A. I. Kitov, Lomov, and A. F. Filippov).
Closely related to the psychology of management and administration is the rapidly developing branch of social psychology. Among those working in this area are G. M. Andreeva, A. A. Bodalev, Ia. L. Kolominskii, E. S. Kuz’min, V. B. Ol’shanskii, B. D. Parygin, A. V. Petrovskii, K. K. Platonov, L. I. Umanskii, Iu. A. Sherkovin, and E. V. Shorokhova.
Among those working at psychological and medical centers are psychopathologists and neuropsychologists, such as B. V. Zeigarnik, A. R. Luriia, Iu. F. Poliakov, E. D. Khomskaia, and L. S. Tsvetkova, and psychotherapists, such as M. M. Kabanov, B. D. Karvasarskii, and I. M. Tonkonogii; others are studying the special psychological problems related to temporary mental retardation, oligophrenia, blindness, and deafness—for example, R. M. Boskis, T. A. Vlasova, Iu. A. Kulagin, V. I. Lubovskii, F. F. Rau, I. M. Solov’ev, and Zh. I. Shif.
In the field of general psychology, research studies have been undertaken on various psychic processes, including sensation and perception (A. N. Leont’ev, V. V. Grigolava, Zaporozhets, V. P. Zinchenko, E. N. Sokolov, and M. S. Shekhter), memory (Smirnov and G. K. Sereda), and thinking and speech (A. A. Brudnyi, A. V. Brushlinskii, L. M. Vekker, N. I. Zhinkin, A. A. Leont’ev, A. M. Matiushkin, Natadze, Ia. A. Ponomarev, V. N. Pushkin, A. N. Sokolov, and O. A. Tikhomirov). Theoretical and historical questions are explored in the works of K. A. Abul’-khanova-Slavskaia, L. I. Antsyferova, E. A. Budilova, A. S. Guchas, Petrovskii, and M. G. Iaroshevskii.
The Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR has a division of psychology and developmental physiology. Psychological research centers include the Institute of Psychology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Scientific Research Institute of General and Educational Psychology of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR (Moscow), the Institute of Psychology of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR (Tbilisi), the Institute of Psychology of the Ministry of Education of the Ukrainian SSR (Kiev), the Scientific Research Institute of Preschool Education of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR, and the Scientific Research Institute of Defectology of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR (Moscow). The psychology departments of the universities of Moscow, Leningrad, and Tbilisi are also engaged in research work.
The Society of Psychologists of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR has branches in all the Union republics (except in Georgia, where the Georgian Academy of Sciences has its own society of psychologists) and in all of the oblasts of the RSFSR. The society is a member of the International Union of Psychological Science and participates in the preparation and work of international psychological congresses.
PERIODICALS. Publications in the area of psychology include the journals Voprosy psikhologii (Problems of Psychology, since 1955) and Psikhologiia (Psychology, since 1977) and periodical issues of Novye issledovaniia v psikhologii (New Research in Psychology, since 1970).

A. V. PETROVSKII

Bibliography

Ocherkipo istorii russkoi psikhologii. Moscow, 1957.
Iz istorii russkoi psikhologii. Sb. st. Moscow, 1961.
Budilova, E. A. Bor’ba materializma i idealizma v russkoi psikhologicheskoi nauke (Vtoraia polovina XIX-nachalo XX v.). Moscow, 1960.
Budilova, E. A. Filosofskie problemy sovetskoi psikhologii. Moscow, 1972.
Petrovskii, A. V. Istoriia sovetskoi psikhologii. Moscow, 1967.
Iaroshevskii, M. G. Psikhologiia v XX stoletii. Moscow, 1974.
Historical sciences. The early inhabitants of the USSR originally acquired their knowledge of history through such oral accounts as legends, heroic epics, and myths. In the early slave-holding states of Transcaucasia (for example, Urartu) and Middle Asia (such as Bactria and Sogdiana) and in the ancient cities of the Northern Black Sea Coast, historical knowledge was founded on both oral accounts and written records, such as the Urartian and ancient Persian cuneiform inscriptions and other epigraphic texts, the historical works of the Hellenistic culture, and the A vesta.
The historical works of the feudal epoch usually explained history from the providentialist point of view. Historiographie accounts of the peoples of Transcaucasia during the rise and development of early feudal relations include the works of the Armenian historians Favstos Buzand, Egishe, and Movses Khorenatsi and of the Georgian historians Iakov Tsurtaveli and Ioann Sabanisdze. The ninth-century Chronicle of the Conversion of Kartli included a historical chronicle of events beginning with the fourth century. The History of the Agvani, a chronicle of Caucasian Albania, dates back to the seventh century.
The historical works of this period reflected the class struggle and the resistance to Byzantine, Persian, Arab, and Turkish conquerors. At the same time that written historical accounts of the dynasties were being compiled, Transcaucasian historiography was moving toward the idea of unified feudal states—for example, in the works of Ovanes Draskhanakertsi, Tovma Artsruni, and Leontii Mroveli. The History of Shirvan and Derbent and other Arabic-language works were written in the tenth and 11th centuries, when Arab rule was in decline and when several independent emirates were being formed in the area that is now Azerbaijan. The Georgian chronicle Kartlis Tskhovreba was compiled in the 12th century. The social and cultural development of Transcaucasia from the 11th to the 13th centuries led to the emergence of various schools of historiography, such as the Athos school in Georgia.
The feudal historiography of the peoples of Middle Asia, as represented by the works of Tabari, Narshakhi, Ferdowsi, Biruni, and Bayhaqi, reflected the common fate of the Tadzhik, Uzbek, and Turkmen peoples, their struggle against the Arab conquerors and against the effects of the Arab conquest, and the political, economic, and cultural ties between the peoples of the East and of Europe.
The Eastern Slavs acquired historical knowledge from such sources as legends and tales. The conversion to Christianity (988–989) and the spread of writing gave rise to the compilation of chronicles and the first collections of chronicle codices, which appeared in Kiev and Novgorod in the 11th century. Translations of chronographies were common in Kievan Rus’ in the 11th century. The Primary Chronicle, or Tale of Bygone Years, an all-Russian chronicle codex compiled in the early 12th century, is one of the monumental works of European history. Nestor, Sil’vestr, and other chroniclers contributed to the compilation and editing of the Primary Chronicle.
Chronicle writing in Kievan Rus’ represented the common early stage of Russian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian historiography. In the period of the feudal fragmentation of Rus’, chronicle writing continued in the various centers of the independent lands and principalities, including Novgorod, Vladimir, Suzdal’, and Rostov.
In The Tale of Igor’s Campaign, events are depicted against a broad historical background. Historical accounts of the Lipitsa Battle of 1216 and Alexander Nevsky appeared in the 13th century. The Galician-Volynian Chronicle is an outstanding example of old Russian chronicle writing.
The history of the Mongol-Tatar rule in such areas as Transcaucasia and Middle Asia was reflected in the works of the 13th-century Armenian historian Kirakos Gandzaketsi and of the 14th-century Azerbaijani historian Mukhammed Nakhichevani, as well as in the Chronography by an anonymous Georgian writer. In the 13th and early 14th centuries, F. Rashidaddin supervised the compilation of the Collection of Chronicles, which told of the Mongol-Tatar campaigns in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Persia, and elsewhere.
The rule of Tamerlane and of the Timurids is the subject of works by Giyasaddin Ali, Nizamaddin Shami, Hafiza Abru, Abd al-Razzak of Samarkand, Mirkhwand, and Khwandamir. Baber’s autobiographical work Babur-nama described events in Middle Asia and India in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Tadzhik-and Uzbek-language works that appeared in the 16th century included historical essays and memoirs by Ruzbehan of Isfahan, Benai, and Muhammad Salikh. Abulgazi’s works Turkmen Genealogy and Family Tree of the Turks were written in the 17th century.
A German Baltic historiography developed in the Baltic region, which the German feudal lords had captured in the 13th century. The exploits of the German crusaders were glorified in such works as Heinrich von Lettland’s Livonian Chronicle (1224–27), Rhymed Chronicle (late 13th century), and B. Hoeneke’s New Rhymed Chronicle (mid-14th century). As early as the second half of the 16th century, B. Russow’s Chronicle of the Livonian Province contained a humanist critique of serfdom. Various 16th- and 17th-century historians, such as C. Kelch, E. Kruse, J. Renner, and F. Nyenstädt, justified the dominant position of the German feudal lords in the Baltic.
Chronicles were written in Moldavia from the 15th to the 18th centuries; the first ones to be written in Church Slavonic and Moldavian appeared in the late 15th to 16th centuries. The works of the 17th- and 18th-century chroniclers G. Ureke, M. Costin, and I. Neculce reflected the ideology of the high-ranking boyars, anti-Ottoman attitudes, and the emergence of humanist ideas.
The first historical work in Lithuania, The Origin of the Lithuanian Race, appeared in the late 14th century. The Chronicle of the Grand Princes of Lithuania appeared around 1428–30, and the Chronicle of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Samogitia in the first half of the 16th century. The growing influence of Polish Catholicism in the late 17th century caused the decline of Lithuanian historiography—a decline that lasted until the late 18th century.
The all-Russian chronicle codices of the late 15th century were permeated with the idea of the unity of Rus’. A work that came to be known as the Hellenic Chronicle, Second Edition, appeared in Rus’ in the mid-15th century. Its manner of presentation was developed in the Russian Chronography, which made use of Byzantine sources as well as of South Slavic writings and Russian chronicle codices of the late 15th century.
With the formation of the unified Russian state, official chronicle writing was placed in the service of the major political objective—the consolidation of central power. The Book of Ranks, the Voskresensk Chronicle, the Nikon Chronicle, and the Illustrated Codex of Chronicles (10 vols., 16,000 miniatures) appeared in the 16th century. The 16th century marked the change from the year-by-year recording of events to the narration of historical subjects in various genres, as exemplified by the History of the Kazan Kingdom and the works of A. M. Kurbskii. The Siberian Chronicles about Ermak’s campaigns and the subsequent settlement of Siberia were compiled from the late 16th to the 18th centuries. The peasant war of the early 17th century, the domestic political struggle, and the Polish and Swedish interventions were the subject of many historical works, such as the New Chronicle, the Vremennik (Chronicle) by the d’iak (clerk) Ivan Timofeev, and Avraamii Palitsyn’s Legend. Tales about the capture of Azov in 1637 and its defense against the Turkish troops originated among the Don Cossacks.
The early Ukrainian chronicles, such as the Short Kiev Chronicle and the Gustynskii, Mezhgor’e, L’vov, and Ostrog chronicles, were compiled from the 15th to the first half of the 17th centuries. They were historical accounts of the Ukrainian lands and of their relations with Russia. The Samovidets Chronicle presents the history of the war of 1648–54 for the liberation of the Ukrainian people and other events between 1648 and 1702. In the second half of the 17th century, various Ukrainian histories tried to show how the Ukraine and Russia had developed in unity from the emergence of the Slavs until the middle of the 17th century. Such works include F. Safonovich’s Chronicle and L. Bobolinskii’s Chronicle. The Synopsis of 1674 was the first printed textbook on Russian history. The late 17th and 18th centuries saw the rise of a Ukrainian starshina-dvorianstvo historiography, as represented by the Lizogub Chronicle and the works of G. Grabianka and S. Velichko.
Byelorussian historical works include the Byelorussian-Lithuanian Chronicles, such as the 16th-century Supraśl Chronicle and the Barkulabovo Chronicle of the early 17th century.
In the Russian state of the early 18th century, certain historical works were written with the support and sometimes the personal participation of Peter I—for example, the works of F. P. Polikarpov-Orlov, B. I. Kurakin, and F. Prokopovich, which justified the domestic and foreign policies of the absolutist nobiliary state. Peter I ordered a systematic search for and collection of historical sources, including archaeological materials. A. I. Mankiev’s The Core of Russian History heralded the transformation of historical knowledge into a science, the separation of secular history from church history, and the ascendancy of the rational approach to the study of history.
The study of Russian history was undertaken at the Russian Academy of Sciences, founded in 1724. The German historians G. S. Bayer and G. F. Miller, who worked at the academy, formulated the Norman theory—vigorously opposed by M. V. Lomonosov—of the origins of the Russian state. Lomonosov wrote the Ancient Russian History From the Beginning of the Russian People to the Death of Grand Prince Iaroslav the First, or to the Year 1054 (parts 1–2,1766).
V. N. Tatishchev made an important contribution to the dvorianstvo school of Russian historiography. Using a vast range of sources, he wrote the generalizing work A History of Russia From the Earliest Times (books 1–5, 1768–1848). The German scholar A. L. von Schlözer studied the history of Russian chronicle writing. M. M. Shcherbatov, author of History of Russia From Earliest Times (vols. 1–7, 1770–91), made extensive use of acta and other documents in an attempt to glorify the historical role of the nobility. I. N. Boltin advocated the use of the comparative method in the study of history and deemed it essential to establish the causal relations between historical phenomena.
The earliest works on the history of trade and of the merchant class (by I. I. Golikov, V. V. Krestinin, M. D. Chulkov, and S. E. Desnitskii) were linked to the emergence of bourgeois elements in Russia.
A. N. Radishchev, the first Russian revolutionary and representative of the Enlightenment, formulated the revolutionary view whereby history was seen as the unfolding struggle between freedom and despotism. A contributing factor in the development of Russian historiography in the second half of the 18th and first half of the 19th centuries was the growing volume of published historical sources, such as the materials published in two series (the Ancient Russian Bibliotheca editions) by the representative of the Russian Enlightenment N. I. Novikov. The archaeographer N. N. Bantysh-Kamenskii was engaged in research studies at the Moscow archives of the Collegium of Foreign Affairs. A. I. Musin-Pushkin gathered a great number of ancient records, including the Laurentian Chronicle and The Tale of Igor’s Campaign.
The intensified ideological and political struggle in the first half of the 19th century and the growth of national consciousness, especially after the Patriotic War of 1812, stimulated interest in the history of Russia. The Archaeographic Expedition, founded upon the initiative of the archaeographer P. M. Stroev (1828; renamed the Archaeographic Commission in 1834), started the systematic collection and publication of ancient Russian acta and chronicles. University chairs in Russian history, founded by a statute of 1835, became major centers of scholarship. Various scholarly institutions and societies were formed, and auxiliary historical disciplines emerged.
N. M. Karamzin, ideologist of the aristocratic nobility, formulated his conception of history in the first quarter of the 19th century. Through his efforts, various chronicles, works by foreign authors, archive materials, and ancient Russian literary works that had not been previously utilized were introduced in scholarly circles. Karamzin’s History of the Russian State (vols. 1–12, 1816–29) proclaimed the dvorianstvo-supported autocracy to be the moving force of history.
The revolutionary Decembrists N. M. Murav’ev, P. I. Pestel’, P. G. Kakhovskii, N. A. Bestuzhev, and A. O. Kornilovich, who were of noble birth, rejected Karamzin’s conception. They developed the idea of historical progress, viewing history as the history of the people; they tried to find a historical justification for the idea of the people’s right to rule and denied that autocracy could play a progressive role in Russia.
Conservative tendencies can be identified in the works of M. P. Pogodin and N. G. Ustrialov.
The liberal bourgeois orientation arose in Russian historical science in the first half of the 19th century. Representatives of this school tried to explore the interrelationship of historical phenomena and to establish the laws of historical development from an idealist point of view. I. F. G. Evers, who studied ancient Russian law, made an important contribution to this school of thought. His conception of the development of society—from the family to the clan and then to the tribe and to the state—had a great influence on the science of history. The “skeptical school” of M. T. Kachenovskii and N. S. Artsybashev contributed to the development of a critical approach to historical sources; at the same time, however, the authenticity of several ancient Russian records was groundlessly denied by adherents of this school. N. A. Polevoi, who rejected Karamzin’s conception, subscribed to the positions of Western bourgeois historians such as B. G. Niebuhr, F. Guizot, and A. Thierry. Polevoi’s History of the Russian People (vols. 1–6, 1829–33) sought to demonstrate the connection between the history of Russia and that of Western Europe.
The works of S. M. Solov’ev played a very important role in the development of bourgeois historiography. Solov’ev revealed the connections between phenomena and viewed Russian history as a unilinear and orderly process of development from the clan system to the triumph of the state. Solov’ev set forth his conception of Russian history in The History of Russia From the Earliest Times (vols. 1–29, 1851–79), covering events up to 1774, and in other works based on numerous sources.
The political aspirations of the Russian bourgeoisie found their most salient historical expression in the “state school” founded by the jurists and prominent liberal public figures K. D. Kavelin and B. N. Chicherin. The historians of this school held that the state is the driving principle in the historical process. They acknowledged the existence of certain objective historical laws but concluded that the laws of historical development of Russia and of Western Europe are fundamentally different—a view that had an antirevolutionary orientation. On certain issues, S. M. Solov’ev shared the views of the state school.
The historical views of the Slavophiles—for example, of K. S. Aksakov, I. V. Kireevskii, and A. S. Khomiakov—were linked to the social and political struggle of the mid-19th century. The Slavophiles considered Russian history to reflect the peaceful coexistence of the people and the authorities; idealizing pre-Petrine Rus’, they believed that such coexistence had been destroyed by the reforms of Peter I. The Slavophiles’ interest in the people’s daily life caused them to study the history of the people, ethnography, and folklore; P. V. Kireevskii and A. F. GiPferding were in this category. Heightened interest in the peasant question lay behind the publication of I. D. Beliaev’s study Peasants in Rus’ (1859).
The upsurge of revolutionary democratic historical thought in Russia is associated with the names of the revolutionary democrats V. G. Belinskii, A. I. Herzen, N. P. Ogarev, N. G. Chernyshevskii, and N. A. Dobroliubov, who developed a set of important methodological tenets about the importance of material conditions and particularly the importance of the role of the masses in the history of society. This was, in Russia, a fundamentally new approach to the historical sciences, and these writers were the first to deal with the history of the revolutionary liberation movement in Russia.
N. I. Kostomarov criticized some of the state school’s positions and advocated the study of the history of the people. He himself studied the people’s day-to-day life, the economic development, and the history of popular movements in the Ukraine and in Russia. Kostomarov was the founder of the bourgeois nationalist trend in Ukrainian historiography.
The first half of the 19th century saw an extension in the range of subject matter of research, as exemplified in the development of epigraphy (A. N. Olenin) and numismatics (A. D. Chertkov), including Oriental numismatics (P. S. Savel’ev). The study of archaeological remains was begun at this time as well. The works of N. I. Nadezhdin, V. I. Dal’, I. M. Snegirev, and I. P. Sakharov contributed to the establishment of ethnography as an independent branch of scholarship. T. N. Granovskii was the founder of Russian medieval studies; in his public lectures he proceeded from the idea of social progress to criticize the feudal order of medieval Europe. In the existing politically reactionary situation, this was perceived as a condemnation of serfdom in Russia. Granovskii, however, considered the “absolute spirit” to be the moving force of history and viewed religion as the embodiment of the social and cultural development of peoples. M. S. Kutorga was one of the founders of the Russian school of archaic and classical studies.
In the mid-19th century, the upsurge in the Slavic peoples’ struggle for national liberation from the Turkish yoke stimulated the development of Slavic studies in Russia. Iu. I. Venelin, GiPferding, and V. I. Lamanskii were active in this field.
The incorporation of Transcaucasia and Middle Asia into the Russian state, the strengthening of ties with the peoples of these areas, and the settlement of Siberia and Alaska led to increased interest in Oriental studies. The faculty of Oriental studies of the University of St. Petersburg was established in 1855. The University of Kazan became an important center of Oriental scholarship.
The founder of Russian sinology was N. Ia. Bichurin (also called Iakinf), who collected an enormous amount of valuable materials on the history of China and other Asian countries.
The range of the subject matter of historical research expanded in Russia after 1860, and interest in social and economic history increased. Historians undertook thorough studies of the social and political struggle, social thought, popular uprisings, and reforms. The official monarchist orientation was represented by N. P. Barsukov, K. N. Bestuzhev-Riumin, N. F. Dubrovin, D. I. Ilovaiskii, and N. K. Shil’der.
Bourgeois historiography was in ascendancy during the prereform period, and the dominant current within it was still the state school. Kavelin and Chicherin published new works; the basic ideas of the state school became more pronounced in the works of Solov’ev, and particularly in his Public Lectures on Peter the Great (1872). V. I. Sergeevich studied the development of state power in ancient Rus’.
The outstanding bourgeois historian V. O. Kliuchevskii made a series of valuable contributions in social and economic history and the study of sources, and he criticized many of the tenets of the state school. In his Course of Russian History (vols. 1–5, 1904–21), which revealed the interdependence of economic, administrative, political, and social factors in the historical process, Kliuchevskii interpreted serfdom as an impediment to class cooperation; serfdom, in his opinion, would lead to a popular revolution, whose effect on Russia would be catastrophic.
The democratic orientation in Russian historiography, which arose in the prereform period, took definite shape in the second half of the 19th century. It was initially influenced by the ideas of the revolutionary democrats of the 1840’s to 1860’s, and then by Narodnichestvo (Populism). A. P. Shchapov believed that historical research should be chiefly concerned with the history of the people; he studied the essential social aspects of the schism and tried to show the people’s active role in history. N. Ia. Aristov was the first to describe the economic way of life of Kievan Rus’, and he also studied the popular movements of the late 17th century. The earliest historical study of the Russian working class was that of V. V. Bervi-Flerovskii, whose work was highly praised by K. Marx.
M. A. Bakunin, P. L. Lavrov, P. N. Tkachev, and P. A. Kropotkin played an important role in the formation of the historical conception of revolutionary Populism. The ideologists of liberal Populism, such as N. F. Daniel’son and V. P. Vorontsov, wrote about the social and economic history of postreform Russia. They tried to show that capitalism in Russia had arisen by chance and that the country could bypass the capitalist stage of development and take the road toward socialism through the peasant commune. The history of the Russian peasantry, of the peasant commune, and of communal land ownership was the subject of studies by P. A. Sokolovskii, V. I. Semevskii, I. I. Ignatovich, A. Ia. Efimenko, and V. E. Postnikov.
The intensification of class antagonisms in Russia, especially in the period of imperialism, and the spread of Marxist ideology led to an ideological crisis in bourgeois historical scholarship. Clear evidence of this crisis can be found in P. N. Miliukov’s Outlines of Russian Culture (vols. 1–3, 1896–1903), which was a definitive work on the basic contrast between the historical development of Russia and that of Western Europe, and in A. S. Lappo-Danilevskii’s Methodology of History (issues 1–2, 1910–13), which denied the scientific reliability of historical facts and the possibility of cognition of the objective laws of history.
The subject matter of historical research in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was determined by the general ideological and political principles of bourgeois historiography. Lappo-Danilevskii, who was concerned with social and economic questions, posed the problem of the genesis of capitalism in Russia and argued that capitalist relations had arisen in the 17th century. A. A. Kizevetter and M. M. Bogoslovskii were particularly interested in political, social, and economic issues, and the early works of S. B. Veselovskii, Iu. V. Got’e, and S. V. Bakhrushin are devoted to economic history.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, N. P. Pavlov-Sil’vanskii defended the idea of the united historical development of Russia and Western Europe and demonstrated the existence of feudalism (in the bourgeois meaning of the term) in medieval Russia. A. E. Presniakov analyzed a huge mass of factual political material and opposed some of the positions of the state school, but he was unable to overcome its influence entirely. M. V. Dovnar-Zapol’skii studied the history of Lithuania and Byelorussia, of the Byelorussian peasantry, and of Russian industry and trade in the 16th and 17th centuries. He also published several works on the Decembrist movement. A new field of inquiry—the history of the bourgeois reforms of the 1860’s and 1870’s—engaged the interest of I. I. Ivaniukov, G. A. Dzhanshiev, and A. A. Kornilov.
A. A. Shakhmatov, who developed a method to analyze the content of chronicle codices, made a notable contribution to the study of sources. Lappo-Danilevskii and N. P. Likhachev studied diplomatics and other auxiliary historical disciplines. Historical geography was the subject of works by N. P. Barsov, S. M. Sere-donin, and M. K. Liubavskii. S. F. Platonov, the last of the historians of noble birth, was greatly influenced by bourgeois historiography.
The works of the legal Marxists (M. I. Tugan-Baranovskii and P. B. Struve), published in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, contained valuable factual material, although they suffered from weak and often incorrect theoretical generalizations and conclusions.
This was also a critical period for petit bourgeois historiography, as represented by the Populist and Socialist Revolutionary historians and publicists V. A. Miakotin and L. E. Shishko. The Menshevik view of history is most clearly expressed in the collection Social Movement in Russia in the Early 20th Century (vols. 1–4, books 1–7, 1909–14). The collection of articles Milestones (1909) reflected the political and philosophical foundations of the crisis experienced in bourgeois historiography and in bourgeois ideology as a whole.
N. A. Rozhkov formulated an eclectic system of historical views that combined elements of Marxism and positivism.
Interest in world history increased in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries. V. I. Ger’e was one of the first to study modern history. The ideology of Pan-Slavism was represented by the sociologist and publicist N. Ia. Danilevskii. The French peasantry during the French Revolution was the subject of various historical studies, such as those of N. I. Kareev and I. V. Luchitskii, and agrarian relations in medieval England were studied by P. G. Vinogradov, D. M. Petrushevskii, and A. N. Savin. In the last few decades of the 19th century, Russian medieval studies were among the best in Europe. R. Iu. Vipper’s work included research on the history of religion and of the church in the Middle Ages. Works on ancient history were written by V. V. Latyshev, V. P. Buzeskul, M. M. Khvostov, and V. I. Modestov.
A significant contribution to historical knowledge was made by M. M. Kovalevskii, whose works on the primitive communal system were utilized by F. Engels.
P. A. Lavrov and M. K. Liubavskii were leading specialists in Slavic history, as was F. I. Leontovich, an expert on the history of Slavic law. Various Russian historians, such as V. G. Vasilevskii and F. I. Uspenskii, concentrated on the history of Byzantium. Oriental studies during the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries included the works of V. P. Vasil’ev, I. P. Minaev, M. V. Nikol’skii, B. A. Turaev, V. R. Rozen, and V. V. Bartol’d. The collection and publication of sources of ancient and medieval history—for example, by A. Ia. Garkavi, V. G. Tizengauzen, and V. S. Golenishchev—was an important factor in the study of Oriental history.
Science was enriched by a wealth of archaeological material contributed by A. A. Spitsyn, V. A. Gorodtsov, B. V. Farmakovskii, M. I. Rostovtsev, N. I. Veselovskii, and I. E. Zabelin. Archaeological congresses, which began meeting in 1869, were of great scientific importance.
A wide-ranging work was published around the turn of the century—V. S. Ikonnikov’s Essay on Russian Historiography (vol. 1 [parts 1–2] and vol. 2 [parts 1–2], 1891–1908), which contained a large amount of factual material on the accumulation and study of Russian historical sources and on the development of auxiliary historical disciplines.
The 18th-century Ukrainian historians P. I. Simonovskii, S. Lukomskii, G. Poletika, and Georgii (Grigorii) Konisskii sought to justify the political rights of the szlachta (Polish nobility or gentry) and of the cossack starshina. Others, such as D. N. Bantysh-Kamenskii, N. A. Markevich, and A. A. Skal’kovskii, wrote on Ukrainian history from the monarchist and dvorianstvo points of view. A. M. Markovich studied the history of peasant serfdom in the Ukraine. M. A. Maksimovich was a prominent historian of the period from the 1830’s to the 1850’s.
The bourgeois orientation of 19th-century historiography is reflected in the works of P. A. Kulish. Liberal bourgeois historians such as Kostomarov, V. B. Antonovich, D. I. Evarnitskii, and D. I. Bagalei made a notable contribution to the study of the factual history of the Ukraine. M. S. Grushevskii, the leader of the nationalist bourgeois historians, was the first bourgeois historian to write a comprehensive history of the Ukraine to the middle of the 17th century (History of the Ukraine and Rus’, vols. 1–10, 1898–1936). The historical views of the revolutionary democrat T. G. Shevchenko and his followers, such as I. Ia. Franko, P. A. Grabovskii, M. M. Kotsiubinskii, and Lesia Ukrainka, were fundamentally opposed to dvorianstvo and bourgeois historiography.
The development of Moldavian historiography in the 18th and 19th centuries owed a great deal to the work of D. K. Kantemir, P. Kunitskii, A. Skal’kovskii, K. Stamati, A. Khyzhdeu, A. Nakko, P. Svin’in, N. Batiushkov, M. Shimanovskii, and A. Iatsimirskii. A. O. Zashchuk’s Bessarabian Province (parts 1–2, 1862) contained much valuable historical and ethnographic material.
Byelorussian historiography made great progress during the 19th century. I. I. Grigorovich compiled the first Byelorussian archaeographic collection and published Acta of Western Russia (vols. 1–5,1846–53). In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, liberal bourgeois historians such as Liubavskii and I. I. Lappo studied the history of Byelorussia and Lithuania. The defeat of the Revolution of 1905–07 was followed by the rise of the nationalist bourgeois school (as exemplified by Lastovskii and M. V. Dovnar-Zapol’skii), which advanced the antiscientific theory of the nonclass development of the Byelorussian nation in the Middle Ages and during the so-called golden age.
Lithuanian historiography was dominated by the feudal-monarchist and romantic schools. T. Narbutas denied the class struggle in Lithuanian history and idealized primitive Lithuanian society. S. Daukantas, the first Lithuanian historian representing the raznochintsy (intellectuals of no definite class), presented a romantic interpretation of Lithuanian history. O. B. Iaroshevich was the first to advance the thesis of the existence of feudalism in Lithuania. I. Zh. Onatsevich and I. N. Danilovich collected and published various documents on Lithuanian history.
German Baltic historiography of the 18th and first half of the 19th centuries reflected the beginning of the disintegration of the feudal system. A group of enlightened thinkers of the second half of the 18th and early 19th centuries—J. Eizen, H. J. Jannau, K. Snell, and above all G. G. Merkel and J. K. Petri—criticized serfdom in a number of articles and monographic historical studies. The mid-19th century saw the emergence of national Estonian and Latvian historiography. K. R. Jakobson and F. R. Kreitsval’d represented democratic historical thought in Estonia. Latvia’s liberal nationalist bourgeois movement gravitated toward Russia; it was represented by the Young Latvians, who were critical of serfdom and of the German barons’ dominance. German Baltic historiographers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, such as J. Eckardt, E. Winkelman, and H. A. Bruiningk, defended German rule as a positive factor in the Baltic region.
In 17th- and 18th-century Armenian historiography, the idea of liberation was reflected in the works of Grigor Daranagetsi, Araqel of Tabriz, Zakaria Kanakertsi, and Stepanos Shaumian. The History of Armenia (vols. 1–3) by Mikael Chamchian, founder of modern Armenian historiography, was published in 1784–86. The works of Khachatur Abovian, Mesrop Tagiadian, and Mikael Nalbandian laid the foundations of progressive democratic Armenian historiography.
The revival of Georgian historiography began in the second half of the 17th century with the narrative historical poems of King Archil II and the works of Peshangi and I. Tbileli. P. Gorgidzhanisdze’s History of Georgia depicts events from the sixth century to 1696. The commission of “learned men” established by Vakhtang VI in the early 18th century played an important role in Georgian historical thought. The commission edited the Kartlis Tskhovreba and compiled an account of Georgian history up to the 18th century. The outstanding representative of Georgian feudal historiography was Vakhushti, who lived in Russia.
The subsequent development of Georgian historiography was marked by intensified nationalism, idealization of the past, and clericalism. P. I. Ioseliani and S. G. Baratov interpreted Georgian history from the point of view of official Russian monarchist historiography. Ioseliani studied the history of Georgian cities and records of the material culture. Baratov, whose History of Georgia covered the period from the fourth century B.C. to the 13th century, was the first to link the history of Georgia to world history.
Court chronicles that glorified the rulers were composed in Azerbaijan in the 18th century. A. Bakikhanov’s The Flower Garden of Paradise was the first overall survey of the history of Azerbaijan, ranging from the earliest times to 1813; completed in 1841, the book was published in 1926.
The peasant way of life and the rural commune were studied in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries by S. L. Avaliani, I. L. Segal, S. A. Egiazarian, and other liberal bourgeois scholars specializing in the study of the Caucasus. In Armenia, the bourgeois historians M. Emin, K. Patkanov (Patkanian), and K. Ezian (Ezov) undertook the study and publication of Armenian historical sources. Clerical bourgeois historiography in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was represented by G. Alishan, S. Palasanian, M. Garagashian, A. G. Leo (Babakhanian), M. Ormanian, and A. Eritsian (Eritsov). N. G. Adonts analyzed the feudal social system in Armenia.
D. Z. Bakradze was a prominent representative of Georgian bourgeois historiography. I. Chavchavadze, A. Tsereteli, N. Nikoladze, and other revolutionary democrats attacked serfdom and opposed the reactionary forces of Georgian society and the liberals. Populist ideas were expressed by N. Khizanishvili (Urbaneli) and A. Purtseladze. M. Dzhanashvili, F. Zhordaniia, and E. Takaishvili collected and studied Georgian antiquities. S. Avaliani wrote on the peasant question. I. A. Dzhavakhishvi-li’s works represented a major contribution to Georgian historiography. In the 20th century, bourgeois historiography reflected the emergence of nationalist tendencies, as exemplified by V. Avalishvili’s denial that the Russian annexation of Georgia was progressive in nature.
In Middle Asia, court chronicles were compiled in the 18th century by Mirmuhammad Amin Bukhara and Muhammad Yusuf Munshi. After the Russian annexation of Middle Asia, local historiography changed under the influence of Russian Oriental studies. Russia’s annexation of Middle Asia is the subject of works by the Khiva historian Agakhi (who wrote in Uzbek) and of the Kokand historian M. Salikh (in Tadzhik). Akhmad Makhdum Donish was a leading Middle Asian historian of the second half of the 19th century. The Russian Academy of Sciences began studying the history and archaeology of Middle Asia, and Russian scholars played an important role in Middle Asian historiography—for example, V. V. Bartol’d, V. V. Radlov, A. L. Kun, N. I. Veselovskii, and V. L. Viatkin.
The Marxist school in Russian historical science arose in the 1880’s. It was initially connected with Liberation of Labor and with the eminent Russian Marxist G. V. Plekhanov, who was the first in Russia to study the historical process from the materialist point of view (for example, in his works On the Question of the Development of the Monistic View of History and The Materialist Conception of History). Plekhanov undertook a study of the history of the proletarian revolutionary movement in Russia and of Russian revolutionary democratic social thought. He gave an appraisal of the views of various Russian historians, such as Shchapov, and was the first to examine the historical and sociological conceptions of Belinskii, Herzen, and Chernyshevskii. Plekhanov adopted the Marxist position in criticizing the subjective-idealist views of the Populist sociologists and historians. In his History of Russian Social Thought (vols. 1–3, 1914–17), Plekhanov offered a profound analysis of the social and economic situation in Russia and shed light on the historical views of the leading publicists, philosophers, and historians whose work was related to Russian historiography.
The Leninist stage in the development of historical science opened in the second half of the 1890’s. The cardinal problems of Russian history and several problems of world history were clarified by V. I. Lenin in such works as What the “Friends of the People” Are and How They Fight the Social-Democrats, “The Economic Content of Narodnichestvo and the Criticism of It in Mr. Struve’s Book,” The Heritage We Renounce, The Development of Capitalism in Russia, The Persecutors of the Zemstvo and the Hannibals of Liberalism, The Agrarian Question in Russia Towards the Close of the Nineteenth Century, Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, and Lecture on the 1905 Revolution. Lenin made an enormous contribution to the doctrine of the relationship between general, particular, and specific laws governing the development of society, the doctrine of classes and the class struggle under capitalism, and the doctrines of the state and social revolution, of a new type of Marxist party, of the nation and the national liberation movement, and of the role of social consciousness and ideas in the development of society.
Lenin provided theoretical justification for the thesis of feudalism in medieval Russia, the periodization of Russian medieval history, and the question of the stages of development of the Russian state; he identified the various periods of the Russian revolutionary and liberation movement, and he studied Russia’s postreform socioeconomic and political development, tsarist domestic and foreign policy, and the history of the revolutionary movement and of Russia’s revolutionary Social Democracy. Lenin’s theory of imperialism was a major addition to the Marxist analysis of capitalism.
Lenin developed the Marxist theory of the socialist revolution and concluded that socialism could initially triumph in a few or even in one of the capitalist countries. Lenin’s principles—specifically, the principle of partiinost’ (party spirit) in historical science and the class approach to the evaluation of events—were an extremely important factor that contributed to the firm entrenchment of Marxist historiography, as did Lenin’s critique of the methodological principles of dvorianstvo, bourgeois, and petit bourgeois (including reformist) historiography. Lenin demonstrated the complete lack of philosophical and historical foundations of Populist subjective sociology, as represented by N. K. Mikhailovskii.
The Marxist interpretation of history was reflected in the works of A. G. Shlikhter, A. M. Stopani, M. S. Ol’minskii, N. N. Baturin, V. V. Vorovskii, M. N. Liadov, A. V. Lunacharskii, N. M. Lukin, F. A. Rotshtein, I. I. Skvortsov-Stepanov, V. Mickevicius-Kapsukas, L. Janavicius, P. Dauge, K. Lander, S. G. Shaumian, S. S. Spandarian, A. F. Miasnikian (Miasnikov), V. Z. Ketskhöveli, F. I. Makharadze, and A. G. Tsulukidze. M. N. Pokrovskii wrote the first generalizing Marxist work on the history of Russia from the earliest times to the 19th century.
A. M. SAKHAROV
SOVIET HISTORICAL SCIENCE. The victory of the October Revolution of 1917 heralded the rise and development of Soviet historical science. Lenin’s entire theoretical legacy constituted the methodological foundation of Soviet historical science. In a series of works written or published after the October Revolution, such as State and Revolution, “Immediate Tasks of the Soviet Government,” “The State,” Economics and Politics in the Era of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat, The Dictatorship of the Proletariat, Tasks of the Youth Leagues, “Left-Wing” Communism—An Infantile Disorder, and Our Revolution, Lenin developed the Marxist theory of social development and showed the validity of the objective laws governing the socialist revolution and the building of socialism. He investigated the relationship between economics and politics under the dictatorship of the proletariat and the role of the masses and of the state during the transition from capitalism to socialism.
The ideological training of young Marxist historians drew heavily on the first edition of Lenin’s works (1920–26), and even more on the second and third editions (1925–32), which included scholarly comments and documentary appendixes. Soviet historical science was forged in the struggle against bourgeois historiography. The Leninist conception of historical development prevailed in the bitter struggle against the Trotskyists and right opportunists.
The Soviet Marxist historical school was essentially formed in the 1920’s and early 1930’s. Its leading representatives in the field of the socioeconomic history of prerevolutionary Russia and the USSR were N. N. Avdeev, S. M. Dubrovskii, E. I. Kviring, V. P. Miliutin, A. M. Pankratova, S. A. Piontkovskii, M. N. Pokrovskii, S. G. Strumilin, and A. V. Shestakov; in the field of the history of